Vern. Madhu, Beng. Shahad. Hind.

Eight sorts of honey are described by Susruta, namely :

1. Mάkshika or the honey collected by the common bee called madhumakshika.

2. Bhrάmara, or the honey collected by a large back bee called bhramara.

3. Kshaudra, or honey collected by a sort of small bee of tawny colour, called Kshudra.

4. Pauttika, or honey collected by a small black bee resembling a gnat, and called puttika.

5. Chhatra, or honey formed by tawny or yellow wasps which make their hives in the shape of umbrellas.

6. Argha or wild honey collected by a sort of yellow bee like the bhramara.

7. Audάlaka is a bitter and acrid substance like honey found in the nests of white ants.

8. Dάla or unprepared honey found on flowers.

Of these varieties the first four only are described by recent writers and the first alone is used in medicine. New honey is considered demulcent and laxative. Honey more than a year old is said to be astringent and demulcent. Old honey is preferred to new. It is much used in the preparation of confections and electuaries, and as an adjunct to decoctions, pills and powders.

Wax, called siktha in Sanskrit, is used in the preparation of ointments and ghritas for external application.