Pinus montana, Miller. A volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves, yielding not less than 5 p.c. esters calculated as bornyl acetate.

Habitat. C. Europe: Tyrolese Alps, Carpathian Mountains, 1300-2500 M. (4200-8200 degrees) elevation.

Syn. Dwarf Pine, Mountain Pine; Ol. Pin. Pumil., Dwarf Pine Oil, Pine Needle Oil; Ger. Latschenkieferol, Krummholsol.

Mon-ta'na. L. Montanus, mountainous -- i.e., preferred place of growth.

Pu-mil'lo. L. pumilio, onis, fr. pumilus, dwarfish, diminutive -- i.e., in reference to its small size.

Plant

Small tree, branches decumbent or knee-like, more or less erect; bark persistent, dark colored; leaves 2 in a sheath, 2-5 Cm. (4/5-2') long, straight, scythe-shaped, obtuse apex, dull green, slightly glaucous; fruit (cones) ovoid, 4 Cm. (1 2/4') long, pyramidal protuberance on each scale on exposed side (outer).

Constituents

Volatile oil, resin, tannin, bitter extractive.

Oleum Pini Pumilionis. Oil of Dwarf Pine Needles. -- This volatile oil, distilled from the fresh leaves (needles), is a colorless, faintly yellowish liquid, pleasant, aromatic odor, bitter, pungent taste, sp. gr. 0.861, no portion distils below 165 degrees C. (329 degrees F.), levorotatory, neutral, slightly acid; contains l-pinene, l-phellandrene, sylvestrene, bornyl acetate (to which odor is due), cadinene. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.), on sugar, capsules, pastilles.

Properties And Uses

Antirheumatic, expectorant, stimulant, antiseptic; chronic rheumatism (internally), chronic bronchitis, laryngitis (inhaled); may rub on rheumatic joints, and cover with cotton; inhalant or vapor (oil 10 cc. + magnesium carbonate 5 Gm. + distilled water q.s. 100 cc.; of this add 3j (4cc.) to hot water 3xx (600 cc.) and inhale through it; allays irritation and diminishes bronchial secretion, catarrhal inflammation. A juice Hungarian balsam) exudes spontaneously from the tips of young branches, to which flasks are attached for easy collection, and this possesses properties of turpentine as well as of the oil.