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The Materia Medica Of The Hindus | by Udoy Chand Dutt



This work is not a literal translation of any particular treatise, but a compilation from standard Sanskrit medical works, arranged somewhat upon the plan of Waring's Manual of Therapeutics, and intended to give a concise exposition of the Materia Medica of the Hindus. Dr. Wise, in his Commentary on the Hindu system of Medicine, has given a pretty full and accurate account of the Anatomy, Surgery and Pathology of the Hindus. With regard to his work I may here repeat what I have stated in the preface to my translation of the Nidana, "That the natives of India cannot be too grateful to him for the trouble he has taken in bringing to light the contents of their ancient medical works, and establishing their right position in the history of Medicine." The scope and plan of his book did not, however, admit of his treating of Sanskrit Materia Medica in the manner of modern works on the subject. I have, therefore, undertaken to publish this work under the impression that it will prove an acceptable contribution to the history of drugs, and will form a basis for further researches on indigenous medicines.

TitleThe Materia Medica Of The Hindus
AuthorUdoy Chand Dutt
PublisherThacker, Spink & Co.
Year1877
Copyright1877, Thacker, Spink & Co.
AmazonThe Materia Medica Of The Hindus

The Materia Medica Of The Hindus

Compiled From Sanskrit Medical Works, By Udoy Chand Dutt, Civil Medical Officer.

With A Glossary Of Indian Plants, By George King, M. B., F. L. S. Superintendent, Royal Botanical Garden, Calcutta.

And The Author.

Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co. 1877.

-Preface
This work is not a literal translation of any particular treatise, but a compilation from standard Sanskrit medical works, arranged somewhat upon the plan of Waring's Manual of Therapeutics, and inten...
-Preface. Part 2
The two works called Charaka Sanhita and Susruta Ayurveda are the oldest and most celebrated treatises on Hindu medicine now extant. An older work called A'yurveda is mentioned in both these works as ...
-Preface. Part 3
If therefore we leave out of consideration the Uttara-tantra of Susruta, the work resolves itself mainly into a treatise on the principles of medicine as bearing on surgical diseases. It would thus ap...
-Preface. Part 4
Soomboolkhar, 'the white oxide of arsenic.' There are six kinds of this, one named Sunkia, the third Godanta, the fourth Darma, the fifth Huldea. The Yunani physicians do not allow this to form a par...
-Preface. Part 5
I avail myself of this opportunity, publicly to tender my cordial thanks to those gentlemen who have assisted me in carrying this work through the press. To Dr. George King, Superintendent of the Roya...
-Material Objects And Classification Of Medicines
Charaka divides material objects into three classes, namely, mineral, animal and vegetable. Minerals consist of gold, silver and other metals; diamond, emerald and other gems; realgar, orpiment and ot...
-Material Objects And Classification Of Medicines. Continued
18. Stanyasodhana - Improve the quality of milk. 19. Sukrajanana - Increase the secretion of semen. 20. Suhrasodhana - Purify the semen. 21. Snehopayoga - Emollients. 22. Svedopayoga - Dia...
-The Properties Of Material Objects And The Action Of Medicines On The Human System
Material objects, according to Sanskrit writers, have six sorts of tastes, twenty sorts of qualities, and two sorts of forces in them. The six tastes are sweet, acid, salt, bitter, acrid and astringen...
-Weights And Measures
The scales of weights and measures used in ancient days differed in different parts of the country. Separate scales are described by modern compilers, under the names of Mgadhi, Klinga, Ch...
-Forms Of Medicines
Churna or powders are prepared by pounding dry sub- stances in a mortar with a pestle and passing the powder through cloth. Svarasa or expressed juice is prepared by pounding fresh vegetables in ...
-Forms Of Medicines. Part 2
Knjika. This is a sour liquid produced from the acetous fermentation of powdered paddy . Two seers of powdered aus dhan (paddy grown in rainy season), are steeped in eight seers of water and lai...
-Forms Of Medicines. Part 3
If more than one variety of fluid is ordered, then up to four sorts the usual proportion of four of fluid to one of ghrita or oil is observed, and these are boiled separately with each fluid; but, whe...
-On The Different Modes In Which Medicines Are Applied
Besides being taken internally, medicines are applied in various other ways, such as by injections into the rectum, urethra and female organs; application to the nose; to the mouth; to the eyes; to th...
-On The Different Modes In Which Medicines Are Applied. Continued
Svedana or application of heat to the skin for inducing perspiration is carried out in four different ways, namely:- 1. Tpasveda or the application of dry heat by means of heated plates, b...
-Part I. Inorganic Materia Medica. General Remarks On Mineral Medicines
Mineral or inorganic medicines are generally described under five heads, namely. Rasa or mercury which forms a class by itself; Uparasa or metallic ores and earths,Dhtu or metals, Lavana or salt...
-Sulphur. Sans
Gandhaka. Four varieties of sulphur are mentioned by Sanskrit writers, namely, red, yellow, white and black. Of these the red and black are not now available. The yellow variety or vitreous sulphur...
-Mercury. Sans
Prada. Rasa. Mercury, though not mentioned by Charaka* and Susruta, has in later days come to be regarded as the most important medicine in the Hindu Pharmacopoeia. Prada literally m...
-Mercury. Sans. Part 2
The four preparations of mercury above mentioned, though described in most works on metalic medicines, are not, practically used in the treatment of disease under these names. In the present day the y...
-Mercury. Sans. Part 3
Rajamrignka rasa.3 Take of Rasa sindura three parts, prepared gold and copper one part each, realgar, orpiment and sulphur two parts each and mix. Introduce the mixture into the cavities of cour...
-Arsenic
Three compounds of arsenic are used in Hindu medicine, namely, arsenious anhydride or white arsenic, red sulphide of arsenic or realgar, and the yellow sulphide or orpiment. Of these three, orpiment a...
-White Arsenic. Sans
Sankha visha. Drumuch. Smbala kshra. White Arsenic is sold in the bazars under the names of Sunka bish, Suffed sambul and Darumuch. It is purified by being soaked in lemon j...
-Orpiment. Sans
Haritla. Orpiment occurs in two forms, namely, in smooth shining gold-coloured scales called Vansapatri haritla, and in yellow opaque masses called Pinda haritla. Vansapatri harit...
-Realgar. Sans
Manahsila. Realgar is purified by being rubbed with the juice of lemons, or of ginger. It is used internally in fever, skin diseases, cough, asthma, etc, and externally in skin diseases. In fever, ...
-Iron. Sans
Lauha. Three varieties of iron are used in Hindu Medicine, namely, Knta lauha or cast-iron, Mandura or iron rust, and Lauhasra or salts of iron produced by iron being kept in contact wi...
-Iron. Sans. Continued
Lauhasava.2 Take of powdered iron, of the three myrobalans, ginger, long pepper and black pepper, ajwain, baberung seeds, plumbago root, and tubers of Cyperus rotundus (mustaka), each thirty-two tolas...
-Sulphate Of Iron. Sans
Ksisa. Native sulphate of iron is indigenous to India, and has been used in medicine from a very ancient age. Two sorts of sulphate of iron are mentioned, namely, Dhtaksis or gree...
-Iron Pyrites. Sans
Svarnamkshika. Tramkshika. Iron pyrites is met with in many parts of India, and has been used in medicine from a very remote period. It occurs in two forms, namely, in dark yel...
-Gold. Sans
Suvarna. Gold enters into the composition of a large number of medicines for various diseases. Pure leaf-gold is used. It should be free from admixture of copper and silver, of a red colour when ex...
-Silver. Sans
Rupya, Tra. Pure silver, according to Sanskrit writers,should be soft, white, brilliant and ductile. It should not be discoloured by fire. Impure silver, that is, silver mixed with other m...
-Copper. Sans
Tmra, Vern. Tm. Thin plates of copper such as can be pierced by thorns are used in medicine. They are purified by being boiled in cow's urine for three hours. Copper is reduced t...
-Copper. Sans. Continued
Tmresvara.2 Take of prepared copper, mercury, borax, and iron, sulphur, and long pepper, equal parts, soak in the decoction of the leaves, bark, fruit, root, and flowers of Azadirachta Indica (n...
-Zinc. Sans
Yasada. Vern. Dast. Zinc is not mentioned by the older writers, such as Susruta, nor does it enter into the composition of many prescriptions. The Bhavaprakasa mentions it in the chapter on m...
-Lead. Sans
Sisaka. Vern. Sis. Lead is produced abundantly in India in the shape of the sulphide called galena. Galena is sold in the bazars under the name of surma, and is much used by the natives as a ...
-Galena. Sans
Anjana. Sauvirnjana. Galena or sulphide of lead is called anjana or sauvirnjana in Sanskrit, and krishna surm in Vernacular. It is called anjana, which literally meaus collyriu...
-Bell Metal And Brass
Bell metal, as used in medicine, is an alloy of copper and tin. Brass, is an alloy of copper and zinc. They are sometimes used in combination with other metals, and are regarded as tonic and alterativ...
-Mica Or Talc. Sans
Abhra. Four varieties of talc are described by Sanskrit writers, namely, white, red, yellow and black. Of these the white variety is used as a substitute for glass in making lanterns etc, and the b...
-Alum. Sans
Sphatikri. Alum is prepared from alum shale in the Punjab and Behar It is not mentioned by Susruta, in his list of metallics, but later writers give its synonyms and uses. It is described as ...
-Borax Sans
Tankana. Vern. Sohg. Borax was known to the ancient Hindus from a very remote period, and is mentioned by Susruta. It is brought from Thibet across the Himalaya, and from Nepal, and is ...
-Lime. Sans
Sankha bhasma. Churna. Several sorts of lime are used in Hindu medicine. Thus we have lime from limestone called churna. Then we have lime from calcined cowries, conch-shells, bivalve-shells and...
-Chloride Of Sodium. Sans
Lavana. Susruta describes the following varieties of salts, viz., 1 Sindhava, 2 Smudra, 3 Vit or Vid, 4 Sauvarchala, 5 Romaka, 6 Audbhida, 7 Gutik, 8 Pnsuja, also called Ush...
-Carbonate Of Potash. Sans
Yavakshra. This article, as well as the next one called sarjikkhara, is mentioned by Susruta, and has been used in medicine from a very remote period. Yavakshra is prepared by red...
-Carbonate Of Soda. Sans
Sarjikkshara. Vern. Sjji. Sajji or barilla is produced from several species of salt-worts growing in brackish soil in the Punjab and North-West Provinces. The process of manufacturing s...
-Nitrate Of Potash
Nitre was unknown to the ancient Hindus. There is no recognized name for it in Sanskrit. The Bhvapraksa mentions Suvarchik as a variety of sarjik or barilla, and gives sora as ...
-Alkaline Ashes. Sans
Kshra. The ashes of a number of plants containing more or less potash are employed both externally and internally. A list of these plants used in the preparation of caustic pastes, has been a...
-Diamond. Sans
Hiraka. Of the precious stones enumerated in page 14, diamond, pearls and coral only are much used in medicine. The rest are rarely-used or not used at all. Diamond is purified by being enclosed wi...
-Pearls And Coral. Sans
Mukt. Pearls. Pravla, Coral. These gems have been used in medicine from a very ancient period and are mentioned by Susruta. Pearls are purified by being boiled in the juice of the le...
-Silajatu
Silajatu literally means stone and lac. The term is applied to certain bituminous substances said to exude from rocks during the hot weather. It is said to be produced in the Vindhya and other mountai...
-Red Ochre. Sans
Gairika. Vern. Gerumti. Two sorts of gairik or ochre are mentioned by Sanskrit writers, namely, red and yellow. The red variety, called also Raktapshana is used in medicine. It is...
-Part II. Vegetable Materia Medica. Natural Order. Ranunculacae. Aconitum Ferox. Sans
Visha. Vatsanbha. Vern. Mithbish, Sringibish, Dagr. The poisonous root called bish or sringibish is derived chiefly from Aconitum ferox and Aconitum Napellus, which are indige...
-Aconitum Heterophyllum Sans
A'taicha, A'tivisha. Vern, A'tis, The tuberous roots of this plant are considered tonic, astringent and stomachic, and are used in fever, diarrhoea, irritability of stomach and cough. Atis is al...
-Nigella Sativa. Sans
Krishnajiraka. Vern. Klajir, Beng. Mugrela,Hind. The seeds of Nigella sativa are regarded as aromatic, carminative stomachic and digestive, and are used in indigestion, loss of appetite...
-Nat. Order. Menispermaceae. Stephania Hernandifolia. Cissampelos hexandra. Box
Sans. Ambashth. Patha. Vern. A'kandi, Nemuka, In the Pharmacopoeia of India it is stated that the Cissam-pelos hernandifolia, Wall. is identical with Pareira Brava, and is common th...
-Tinospora Cordifolia
Suns. Guduchi. Amrit. Vern. Gulancha, Beng. Gurach, Hind, The stem, leaves, roots and watery extract of this plant aro all used in Hindu Medicine. The entire plant is regarded as a valua...
-Nat. Order. Berberideae. Berberis Asiatica And Other Species. Sans
Druharidra. Drvi. Vern. Daruhaldi. Hind. The wood, root-bark and extract of Indian Barberry have been used in Hindu Medicine from a very remote period. Its properties are said to be...
-Nat. Order. Nymphaeaceae Nelumbium Speciosum. Nymphaea Lotus Etc
These beautiful aquatic plants had attracted the attention of the ancient Hindus from a very remote period, and obtained a place in their religious ceremonies and mythological fables; hence they are d...
-Nat. Order. Papaveraceae. Papaver Somniferum. Sans
Ahiphena. Vern. A'phim. Opium appears to have been brought into India by the Mussulmans, as its Sanskrit name is evidently derived from the Arabic Afyun, and as it is not mentioned by the older San...
-Nat. Order. Cruciferae. Sinapis. Sans
Siddhrtha, Rjika. Vern. Sarishd. Ri Sarish. Beng. Two varieties of mustard are mentioned by Sanskrit writers, namely, siddhrtha or white mustard, (Sinapis glauca o...
-Lepidium Sativum
The seeds of Lepidium Sativum, called Chandra sura in Sanskrit, and Hlim in Hindi, are described as tonic and alterative, and useful in hiccup, diarrhoea, and skin diseases from disordered blood...
-Nat. Order. Capparidaceie. Crataeva Religiosa. Capparis trifoliata. Rox
Sans. Varuna. Asmarighna. Vern. Barun, Beng. Hind. The bark of the stem and root of this plant constitutes the principal medicine of the Hindu Pharmacopoeia, for calculous affections. It is sa...
-Nat. Order. Moringacae. Moringa Pterygosperma. Sans
Sobhnjana. Sigru. This plant is cultivated all over the country for the sake of it's leaves, flowers, and seed vessels which are used by the natives in their curries. The root is described...
-Nat. Order. Guttiferae. Mesua Ferrea. Sans
Ngakesara. Vern. Ngkesar, Beng. Hind. The dried flowers of Mesua ferrea are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils. They are regarded as astringent and stomachic and use...
-Nat. Order. Dipterocarpeae. Shorea Robusta. Sans
Sala, Asvakarna. The resin of Shorea robusta, called Rla in Sanskrit and Dhuna or rl, in the vernacular, is regarded as astringent and detergent and is used in dysentery, and for fum...
-Nat. Order. Malvaceae. Sida Cordifolia. Sans
Bald. Btylaka. Vern. Berela, Beng. Khareti, Hind. Four varietes of bald are mentioned by Sanskrit writers, namely, Batylaka, (Sida cordifolia). Mahbal.(Sida rhombo...
-Bombax Malabaricum. Sans
Slmali, Moch, Vern. Simul, Rakta Simul. Benq. This is one of the largest of our Indian trees, often about one hundred feet high and the trunk thick and ramous in proportion. Flower...
-Hibiscus Moschatus. Sans
Latkasturik, Vern. Latkasturi Beng. The scented seeds of this plant are much used in perfuming medicinal oils. They also enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, ...
-Pavonia Odorata. Sans
Bl, Hrivera. Vern. Sugandha bl, Hind. The fragrant roots of this plant are considered aromatic, cooling and stomachic and are much used in combination with other medicine...
-Nat. Order. Sterculiaceae. Pterospermum Subertfolium. Sans
Muchukunda. The flower of this tree, rubbed into a paste with knjika is an ancient and well known application for hemicrania. It is mentioned by many writers and is used even at the present d...
-Nat. Order. Geraniaceae. Oxalis Corniculata. Sans
Amlalonik. Chngeri. Vern. A'mrulsak, Beng. The leaves of Oxalis corniculata are used as a pot-herb. They are considered cooling, refrigerant, appetizing and stomachic. The fresh jui...
-Averrhoa Carambola. Sans
Karmaranga. Vern. Kmrng, Beng. and Hind. The five-angled fruits of this plant contain an acid watery pulp, and are eaten raw as well as in curries. They enter into the composition...
-Nat. Order. Zygophyllaceae. Tribulus Terrestris. Sans
Gokshuri. Ikshugandh. Vern. Gokhuru, Beng. Hind. This plant is also called Sthala sringtaka and Tinkantaka, from the resemblance of its fruits to those of Trapa bispinosa and from t...
-Nat. Order. Reutaceae. Citrus
The different species of Citrus described by Sanskrit writers are as follows. Jambira. Vern. Gornebu, Beng. Citrus acida. Roxb. Var. 3 Limpka. Vern. Patinebu, Beng. do, do, 1 Nimb...
-Aegle Marmelos
Saws. vilva. Vern. Bela, Beng. Hind. The AEgle Marmelos is held in great veneration by the Hindus. It is sacred to Siva whose worship cannot be accomplished without its leaves. Hence this tree is ...
-Feronia Elephantum. Sans
Kapittha. Vern. Kathbel, Beng. Kaith, Hind. The wood apple tree is met with throughout India and is cultivated for the sake of the fruits, the pulp of which is edible. A chtni, made of the ri...
-Xanthoxylum Hostile. Sam
Tumbum. Vern. Nepli dhani, Tumri, Hind. The aromatic and pungent fruits of this plant, resemble coriander in appearance and are used as aromatic adjuncts, in compound prescriptions and ...
-Nat. Order. Burseeaceae. Balsamodendron Mukul. Balsamodendron Aqallocha
Sans. Guggulu. Vern. Guggul. Beng. Hind. Guggulu or Indian bdellium is obtained by making incisions in the tree, through which the gum resin exudes. According to Sanskrit writers, new or recently ...
-Olibanum
The gum of the Salai tree of India (Boswellia thurifera),is called Kunduru in Sanskrit. It is used as an incense and as a local application to buboes.1 Myrrh is called Vola in Sanskrit and is descr...
-Nat. Order. Meliaceae. Azadirachta Indica. Sans
Nimba. Vern. Nim, Beng. Hind. This useful tree is indigenous to India and is cultivated all over the country for the sake of its bark, leaves and fruits. These have been used in Hindu medicine from...
-Nat. Order. Ampelideae. Vitis Vinifera, Linn. Sans
Drakshd. Mridvika Vern. A'ngurphal, Kismis, Manakk, Beng. Hind. Grapes have been known in India from a very remote period and are mentioned by Susruta and Charaka. The dried fruits called...
-Nat. Order. Sapindaceae. Cardiospermum Halicacabum, Linn. Sans
Jyautishmati. Vern. Latphatkari, Nayphatki, Beng. The root of this climbing plant is described as emetic, laxative, stomachic and rubefacient, and is used in combination with other rem...
-Nat. Order. Anacardiaceae. Rhus Succedanea, Linn. Sans
Karkata sringi. Vem. Kkrasringi, Beng. Kakarsing, Hind. The horn-like excrescences caused by insects on the branches of Rhus Succedanea are called karkatasringi. They are large, hollow, thi...
-Mangifera Indica, Linn. Sans
A'mra. Vem. A'm. Beng. Hind. The Mango is well known as the most delicious of Indian fruits. The ripe fruit is somewhat laxative and useful to persons of constipated habits. The bark and kernel are...
-Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn. Sans
Bhallataka. Arushkara. Vern. Bhel. Beng. Hind. The acrid juice of marking nuts is a powerful vesicant and is often employed by the natives for producing fictitious marks of bruises. These...
-Nat. Order. Combretaceae. Terminalia Chebula, Retz. Sans. Asoka. Vern. Asok, Hind. Beng.
Asoka. Vern. Asok, Hind. Beng. Dr. Roxburgh says, when this tree is in full blossom I do not think, the whole vegetable kingdom affords a more beautiful object. It is famed in Hindu mythology fro...
-Glycyrrhiza Glabra, Linn. Sans
Yashti madhu, Madhuka. Vern. Jashti madhu. Benq. Mulhatti. Hind. Liquorice root, though not indigenous to India, has been used in Hindu Medicine from a very remote period, and is mentioned by S...
-Trigonella Fcenum-Graecum, Linn. Sans
Methi. Vern. Methi, Hind. Beng. The Trigonella Foenum-groecum is extensively cultivated in many parts of India. Its seeds are used as a condiment and its aromatic leaves, as a pot-herb. Fenugreek s...
-Alhagi Maurorum, Tournef. Sans
Duralabh, Yavsa. Vern. Yavasa Hind. This plant is described as laxative, diuretic and expectorant. The thorny flower-stalks or branches are supplied by druggists as the parts used in...
-Desmodium Gangeticum, Dc. Syn. Hedysarum Gangeticum. (Roxb.)
Slaparni. Vern. Slpani, Beng. Sarivan, Hind. This little shrub is regarded as febrifuge and anti-catarrhal. It forms an ingredient of the compound decoction called dasamula kvatha a com...
-Uraria Lagopodiotdes, Dc. Edgew. Syn. Doodia Lagopodioides Roxb. Sans
Prisniparni. Vem. Chakulia, Beng. Pitvan, Hind. This plant is an ingredient of the dasamula above described, and is thus much used in native medicine. It is considered alterative, tonic and anti-cat...
-Clitorea Ternatea, Linn. Sans
Aparajita, Vishnukranta. Vem. Aparajita, Beng. Aprajit, Hind. The root of Clitorea ternatea is regarded as laxative and diuretic, and is generally used in combination with other medicines of th...
-Mucuna Pruriens, Dc. Sans
Atmagupt. Kapikachchliu, Vanari, Vem. A'lkusi, Beng. Kiwach, Hind. The English names Cowage or Cowitch are derived from the Hindi Kiwach. The plant is indigenous to India and has been ...
-Butea Frondosa, Roxb. Sans
Palsa. Kinsuka. Vern, Dhak. Hind. Dr. Hooker states that when in full flower the Dhk tree is a gorgeous sight; the masses of flowers resembling sheets of flame, their bright orange ...
-Phaseolus Roxburghii, W. & A. Etc
The following varieties of leguminous pulses are mentioned by Sanskrit writers. Mudga. Phaseolus Mungo, Linn. Vern. Mug, B. Msha. Phaseolus Roxburghii, W. & A. Vern. Urid, H. Mudqaparni...
-Abrus Precatorius, Linn. Sans
Gunj Vern. Kuch Beng. Chirmiti, Hind. This plant is remarkable for its small egg shaped seeds, which are of a brilliant scarlet colour with a black scar indicating the place where they were...
-Pongamia Glabra, Vent. Sans
Karanja. Nactamla. Vern. Darkaranja, Benq. Kiraml, Hind, This tree appears to be common in, and well known all over India. The seeds are much used as an external application in skin...
-Guilandina Bonducella, Linn. The Properties Of
Bonduc nuts called Putikaranja in Sanskrit, and Natakaranja in Bengali, are said to resemble those of the seeds of Ponga-mia glabra. Their antiperiodic virtues were not known to Sanskrit writers. ...
-Pterocarpus Santalinus. Linn. Sans
Raktachandana. Vern. Rahtachandan, Beng. Lalchandan. Hind. The Pterocarpus Santalinus is indigenous to the Indian Peninsula and is chiefly of importance from its yielding the red dye-wood known as...
-Cassia Fistula, Linn. Sans
A'ragbadha. Suvarnaka. Fern. A'mults, Hind. Sondhali Beng. Cassia fistula is indigenous to India and is an old medicine of the Hindu Materia Medica. The tree is uncommonly beautiful when...
-Cassia Sophora, Linn. Sans
Ksamarda. Vern. Klkasund, Beng. Ksunda, Hind. ...
-Cassia Tora, Linn. Sans
Chakramarda. Vern. Chkundia, Beng. Chakaund, Hind. ...
-Cassia Alata, Linn. Sans
Dadrughna. Vern. Dd-mardan. Beng. and Hind. The leaves and seeds of these three plants are used in skin diseases, and enter into the composition of numerous prescriptions for them. Ksam...
-Bauhinia Variegata, Linn. Sans
Knchanara. Kovidra. Vern. Kachnr, Hind. Rakta Knchan. Beng. Two species of Bauhinia, namely purple and white flowered (Bauhinia variegata and acuminata), are noticed in ...
-Tamarindus Indica, Linn. Sans
Tintidi. Amlik. Vern. Tentul, Benq. Imli. Hind. The tamarind tree is met with throughout India, and has been known from a very remote period. From the Hindus it would seem that the fruit...
-Acacia Catechu, Linn. Sans
Khadira. Vern. Kat, Hind. Khaer, Beng. Khadira or catechu is obtained by boiling the wood of Acacia catechu in water and inspissating the decoction. The Bhavaprakasa mentions two varieties of catec...
-Acacia Arabica, Willd. Sans
Vabbula. Vern. Babul, Beng. Hind. The tender leaves beaten into a pulp, are given in diarrhoea as an astringent. A decoction of the bark is used as an astringent gargle and wash. I have not met wit...
-Nat. Order. Combretaceae. Terminalia Chebula, Retz. Sans
Haritaki. Abhaya. Pathya. Vern. Har. Hind. Haritaki. Beng. The chebulic myrobalan was highly extolled by the ancient Hindus as a powerful alterative and tonic. It has received the names of P...
-Terminalia Bellerica, Roxb. Sans
Vibhitaki. Vern. Baherd, Hind. Beng. Belleric myrobalans are described as astringent and laxative and useful in cough, hoarseness, eye diseases, etc. As a constituent of triphal or the three ...
-Terminalia Arjuna, Bedd. Sans
Arjuna. Kukubha. Vern. Arjuna. Beng. Kahu, Hind. The bark of this timber tree is considered tonic, astringent and cooling, and is used in heart diseases, contusions, fractures, ulcers, etc. In ...
-Nat. Order. Myrtaceae. Eugenia Jambolana, Lam. Syzygium Jambolanum, W. & A,
Sans. Jambu. Vern. Klajm, Beng. Jmun, Hind. This tree, which yields an abundant crop of sub-acid edible fruits during the months of July and August, is common all over the countr...
-Caryophyllus Aromaticus, Linn. Sans
La-vanga. Cloves, as might be expected, are much used in Hindu Medicine, as an aromatic adjunct. They are regarded as light, cooling, stomachic, digestive and useful in thirst, vomiting, flatulen...
-Nat. Order. Lythraceae. Woodfordia Floribunda, Salisb. Grislea tomentosa, Roxb
Sans. Dhtaki' Agnijvla. Vem. Dhiphul. Beng. Dhi. Hind. The Sanskrit synonyms of this beautiful flowering shrub well describe some of its prominent characters. It is cal...
-Nat. Order. Hamamelideae. Liquidambar Orientale, Miller. Sans
Silhaka. Vern. Silras, Hind. Liquid storax is described in Sanskrit works as a product of Turkey. It is considered useful in affections of the throat, copious perspiration and skin diseases, ...
-Nat. Order., Granateae. Punica Granatum, Linn. Sans
Ddima. Vern. A'ndr, Hind. The pomegranate is indigenous to North Western India. The best fruits, having sweet juice and very small seeds come from Cabul. The fresh juice of the fruits is much...
-Nat. Order. Cucurbitaceae. Benincasa Cerifera, Sam. Cucurbita Pepo, Roxb
Sans. Kushmanda. Vern. Kumrd, Beng. Petha, Hind. The large fruit or gourd of Benincasa cerifera is eaten by the natives in their curries, and is extensively cultivated all over India. It is consid...
-Trichosanthes Dioica, Roxb. Sans
Patola. Vern. Palwal, Hind. The Trichosanthes dioica is extensively cultivated as an article of food in Bengal. The unripe fruits are much used by the natives as a culinary vegetable and are consid...
-Cucumis Melo, Linn. Syn. Cucumis Utilissimus. Roxb. Sans
Karkati. Vern. Knkur, Beng. Kakri, Hind. The seeds of this useful species of Cucumis are described as cooling, edible, nutritive and diuretic, and are used in painful micturition and suppress...
-Coccinia Indica, W. & A. Syn. Momordica Monodelpha Roxb. Sans
Vimba, Vera, Telakucha, Beng. The expressed juice of the thick tap-root of this plant is used by the leading native Kavirajas of Calcutta, as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed by th...
-Citrullus Colocynthis, Schrad. Syn. Cucumis Colocynthis, Linn, Sans
Indravaruni. Vern. Indrayan. Hind. Indian colocynth is common on the lower slopes of the Western Himalaya and also on the plains of the drier parts of India. It is procurable in the bazars of the N...
-Nat. Order. Umbelliferae
The following aromatic fruits belonging to this natural order, are noticed by Sanskrit writers and are used in medicine or as condiments by the natives. Yamni. Ptychotis A'jowan,* DC. Vern. A...
-Ptychotis Ajowan
The seeds of Ptychotis Ajowan have an aromatic smell and warm pungent taste. They are used for culinary purposes, as spices along with betel nuts and pan leaves, and as a carminative medicine. A tea s...
-Carum Roxburghianum
The seeds of Carum Rox-burghianum (ajamod) are an essential ingredient of native cookery, They are said to be useful in hiccup, vomiting and pain in the region of the bladder. They enter into th...
-Cuminum Cyminum
Cumin seeds form an ingredient of some curry powders and pickles used by the natives. They are regarded as stomachic, carminative, astringent and useful in dyspepsia, diarrhoea, etc. A confection of c...
-Foeniculum Vulgare
Fennel seeds are largely used as a condiment. In medicine they are chiefly used as an aromatic adjunct to other articles. Distilled fennel water is prepared and sold in India, under the name of A'rak ...
-Carum Carui
The fruits called shia jira in the vernacular, do not appear to differ from European caraway. The plant grows wild largely in the high alpine region of Lahul in the Western Himalaya, but is rare in ...
-Coriandrum Sativum
Coriander is largely used by the natives as a condiment and along with betel nuts and pan leaves. It is described as carminative, refrigerent, diuretic, tonic and aphrodisiac. A cold infusion of coria...
-Ferula Assafoetida, Linn. Sans
Hingu. Vern. Hing, Beng. Hind. Sanskrit writers describe assafoetida as an exudation from the root of the assafoetida plant which is indigenous to Persia, Khorasan and Multan.* Assafoetida is regar...
-Hydrocotyle Asiatica, Linn. Sans
Manduhaparni. Vern. Thalhiri, Beng. Brhmamanduki, Hind. The properties of this plant are said to resemble those of Brhmi (Herpestes Monniera), both being regarded as alterative, tonic, a...
-Nat. Order. Rubiaceae. Oldenlandia Herbacea, Dc. Oldenlandia biflora. Roxb
Sans. Parpata. Vern. Khetpapr. Beng. The Oldenlandia herbacea is a small, weak, straggling delicate plant, appearing in the rainy season in fields and low ground on the banks of water cour...
-Randia Dumetorum, Linn. Sans
Madana. Vern. Mayin. Hind. The Randia dumetorum is a small thorny tree common in waste places. The fruit when ripe, looks like a small apple, and has a peculiar sweetish, sickly smell. It is descri...
-Rubia Cordifolia, Linn. Syn. Rubia Manjista. Roxb. Sans
Manjishth, Vern. Manjit, Beng. Hind. Indian madder, well known as a red dye, is used in medicine chiefly as a colouring agent. All medicated oils are first prepared for use by being boiled wi...
-Paederia Foetida, Linn. Sans
Prasdrani. Vern. Gandhabhduli, Beng. Gandhli, Hind. The Poederia foetida is a long climbing plant, twining up and over trees. All parts of the plant give off a most offensive odour whe...
-Nat. Order. Valerianaceae. Nardostachys Jatamansi, Dc. Valeriana Jatamansi. Jones
Sam. Jatamnsi. Vern. Jatmansi, Beng. Baluchar, Hind. The Nardostachys Jatamansi is a native of the mountains of Northern India and has been used in Hindu medicine from a very ancient p...
-Nat. Order. Compositae. Saussurea Auriculata, Bth. Et Hf. Syn. Aplotaxis Auriculata. Dc. Sans
Kushtha. Vern. Kur, Pchak. Hind. Beng. The Aplotaxis auriculata is a native of the mountains around Cashmere, and has been used in Hindu medicine from an early age. Its root is described as a...
-Wedelia Calendulacea, Less. Syn. Verbesina Calendulacea, Roxb. Sans
Bhringarja. Kesarja. Vem. Kesarja, Beng. Bhnr, Hind. There is some confusion between the Sanskrit and vernacular names of Wedelia calendulacea, and Eclipta prostra...
-Vernonia Anthelmintica, Willd. Syn. Serratula Anthelmintica, Roxb. Sans
Somarji. Avalguja. Vkuchi. Vern. Hkuch, Somrj, Beng. Bkchi, Hind. The seeds of Vemonia anthelmintica are of great repute in Sanskrit Materia Medica as a medicin...
-Anacyclus Pyrethrum, Dc
Pellitory root was unknown to the ancient Hindus. In later compilations as Saran-gadhara and the Bhavaprakasa it is occasionally mentioned under the name of Akarkarava, and is used as an ingredi...
-Enhydra Heloncha, Dc. Syn. Hingtsha Repens, Roxb. Sans
Hilamochika. Vern. Hingcha, Beng, Har-Jiuchy Hind. The leaves of this water plant are eaten by the natives as a vegetable. Being somewhat bitter they are regarded as wholesome and invigorating. Medi...
-Nat. Order. Plumbaginaceae. Plumbago Zeylanica, Linn. Sans
Chitraka. Vern. Chit. Beng. Hind. The root of Plumbago Zeylanica is said to increase the digestive power, to promote the appetite and to be useful in dyspepsia, piles, anasarca, diarrhoea, sk...
-Plumbago Rosea, Linn. Sans
Raktachitraka. Vern. Llchit, Beng. The properties of the root of Plumbago rosea are said to be like those of P. Zeylanica. It has besides a specific action on the uterus.* The root of P...
-Nat. Order. Myrsinaceae. Embelia Ribes, Burm. Sans
Vidanga. Vern. Bberang, Hind, Susruta describes the seeds of Embelia Ribes as anthelmintic, alterative and tonic and recommends their use along with liquorice root for the purpose of strength...
-Nat. Order. Sapotaceae. Bassia Latifolia, Roxb. Sans
Madhuka. Vern. Mau. Beng. Hind. The flowers of Bassia latifolia yield a distilled spirit which is described by Susruta as heating, astringent, tonic and appetizing. The flowers are regarded a...
-Mimusops Elengi, Linn. Sans
Vakula. Vern. Maulsarau, Hind. This ornamental tree is generally reared in gardens for the sake of its fragrant flowers from which a distilled water is prepared. The ripe fruits are sweetish and ed...
-Nat. Order. Styraceae. Symplocos Racemosa, Roxb. Sans
Lodhra. Tillaka. Vern. Lodh, Beng. Hind. The bark of this tree, used in dyeing red, is considered cooling, astringent and useful in bowel complaints, eye diseases, ulcers, etc. It enters into th...
-Nat. Order. Jasminaceae. Nyctanthes Arbor Tristis, Linn. Sans
Sephlik. Rajanihs. Vern. Siuli, Beng. Harsingar. Hind. This plant is cultivated in gardens for the sake of its flowers. These open at sunset, and before morning strew the grou...
-Jasminum Grandiflorum, Linn. Sans
Jti. Vern. Chameli. Hind. The fragrant flowers of Jasminum grandiflorum are used for preparing a scented oil, which is considered cooling, and is much used by the richer natives for anointing...
-Jasminum Sambac, Willd. Sans
Vdrshiki. Vern. Bel, Beng. Hind. The properties of this plant are said to resemble those of Jasminum grandiflorum. ...
-Nat. Order. Apocyneae. Nerium Odorum, Solander
Satis. Karavira. Asvamraka. Vern. Karabi. Beng. Kaner, Hind. Two varieties of Karavira are described in the Bhvapraksa, namely, white and red flowered. The properties of both...
-Alstonia Scholaris, R.Br. Sans
Saptaparna. Vislatvak. Vern. Chhatin, Beng. Chhatian, Hind, The bark of Alstonia scholaris is very thick and spongy, hence tho tree has recieved the names of Vislatvak, Vrihattvak, ...
-Holarrhena Antidysenterica, R.Br. Sans
Kutaja, Kalinga. Vern. Kurchi. Beng. Kurey. Kaurey, Hind. The bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in the Hindu Pharmacopoeia. Before ...
-Ichnocarpus Frutescens. Sans
Srivd. Vern. Shymalat. The properties of the roots of this plant are said to be identical with those of Hemidesmus Indicus. These two drugs are often used in combination under the...
-Nat. Order. Asclepiadeae. Hemidesmus Indicus, R. Br. Sans
Anantamula, Sriv. Vern, Anantamul, Beng. Hind. In Sanskrit Medicine, Hemidesmus Indicus and Ichnocarpus frutescens are both called sriv and are described nnder the name ...
-Calotropis Gigantea And Procera, B. Br. Asclepias gigantea, Roxb
Sans. Arka, Alarka. Vern. A'kanda, Beng. Madar, Hind. Calotropis procera and C. gigantea, both pass by the native native name of madar. C. procera the smaller of the two, prefers the drier cl...
-Nat. Order. Loganiaceae. Strychnos Nux Vomica, Linn. Sans
Kupilu, Kulaka, Vishamushti. Vern. Kuchila, Beng. Hind. Nux vomica has been introduced into Hindu Medicine at a recent period. There is no generally recognized Sanskrit name for it. In some ...
-Strychnos Potatorum, Linn. Fil. Sans
Kataka. Ambuprasda. Vern. Nirmali, B. The use of these seeds for the purpose of clearing muddy water is as old as Susruta, who mentions it in his chapter on water. Medicinally it is chiefl...
-Nat. Order. Gentianaceae. Ophelia Chirata, Grisebach. Syn. Gentiana Chirayita, Roxb. Sans
Kirtatikta, Bhunimba. Vern. Chiret, Beng. Hind. The Ophelia Chirata is indigenous to the mountainous regions of Northern India from Simla through Kumaon to the Morung district in S...
-Canscora Decussata, R. Et Sch. Syn. Pladera Decussata, Roxb. Sans
Sankhapushpi. Vern. Dankuni, Beng. Sankhahuli Hind. This little plant is regarded as laxative, alterative and tonic and is much praised as a nervine. It is used in insanity, epilepsy and nervous d...
-Nat. Order. Bignoniaceae. Calosanthes Indica, Bl. Bignonia Indica, Linn
Sans, Syonka. Aralu. Veen. Nson, Beng. Arlu, Hind. This is a small tree, growing over a large part of India. The root-bark is used in medicine. It is considered astringent, t...
-Stereospermum Suaveolens, Dc
Sun. Biqnonia suaveolens. Roxb. Sans. Ptal. Vern. Prul, Beng. Pd, Hind. This is a middle sized flowering tree, a native of Bengal. The flowers are large, of a dark crimson...
-Nat. Order. Convolvulaceae. Ipomcea Turpethum, R. Br. Convolvulus Turpethum, Roxb
Sans. Trivrit. Triput. Vern. Teori. Beng. Nisoth. Tarbud, Hind. Two varieties of trivrit are described by most writers, namely, sveta or white and krishna or black. The white variety is ...
-Batatas Paniculatus, Choisy. Syn. Convolvulus Paniculatus, Roxb. Sans
Vidri, Bhumiku shmnda. Vern. Bhui kumar, Beng, Bilai hand, Hind. The large tuberous root of this handsome climber is considered tonic, alterative, aphrodisiac, demulcent and l...
-Pharbitis Nil, Choisy
The seeds of this plant, called kaladana in the vernacular and now commonly used as a purgative all over India, were unknown to the ancient Hindus. There is no name for them in Sanskrit. ...
-Argyreia Speciosa, Sweet. Syn. Lettsomia Nervosa. Roxb. Sans
Vriddhadraka. Vern. Bijtark, Beng. The root of this plant is regarded as alterative, tonic and useful in rheumatic affections, and diseases of the nervous system. As an alterative and n...
-Nat. Oeder Solanaceae. Datura Alba, Rumph, And Fastuosa, Linn. Sans
Dhustura, Unmatta. Vern. Dhutur, Hind, and Beng. Sanskrit writers do not make any distinction in the properties of the two varieties of Datura, and in practice both are indiscriminately u...
-Solanum Xanthocarpum, Var. Jacquinis, Schrad. Solatium Jacquinii, Linn,
Sans, Kantakri, Nidigdhik. Vern. Kantakri, Beng. Kateli, Katai, Hind. The root of Solarium Jacguinii is much esteemed as an expectorant and is used in cough, asthma, catarrha...
-Solanum Nigrum, Linn. Sans
Kkamchi, Vem. Kakmachi, Beng. Mahoy. Hind. The berries of this plant are considered tonic, diuretic and useful in anasarca and heart disease. For the mode of administering them in heart...
-Solanum Indicum, Linn. Sans
Vrihati. Bhanthi. Vem. Bykura. Beng. Barhanta, Hind. The root of Solanum Indicum is an ingredient of dasamula (see Desmodium gangeticum ) and is thus used in a great variety of dise...
-Withania Somnifera, Don
Sun. Physalis flexuosa. Roxb. Sans. Asvagandh. Vern. Asvagandh, Beng. Asgand, Hind. The root of this plant is long, smooth, rounded, whitish brown externally and of a fine white colou...
-Hyoscyamus Niger, Linn
The seeds of Hyoseyamus niger are used in Hindu medicine under the name of khorsani yamni. They are considered stimulant or heating, narcotic, astringent and digestive, and are used in com...
-Nicotiana Tabacum, Linn
According to Royle, the tobacco plant was introduced into India (A.D. 1605) towards the end of the reign of Jelaludeen Akbar. It is not described even in the latest Sanskrit medical works such as the ...
-Capsicum Frutescens, Linn, And Minimum, Roxb. Have No Sanskrit Name
Although they are now cultivated all over India and form an essential ingredient of all curry powders, they are not mentioned in any Sanskrit medical work and are evidently of recent introduction into...
-Nat. Order. Scrophulakiaceae. Picrorrhiza Kurroa. Rovle. Sans
Katuk, Katurohini. Vern. Katki, H. B. The root of Piororrhiza Kurroa is described as bitter, acrid and stomachic and in larger doses a moderate cathartic. It is used in fever and dyspepsia...
-Herpestis Monniera, H. B. K. Syn. Gratiola Monniera, Roxb. Sans
Brahmi, Manduki, Vern. Brahmi, Beng. Hind. The herb used by the native physicians of Calcutta under the name of brahmi is the Herpestis Monniera. Roxburgh however gives brahmi and one of its syn...
-Nat. Order. Acanthaceae. Justicia Adhatoda, Roxb. Adhatoda Vasica. Nees
Sans. Vasaka, Atarusha. Vern. Bkas, B. Arusha. H. This is a bushy shrub common in most parts of India and used in making fences. The leaves and roots of this plant are considered expector...
-Hygrophila Spinosa, T. Anders. Syn. Asteracantha Lonqifolia, Nees. Ruellia Longifolia. Roxb. Sans
Kokildksha, Ikshuqandha. Vern. Kuliakhara, Beng. Talmakhana. Hind. This little annual is met with in low places all over the country. The leaves are described as cooling and useful in jaundice...
-Andrographis Paniculata, Nees
This bitter shrub is well-known in Bengal under the name of klmeg and is the principal ingredient of a domestic medicine for infants called A'lui There is some doubt regarding its Sanskrit name....
-Nat. Order. Sesameae. Sesamum Indicum, Linn. Sans
Tila, Snehaphala. Vern. Til, Beng. and Hind. This plant is extensively cultivated in India for the sake of the seeds and their expressed oil, both of which articles are in great demand for vario...
-Nat. Order. Verbenaceje. Vitex Negundo, Linn. Sans
Nirgundi, Sindhuvra. Vern. Nisinda, Beng. Nisinda, Smbhalu, Hind. Sanskrit writers mention two varieties of nirgundi. That with pale blue flowers is called sindhuvra ( Vitex t...
-Gmelina Arborea, Linn. Sans
Ghambhdri, Sriparni, Ksmari. Vern. Gmri, Beng. Gambhar. Hind. The root of this plant is described as bitter, tonic, stomachic, laxative, and useful in fever, indigestion, a...
-Clerodendron Siphonanthus, R. Br. Syn. Siphonanthus Indica. Lam. Sans
Brahmayashtik Bhargi. Vern. Bamanhati, Beng. Bhrangi, Hind. The root of Clerodendron Siphonanthus is considered useful in asthma, cough and scrofulous affections. The root beaten to a...
-Premna Serratifolia, Linn. Sym. Premna Spinosa, Roxb. Sans
Ganikarika, Agnimantha. Vern. Ganiari, Beng. Ami, Hind. The root of Premna spinosa is described as bitter, stomachic and useful in fever, anasarca, urticaria, etc. The leaves are bitter and carmi...
-Nat. Order. Labiatae. Ocimum Sanctum, Linn. Sans
Tulasi, Parnsa. Vern. Tulsi, Beng. Hind. Sanskrit writers make two varieties of this plant (founded upon some difference in the colour of their leaves) namely, white and black. The Ocimum ...
-Ocimum Basilicum, Linn. Sun. Ocimum Pilosum, Willd. Sans
Varvara. Vern. Bbui tulsi. Beng. The seeds of this plant, called rehan in the vernacular, are demulcent and nourishing. Steeped in water they swell into a mucilaginous jelly which is taken wit...
-Nat. Order. Amarantaceae. Amaranthus Spinosus. Linn. Sans
Tanduliya. Vern. Kantnatia, Beng. Cholai, Hind, This thorny weed is considered light, cooling and a promoter of the alvine and urinary discharges. Its root is said to be an efficaceous medicin...
-Achyranthes Aspera, Linn Sans
Apamrga. Kharamanjari. Vern. A'pang. Beng. Latjira. chirchira, Hind. This troublesome weed is chiefly valued on account of its ashes which contain a large quantity of potash. These are us...
-Nat. Order. Nyctaginaceae. Boerhaavia Diffusa, Linn. Sans
Punarnava, Sothaghni. Vern. Svetapunarnaba, Beng. Sant, Hind. Both the red and white varieties of this plant are noticed by Sanskrit writers but the white is preferred for use. Its root is rega...
-Nat. Order. Lauraceae. Cinnamomum Camphora, Nees Et Ebermaier. Sans
Karpura, Chandrdhba. Vern. Kapur, Hind. Karpur. Beng. Two varieties of camphor are mentioned by Sanskrit writers, namely, pakva and apakva, that is prepared with the aid of heat and without it....
-Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Breyn. Sans
Gudatvak. Cinnamon is largely used as an aromatic adjunct in compound prescriptions. A combination of cinnamon, cardamoms and tejapatra leaves, passes by the name of trijataka, these three aromatics...
-Cinnamomum Tamala
Nees. and other species, furnish the leaves called tejapatra in Sanskrit, and tejpat in the vernacular. They are an essential ingredient of Indian cookery. For remarks on their uses in medicine see Ci...
-Nat. Order. Myristiceae. Myristica Officinalis, Linn
Both nutmegs and mace enter into the composition of numerous medicines as aromatic adjuncts, but there is no peculiarity in their use that need special consideration here. An infusion of nutmegs is re...
-Nat. Order. Santaleae. Santalum Album, Linn. Sans
Chandana, Srikhanda. Vern. Chandan, Beng. Saphed chandan, Hind, Sanskrit writers describe several varieties of chandana and some include the woods of Pterocarpus Santalinus (raktachandana) and ...
-Nat. Order. Euphorbiaceae. Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn. Emblica officinalis, Gaertn
Sans. A'malaki, Dhatri. Vern A'mlaki Beng. A'onla, Hind. Like chebulic myrobalan, emblic myrobalan is also extensively used in Hindu medicine, both alone and in combination with the two other ...
-Croton Tiglium, Linn. Sans
Jayapla. Kanakaphala Vern. Jaypl, Beng. Jamalgota, Hind. The seeds of Croton Tiglium are considered heating, drastic, and useful in fever, constipation, intestinal worms, enlargemen...
-Baliospermum Montanum, Mull. Sans
Danti. Vern. Danti, Hind. Beng. The seeds of Baliospermum montanum are described as drastic. Like croton seeds they are boiled in milk before use. The root of the plant is considered cathartic. Bot...
-Ricinis Communis, Linn. Sans
Eranda. Ruvuka. Vern. Bherend, Beng. Erend. Hind. The root of Ricinis Communis and the oil obtained from the seeds have been used in medicine by the Hindus from a very remote period. They...
-Mallotus Philippensis, Mull. Syn. Rottlera Tinctoria. Roxb. Sans
Kampilla, Rechanaka. Vern. Kamil. Sena. Kambila. Kamald. Hind. Roxburgh and Brandis give Punnaga as the Sanskrit for this plant. As far as my information goes, Punnga is the Sanskri...
-Euphorbia Neriifolia, Linn. Sun. Euphorbia Liqularia. Roxb. Sans
Snuhi, Vajri, Sehunda. Vern. Manssij. Beng. Sehund, Thohar. Hind. This prickly shrub is sacred to Mansa the goddess of serpents. On the fifth day after full moon of the month of Sravan...
-Nat. Order. Myriceae. Myrica Sapida, Wall. Sans
Katphala. Vern. Kephal, Hind. The bark of Myrica sapida (a Himalayan tree), is its most valuable product, and is largely exported to the plans. It is dark or browish grey, with deep vertical ...
-Nat. Order. Urticeae. Ficus Religiosa, Linn. Sans
Asvattha. Vern. Pipal, Hind. ...
-Ficus Bengalensis, Linn. San
Vata. Vern. Bar. Hind. ...
-Ficus Glomerata, Willd. Sans
Udumbara. Vern, Jagnodumar, Beng. Gular, Hind. ...
-Ficus Infectoria, Roxb. Sans
Parkati. Vern. Pakur, Beng. Pkri Hind. The root-barks of these four species of Ficus together with that of Azadarachta Indica pass by the name of panchavalkala or the five barks, and are used...
-Cannabis Sativa, Linn. Var. Indica. Sans
Vijaya, Bhang, Ganj, Indrsana. Vern. Siddhi, Bhng, Beng. Bhang. Hind. The Cannabis sativa has been used from a very remote period both in medicine and as an intoxi...
-Cannabis Sativa, Linn. Var. Indica. Sans. Continued
The leaves of Cannabis sativa are purified by being boiled in milk before use. They are regarded as heating, digestive, astringent, and narcotic. The intoxication produced by bhng is said to be ...
-Nat. Order. Piperaceae. Piper Nigrum. Linn. Sans
Maricha, Ushana. Vern. Golmarich, Beng. Kalimarich, Hind. The use of black pepper as a condiment is too well known to require any notice here. Medicinally it is much used in combination with lo...
-Piper Longum, Linn. Syn. Chavica Roburghii Miq. Sans
Pippali. Kand. Krishn. Vern. Pipul Beng. Pipal Hind. The dried catkins and the root of Piper longum are used in medicine. They are considered heating, stimulant, carminative, alterativ...
-Piper Chaba, Hunter. Sans
Chavik. Vern. Chai, Beng. Chb, Hind. The fruits of this species of Piper are considered stimulant, anti-catarrhal and carminative and are much used as adjuncts to medicines for cough, co...
-Piper Betle, Linn. Sans
Tmbula. Vern. Pn, Beng. Hind. The leaves of this creeper are, as is well known, masticated by the natives of India. The poorer classes make their packet of betle with the addition of li...
-Nat. Order. Coniferae. Pinus Webbiana, Wall. Abies Webbiana, Lindl
Sans. Tlisapatra, Vern. Tlispatra Beng. Hind. The dried leaves used by Kavirajas under the name of talisapatra, were identified at the herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden to be the l...
-Pinus Longifolia, Roxb. Sans
Sarala. Vern. Chir, Saral. Hind. The aromatic wood of Pinus longifolia is used in Hindu medicine. The tree yields an oleo-resin called sarala drava, srivasa and kshira in Sanskrit. In the vernacula...
-Cedrus Deodara, Loud. Finns Deodara. Roxb. Sans
Devadru. Vern. Deodr Hind. The aromatic wood of this elegant pine is considered carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic and useful in fever, flatulence, inflammation, dropsy, urinary disease...
-Nat. Order. Palmaceae. Cocus Nucifera, Linn. Sans
Ndrikela, Vern. Nrial, Hind. Nrikel, Beng. The numerous economical uses of this valuable tree are fully detailed in standard works. I will refer only to such of them as are mentioned in...
-Borassus Flabelliformis, Linn. Sans
Tala, Trinarja. Vern. Tal, Beng. Hind, The properties of the various parts of this noble palm are described in detail in Sanskrit works. The root is cooling and restorative. The saccharin...
-Areca Catechu, Linn. Sans
Guvaka, Puga, Kramuka. Vern. Gu, Supari, Beng. Supari, Hind. The chief consumption of betel-nuts is as a masticatory, alone or in conjunction with betle leaf. The unripe nuts are said ...
-Phoenix Sylvestris, Roxb. Sans
Kharjura. Vern Kejur, Beng. Hind. The Phoenix sylvestris is indigenous to India and is cultivated for the sake of its sweet sap which is manufactured into gur or jagari. The imported fruits of Phoe...
-Nat. Order. Hypoxideae. Hypoxis Orchioides. Curculigo orchioides, Gaertn
Sans. Mushali, Tlamidi. Vern. Mushali, Hind. The tuberous roots of this plant are considered alterative, tonic, restorative and useful in piles, debility and impotence. They enter into th...
-Nat. Order. Aroideae. Acorus Calamus, Linn. Sans
Vach, Shadgranth. Vera. Bach, B. H. The aromatic rhizome or root-stock of Acorus Calamus is considered emetic in large doses, and stomachic, carminative and nervine in smaller doses....
-Amorphophallus Campanulatus, Blume. Syn. Arum Campanulatum, Roxb. Sans
Surana, Olla. Vern. ol, Beng. Hind. The Amorphophallus campanulatus is cultivated for the sake of its tubers, which are cooked and eaten by the natives like yams or potatoes. The tubers contain ...
-Scindapsus Officinalis, Schott. Syn. Pothos Offici- Nalis. Roxb. Sans
Gajapippali. Vern. Gajapipul, Beng' Hind. The sliced fruits of this plant pass by the name of gajapipul. They are considered aromatic, carminative, stimulant and useful in diarrhoea, asthma and oth...
-Alocasia Indica, Schott. Syn. Arum Indicum, Roxb. Sans
Manaka, Vern. Mnkachu, Beng. Mnkanda, Hind. The underground stems of Alocasia Indica constitute a valu-able and important vegetable of native dietary. The stems sometimes grow to an imm...
-Nat. Order. Scitamineae, Zingiber Officinale, Roscoe. Sans
A'rdraka, Sringavera. Vern. A'd, Beng. A'drak, Hind. Ginger is described as acrid, heating, carminative and useful in dyspepsia, affections of the throat, head and chest, piles, rheumatis...
-Zingiber Zerumbet, Roxb. Sans
Sthula-granthi, Vern. Mah bari bach. Hind. Beng. ...
-Zingiber Cassumunar, Roxb. Sans
Vanr-draka, Vern. Banda, Beng. ...
-Alpinia Galanga, Linn. Sans
Kulinjna. Vern. Kulinjn, Beng. Hind, The aromatic tubers of these three species are occasionally used as carminative or fragrant adjuncts in complex prescriptions, but they have nothing...
-Curcuma Longa, Roxb. Sans
Haridr, Nis. Vern. Halud, B. Haldi, H. The turmeric plant is extensively cultivated for the sake of its tubers which are an essential ingredient of native curry powders. Turmeric pounde...
-Curcuma Zedoaria, Roscoe. Syn. C. Zerumbet. Roxb. Sans
Sati, Vern. Sati, Beng. Kachur, Hind. The rhizomes of this plant possess an agreeable camphoraceous smell and warm, bitterish, spicy taste. They are considered carminative and useful in fever and s...
-Curcuma Aromatica, Salisb. Syn. C. Zedoaria, Roxb. Sans
Vanaharidr. Vern. Banhalud, Beng. Jedwar, Hind. The rhizomes of this plant are of a pale yellow colour and have an agreeable fragrant smell. The Bhavaprakasa describes them as useful in skin ...
-Curcuma A'Ma'Da' Roxb. Sans
Karpuraharidr. Vern, A'md, Beng. The Bhavaprakasa mentions this plant under the name of karpuraharidra, but the term is not to be found in standard lexicons. The fresh root possess...
-Elettaria Cardamomum, White Et Maton. Also Amomum Subulatum, Roxb. Sans
Eld. Vern. Elchi, Hind. Gujrati elch, Beng. Cardamoms are largely used as aromatic adjuncts but have no peculiarity deserving of special notice. ...
-Nat. Order. Musaceae. Musa Paradisiaca, Linn. Varietv Of Musa Savientum Linn. Sans
Kadali Rambh. Vern. Kal. Beng. Kel. Hind. The economical uses of this most valuable plant are too well-known to need any notice here. I will refer only to one of them. The lea...
-Nat. Order. Orchidaceae. Vanda Roxburghii, Jr. Br. Cymbidium tessaloides. Roxb
Sans. Rasna, Gandhanakuli. Vern. Rasna, B. H. Under the name of rasna, the roots of Vanda Roxburghii and Acampe papillosa, are both indiscriminately used by native physicians. They are very sim...
-Nat. Order. Liliaceae. Aloe Indica, Royle. Sans
Ghritakumri, Kany. Vern. Ghritakumdri, Beng. Ghikumdri, Hind. Aloes (called mushabbar in the vernacular), though now used in native medicine, was unknown to the Sanskrit writers. The...
-Asparagus Racemosus, Willd. Sans
Satvari, Satamuli. Vern. Satamuli, Beng. Satavari, Hind. The Sanskrit name satamuli (that is possessing a hundred roots), is in allusion to the numerous fusiform tubers of this plant. The...
-Allium Sativum, Linn. Sans
Rasuna, Lasuna. Vern. Rasun, Beng. Lasun, Hind. Garlic is described as carminative, stomachic, alterative, tonic and useful in affections of the nervous system, flatulence, hysteria, etc. Durin...
-Gloriosa Superba, Linn. Sans
Langalika, Agnisikha, Kalikri. Vern. Bishalnguli. Benq. Karihari, Hind. i The Gloriosa Superba is a native of the forests of India. It appears during the rainy season in Bengal,...
-Nat. Order. Smilaceae. Smilax China, Linn. Sans
Chobachini. Vern. Chobchini. Hind: Fluckiger and Hanbury state that the use of this drug as a remedy for syphilis was made known to the Portuguese at Goa by Chinese traders about A.D. 1535. If th...
-Nat. Order. Cyperaceae. Cyperus Rotund Us, Linn. Sans
Mustaka: Vern. Muth. Beng. Motha, Hind. ...
-Cyperus Pertenuis, Roxb. Sans
Naqaramustaka. Vern. Ngarmutha, Beng, Hind. The tubers of these two species of Cyperus are much used in Hindu medicine. Cyperus rotundus is the most common variety and is used internally. Its...
-Nat. Order. Gramineae. Saccharum Officinarum, Linn. Etc. Sans
Ikshu. Vern. Alk Beng. Uk, Hind. The sugar-cane and its products sugar and treacle were known to the Hindus from a very early age. From the Sanskrit term sarkara are derived the Arabic sakkar, Lati...
-Oryza Sativa, Linn. Etc
The following varieties of food grains belonging to this im-portant natural order, are mentioned by Sanskrit writers - Dhnya. Oryza sativa, Linn. Vern. Dhan, Beng. Hind. Godhuma. Triticum ...
-Oryza Sativa
Rice is the principal and often the only food of the great mass of the Indian population. Dhayna the Sanskrit name of paddy, means the supporter or nourisher of mankind. It is regarded as the emblem o...
-Triticum Vulgare, Linn
Three varieties of wheat are mentioned in the Bbavaprakasa, namely Mahgodhuma or large grained, Madhuli or small grained1 and Nihsuki or beardless, that is without awn. The first variety is said...
-Hordeum Hexastichum, Linn
Barley though less esteemed than wheat is more employed in the dietary of the sick. It is chiefly used in the form of saktu or powder of the parched grains. Gruel prepared with saktu is said to be eas...
-Andropogon Muricatus, Retz. Sans
Usira. Virana, Vern. Ben, Beng. Khas, Hind. The root of this plant is well known as the Khas khas root of which tatis or door screens are made for watering during the hot weather. It is d...
-Andropogon Schcenanthus, Linn. Sans
Bhustrina, Vern. Gandha bena, Beng. ...
-Andropogon Iwarancusa, Roxb. Sans
Lamajjaka. Vern. Lamjak, Hind, Karankus, Beng. These two fragrant grasses are occasionally used as aromatics and refrigerants like the roots of Andropogon muricatus. A. schoe-nanthus is common...
-Bambusa Arundinacea, Willd. Sans
Vansa. Vern. Bans, Beng. Hind. The siliceous concretion found in the joints of the female bamboo is called Bansa rochana in Sanskrit, and is described as sweet, cooling, tonic, aphrodisiac and u...
-Cynodon Dactylon, Pers. Sans
Durv. Vern. Burba, Beng. Dub, Hind. This elegant and most valuable grass, like many other useful vegetables, has a niche in the temple of the Hindu religion. Medicinally the fresh juice of th...
-Products Of Fermenation And Distillation
Wines And Spirits. All fermented and distilled liquors causing intoxication, are called Madya or Madird in Sanskrit. The following varieties are mentioned by the later writers. Mddhika, or sp...
-Part III. Animal Materia Medica. The Leech
Leeches have been employed by the Hindus from a very remote period. Susruta gives a detailed account of their varieties habits, mode of application, etc. His account of leeches has been translated in ...
-Lac. Sans
Lksh Vern. Lkh, Hind. Gl, Beng. The lac insect (Coccus lacca), has been known to the Hindus from a very ancient period. The Butea frondosa is called Lksh t...
-Honey And Wax. Sans
Madhu, Makshika.. Vern. Madhu, Beng. Shahad. Hind. Eight sorts of honey are described by Susruta, namely : 1. Mkshika or the honey collected by the common bee called madhumakshika. 2. B...
-Serpent Poison. Sans
Sarpavisha, Garala. Serpent poison has been used in Hindu Medicine since a very recent period only. Even the Bhvaprkasa which is not more than three centuries old does not mention it...
-Musk. Sans
Mriganbhi, Kasturi. The Bhavaprakasa describes three varieties of musk, namely, Kmrupa, Nepal and Kshmira musk. Kmrupa musk is said to be of black colour and superi...
-Civet Cat. Sans
Gandha mrjra. Vern. Khtasi, Beng. The pouch of the civet cat (Viverra Zibetha, Linn.) contains an unctuous odorous secretion which is extracted and used in perfumery. The pouch tog...
-Hartshorn. Sans
Mrigasringa. The antler of the deer incinerated in closed vessels is used in painful affections of the heart, pleurodynia, sciatica and lumbago. It is given in doses of about twenty-two grains with ...
-Milk And Its Products
The properties of the milk of various animals are described in great detail by Sanskrit writers. Milk in general is considered cooling, nutritive, strengthening and vitalizing. Cow's milk is pleasant ...
-Bile. Sans
Pitta. The bile of the buffalo, wild boar, goat, peacock and rohitaka fish (Cyprinus Rohita), is used in medicine, either singly or in combination under the designation of Pancha pitta or the five ...
-Urine. Sans
Mutra. The properties of the urine of various animals, such as the cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, horse, elephant, ass, and camel are minutely described. Of these, cow's urine is much used both interna...
-Animal Flesh
In describing the properties of the flesh of various animals, Sanskrit writers divide them into two classes, namely Jngala or land, and Anupa or water animals: Animals living on land are ...
-A Glossary Of Indian Plants Mentioned In Sanskrit Medical Works With Bengali, Hindi And Latin Synonyms
Sanskrit. Vernacular. Scientific Names. Áchchhuka Ácb, B. Morinda citrifolia, Linn. and Ál, H. Morinda tinctoria, Roxb. Ádhaki Arh...
-A Glossary Of Indian Plants. Part 2
Sanskrit. Vernacular. Scientific Names. Ativisha Átis, H. B. Aconitum heterophyllum, Wall. Átmagupta Álkusi, B. Mucuna pruriens...
-A Glossary Of Indian Plants. Part 3
Sanskrit. Vernacular. Scientific Names. Dhava Dhaoya, B. H. Anogeissus latifolia, Wall. [ka Syn. Conocarpus latifolia, Roxb. Dholasamudr...
-A Glossary Of Indian Plants. Part 4
Sanskrit. Vernacular. Scientific Names. Jayanti Jayanti, B. H. Sesbania aculeata, Pers. Syn. Aeschynomene sesban, Roxb, Jayapala Ja...
-A Glossary Of Indian Plants. Part 5
Sanskrit. Vernacular. Scientific Names. Khaggara Khagra, B. A large variety of Saccharum spontaneum, Linn. Kharjura Khejur, B. Phoe...
-A Glossary Of Indian Plants. Part 6
Sanskrit. Vernacular. Scientific Names. Mandukaparni Thulkuri, B. Hydrocotyle Asiatica, Linn. Brahmamanduki,B. Manjishta Manjishta...
-A Glossary Of Indian Plants. Part 7
Sanskrit. Vernacular. Scientific Names. Parusha Phalsa, B. Grewia Asiatica, Linn. [dana Pharsa H. Pashanabhe- Hathajori, B. H, ...
-A Glossary Of Indian Plants. Part 8
Sanskrit. Vernacular. Scientific Names. Sarapunkha Sarphonka, B. H. Tephrosia purpurea, Pers. Syn. Galega purpurea, Linn. Sariva Sy...
-A Glossary Of Indian Plants. Part 9
Sanskrit. Vebnacular. Scientific Names. Tila Til, B. H. Sesamum Indicum, Linn. Syn. S. orientale, Linn. Tindisa Dheras, B. Hib...
-Nidana: A Sanskrit System Of Pathology. Translated Into Bengali
By Udoy Chand Dutt, Civil Medical Officer. ...
-Extracts From Reviews
Nidana is a Sanskrit treatise on Hindu Medicine, compiled by Madhub Kur, a Sudra, who lived many hundred years ago. It was intended for the benefit of the ordinary class of students, who, for certain...







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