books



previous page: The Materia Medica Of The Hindus | by Udoy Chand Dutt
  
page up: Materia Medica Books
  
next page: A Practical Treatise On Materia Medica And Therapeutics | by Roberts Bartholow

Materia Medica: Pharmacology: Therapeutics: Prescription Writing For Students and Practitioners | by Walter A. Bastedo



This book is an adaptation, for the most part, of lectures delivered at Columbia University. In its preparation I have kept in mind that the physician's reason for the study of remedies is the "treatment of the sick"; and I have laid most stress upon those things that bear on practice, even to the exclusion of some matters of great interest in pharmacology.

TitleMateria Medica: Pharmacology: Therapeutics Prescription Writing For Students and Practitioners
AuthorWalter A. Bastedo
PublisherW. B. Saunders Company
Year1918
Copyright1918, W. B. Saunders Company
AmazonMateria Medica: Pharmacology: Therapeutics: Prescription Writing for Students and Practitioners

Materia Medica: Pharmacology: Therapeutics Prescription Writing

For Students And Practitioners

By Walter A. Bastedo, Ph.G., M.D. Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine, Columbia University; Associate Attending Physician. St. Luke's Hospital, New York; Attending Physician, City Hospital, New York; Consulting Physician, St. Vincent's Hospital, Staten Island; Consulting Gastro-enterologist, Staten Island Hospital; Fifth Vice-President, United States Pharma-copoeial Convention; formerly Curator of the New York Botanical Garden

Second Edition, Reset

Philadelphia And London

W. B. Saunders Company

Copyright, 1913, by W. B. Saunders Company.

Reprinted February, 1914, May, 1914, May, 1915, and September, 1916. Revised, entirely reset, reprinted, and recopyrighted

January, 1918

Copyright, 1918, by W. B. Saunders Company

Reprinted May, 1918

The Use In This Volume Of Certain Portions Of The Text Of The United States Pharmacopoeia Is By Virtue Of Permission Received From The Board Of Trustees Of The United States Pharmacopoeial Convention. The Said Board Of Trustees Is Not Responsible For Any Inaccuracy Of Quotation Nor For Any Errors In The Statement Of Quantities Or Percentage Strengths.

Printed In America

Press Of W. B. Saunders Company Philadelphia

Dedicated To Professor Henry Burd Rusby, Botanist, Pharmacognosist, And Dean Of The Faculty Of The New York College Of Pharmacy (Columbia University)

Dear Doctor Rusby:

Will you do me the honor to accept this dedication as a token of appreciation of your high ideals and of your indefatigable efforts in the cause of pure drugs, and as an expression of my great personal debt to you, my earliest and latest preceptor in the field of "materia medica"?

Sincerely yours,

Walter A. Bastedo

-Preface To The Second Edition
In addition to bringing the book into conformity with the Ninth Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, there has been a thorough revision throughout. The ...
-Preface
This book is an adaptation, for the most part, of lectures delivered at Columbia University. In its preparation I have kept in mind that the physician's reason ...
-Part I. Introduction
Medicine sometimes cures, it often relieves, it always consoles The physician's calling has arisen from the needs of the sick, a person who is ill desiring the ...
-Materia Medica
Drug remedies are known collectively as the materia medica, or medical materials. The science which deals with the properties of drugs is called materia medica ...
-The Constituents Of Organic Drugs
These may be classified into: 1. The Active Constituents. 2. The Inert Constituents. The latter are the cellulose, wood, and other structural parts of the drug, ...
-1. Plant Acids And Their Salts
The citric acid of lemons, the tartaric acid of grapes, benzoic, cinnamic, salicylic, tannic acid, and some of their salts are of interest pharmacologically.
-2. Alkaloids
These are a class of organic bodies of alkaline reaction, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, and sometimes other elements. The class includes a great ...
-3. Neutral Principles
Besides acid and basic substances, plants furnish a large number of proximate principles which are chemically neutral. Their names end in in (Latin, inum), in ...
-4. Toxalbumins Or Toxins
An extensive class of poisonous compounds, probably protein, of which some occur in plants, some constitute the poisonous products of bacteria, and some are ...
-5. The Ferments Or Enzymes
The enzymes are a class of bodies capable of instituting chemic changes without apparently entering into the reaction or forming a part of the end-products.
-6. The Sugars, Starches, And Gums
These are carbohydrates of very slight pharmacologic action and of little importance as remedies, but of importance in dietetics and the arts. Cane-sugar or ...
-7. The Tannins Or Tannic Acids
These are a class of imperfectly defined astringent bodies of the aromatic group. They are all acids which form salts, and some of them are glucosidal in ...
-8. The Fixed Oils, Fats, And Waxes
(a) The fixed oils and fats are mixtures of the three bodies, olein (liquid), palmitin (semisolid), and stearin (solid), or close relatives of these, and in ...
-Soaps
The soluble or detergent soaps are prepared by the action of an alkali upon a fat or oil, the potash soaps being soft, and those of soda being hard. They ...
-Lipoids Or Fat Allies
Those of interest to us are lecithin and cholesterol. Lecithin is found in certain animal tissues, especially the central nervous system and the yolk of egg.
-9. The Volatile Oils
These are the substances to which many plants owe their characteristic or essential odors. On this account they are often spoken of as essential oils, or as ...
-Pharmaceutic Preparations
The chemicals and the various mineral, plant, or animal crude drugs may be employed in medicine as such without change, e. g., sodium bicarbonate or cod-liver ...
-Definitions Of The Kinds Of Pharmaceutic Preparations In Common Use. Aqueous Liquids
I. Water (Aqua) A weak aqueous solution of one or more volatile substances (e. g., peppermint or cinnamon water, chlorine water). 2. Solution (Liquor) An ...
-Alcoholic Liquids
I. Fluidextract (Fluidextractum) An alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic liquid preparation made by extraction, and representing the drug volume for weight; i. e., I c.
-Miscellaneous Liquids
I. Vinegar (Aceturn) Made like a tincture, but with diluted acetic acid as the menstruum (the vinegar of squill is the only one oflicial). 2. Emulsion (Emulsum) ...
-Solids And Semisolids
I. Extract (Extractum) A preparation of dry or plastic consistence, made by extracting a drug with a solvent, and then removing the solvent by evaporation. An ...
-Weights And Measures
In the metric system the liter is a unit of capacity equivalent to the volume occupied by the mass of 1 kilogram of pure water at its maximum density. It is ...
-Active Principles And Assay Processes
As might be expected from the different conditions under which plants grow, the different methods of collecting, drying, and preserving drugs, the effects of ...
-The Pharmacopoeia
The Pharmacopoeia is a book which defines and standardizes certain drugs and their preparations. Its aim is to establish definiteness for a selected number of ...
-Dosage
When we say the dose of a drug, we mean the therapeutic dose for an adult, i. e., the amount ordinarily required to produce a medicinal effect. The ...
-Factors Which Modify The Dose
It must be apparent that the ordinary average adult dose is not the dose for every one under all circumstances. Some of the factors modifying the dose are: 1.
-Factors Which Modify The Dose. Continued
7. The Nature Of The Disease In great pain, as in peritonitis, morphine may be borne in doses that would ordinarily be poisonous. On the other hand, in ...
-The Ways In Which Drugs May Be Administered For Systemic And Remote Local Effect
A. By mouth A. By mouth, the usual way, the drug being swallowed and absorbed into the sytem from the alimentary tract. B. Subcutaneously (hypodermatically) B.
-The Time Of Administration
This is of some importance, e. g., the saline cathartics act most rapidly after a period of fasting, so are usually administered before breakfast. Irritant ...
-Sites And Modes Of Action Of Drugs
Drugs may act as such: 1. Independently of the human body, as antiseptics on microorganisms in disinfection. 2. In or about the human body, but not on its ...
-Synergists And Antagonists
As might be surmised, the same dose of a drug will exert its usual form of activity more easily if given with other drugs of the same class; and sometimes a ...
-Scientific And Empiric Therapeutics - Animal Experimentation
Besides the constituents, the preparations, and the pharmacology of a drug, we are to learn its therapeutics, and we might ask how have our drugs come to have ...
-The Scope Of Treatment
Treatment may be described as either specific, symptomatic, or expectant. Specific treatment is that in which a remedy directly attacks the causative factors ...
-How Much Shall We Learn About Drugs?
The subject of the materia medica is an extensive one, and the text-books contain many things that the physician does not need to know. He need not learn the ...
-The Pharmacologic Action
In this extensive field almost any kind of aide-memoire will be of value. It will, therefore, be our general plan to take up in natural succession the actions ...
-Part II. Individual Remedies
Since any or all actions of a drug, whether desirable or undesirable, may result from its administration, the proper use of the drug requires a knowledge of ...
-Protectives. A. Demulcents And Emollients
These are agents which are soothing and softening to epithelial tissues. Their action is essentially physical or mechanical, and is purely local. Those for ...
-B. Mechanical Applications
These are for local application, and act as protectives in a purely mechanical way. Such are: collodion, adhesive plaster, liquid glass (solution of sodium ...
-Sweetening Agents
These are glycerin, cane-sugar, syrup, saccharin and extract of malt.
-Saccharin
Benzosulphinide (saccharin, gluside, C6H4So2.Conh) is an acid anhydride soluble in 290 parts of water and 31 of alcohol. Sodium-benzosulphinide (sodium- ...
-Nutrients
From a pharmacologic point of view, the substances coming under this head are sugar, gelatin, cod liver oil, olive oil, and extract of malt.
-Sugar - Glucose
Sugar is official in three forms, viz., cane-sugar (saccharum), milk-sugar (saccharum lactis) and dextrose or glucose (glucosum). A saturated solution of cane- ...
-Cane-Sugar
Locally, powdered cane-sugar has been used in dry form as an application to ulcers and infected wounds. It seems to promote osmosis, to dissolve fibrin and to ...
-Gelatin
Gelatin (gelatinum) is obtained by acting with boiling water upon certain animal tissues, as the skin, ligaments, and bones, and allowing the solution to dry ...
-Cod-Liver Oil (Oleum Morrhuae)
This is a fixed oil, obtained from the fresh livers of Gadus morrhua, and of other species of Gadus. It contains faint traces of iodine and bromine and ...
-Extract Of Malt (Extractum Malti)
This is a liquid extract of malted barley. It is of the consistence of thick honey, is sweet, and represents a large percentage of carbohydrate nutritive ...
-Counterirritants
These are remedies which, by irritation of the skin, are intended to counter or check deeper-lying affections. Counter-irritation is a very old method of ...
-Counterirritants. Continued
That counterirritation may act in other ways is also possible, for it is well known to every one that pain in a sensitive place results in a diminished sense ...
-Caustics (Escharotics)
These are substances which act by causing the death of tissue They may destroy by consuming the tissue, as in the case of sulphuric acid, or by precipitating ...
-Scarlet Red
Scarlet red is a name given to several different dye-stuffs, but that recommended for medicinal use is toluol-azotoluol-azobeta-naphthol. It is known as ...
-Thiosinamine - Fibrolysin
Thiosinamine, or allyl sulphocarbamide, is soluble in 3 parts of alcohol. It is decomposed by water, though this change is retarded by glycerin. Fibrolysin is ...
-Chrysarobin
Chrysarobin is a neutral principle extracted from Goa powder, a substance found deposited in clefts or cavities of the wood of the araroba tree of Brazil. It ...
-The Digestive Ferments. Pepsin
Pepsin (pepsinum) is an enzyme usually obtained from the fresh mucous membrane of the hog's stomach. It is almost entirely soluble in 50 parts of water, and ...
-Pancreatin
Pancreatin (pancreatinum) is usually obtained from the fresh pancreas of the hog or ox. It contains the specific ferments of the pancreas, and represents its ...
-Rennin (Rennet)
Rennin is not a digestant, but is the milk-coagulating ferment of the gastric juice. It is obtained from the mucous membrane of the fourth stomach of the calf.
-Diastase
Diastase is the starch-digesting agent of barley malt, changing hydrolized or cooked starch to dextrin and maltose. It has also some power to hydrolyze raw ...
-The Inorganic Acids
The inorganic acids in common use for their acidity are hydrochloric, phosphoric, and sulphuric. Their dose is 5 minims (0.3 c.c.) well diluted. Each has an ...
-The Organic Acids
Citric acid (acidum citricum, H3C6H5O7) occurs in large quantities in fruits of the citrus family, the lemon, orange, lime, and grape-fruit; and in milk to the ...
-Fruit Acids
The acids in fruits are chiefly acetic, malic, citric, tartaric, oxalic, and in some instances salicylic and boric. Malic acid and malates occur in apples, ...
-Antacids
The therapeutically employed antacids are certain salts of the alkalies, potassium, sodium, lithium, and ammonium, and certain salts of the alkaline earths, ...
-Potassium, Sodium, And Lithium
The official mild alkaline salts of these ions are: Potassium bicarbonate (Khco3), soluble in 3 parts of water. Potassium carbonate (K2Co3), salts of tartar, ...
-Potassium
Since potassium chloride in the blood, in amounts above 1:10,000 slows and weakens the heart and retards the activity of other muscles, the potassium ion has ...
-Lithium
Since the lithium salts of uric acid are more soluble than the corresponding sodium salts, lithium has been favored as the alkali in gout and the uric-acid ...
-Sodium
Even sodium chloride is poisonous under certain circumstances, and Jacques Loeb believes that the function of potassium and calcium salts in the blood and in ...
-Alimentary Tract
Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acids and dissolves mucus. According to Pawlow (1897), it tends to inhibit salivary, gastric, and pancreatic secretion. But in ...
-Magnesium
The magnesium antacids are the oxide, the hydroxide, and the carbonate. Magnesium perhydrol is the magnesium peroxide. The magnesium oxide (magnesii oxidum) of ...
-Calcium
Preparations The mildly alkaline salts are the carbonate and the hydroxide. The carbonate is insoluble in water. The salts for systemic action are the chloride ...
-The Antacids Not Of Alkaline Reaction
These do not neutralize acids, so are not locally antacid; but in the blood and tissues they break down into alkaline carbonates, and as the Co2 is exhaled ...
-Carminatives
A carminative is a remedy which tends to overcome flatulency, that is, distention of the stomach or colon with gas. The aromatics, which depend for their ...
-Carminatives. Continued
Therapeutics A number of carminative drugs have other striking actions for which they are of importance in therapeutics, and these we shall study in detail ...
-Bitters
These are substances that are employed to give a bitter taste, the object of their administration being to improve the appetite. When the appetite is below ...
-Anti-Bitters
There are two vegetable substances that possess the peculiar property of abolishing the appreciation of bitter taste. They are yerba santa (eriodictyon), a ...
-Charcoal
Animal charcoal (carbo animalis) is prepared from bones, and 85 per cent. of it consists of mineral matter. It is called bone-black. Purified animal charcoal ...
-Kaolin - Fullers' Earth
These are silicates with powerful adsorptive properties. They have been employed locally as applications to wounds and infected mucous membranes, especially in ...
-Emetics
These are drugs employed to induce vomiting. To produce emesis requires the coordination of several mechanisms, the following actions being necessary: viz., ...
-Antemetics
These are remedies designed to check nausea and vomiting In the treatment of nausea and vomiting the recumbent position should be maintained. The antemetics ...
-Astringents
These are drugs which tend to shrink mucous membranes or raw tissues. Astringents produce their effects: (1) by constriction of arterioles, as epinephrine and ...
-Tannic Acid Or Tannin (Acidum Tannicum)
This substance is prepared from nutgalls. It is slowly but completely soluble in less than its own weight of water or alcohol, and, with the aid of heat, in ...
-Anthelmintics
An anthelmintic is a remedy designed to promote the death or expulsion of intestinal worms. Most of the remedies are also toxic to man, and since the ...
-Oil Of Chenopodium
Since 1915 much has been written about the great efficacy of this remedy in hookworm disease, and it has been reported of fair value for pin-worms, roundworms, ...
-Cathartics
A cathartic is a measure designed to promote defecation. Such a remedy may be employed - (1) In cases of constipation; (2) for the removal of irritating or ...
-The Cecum And Colon
These form a great reservoir along which the contents are passed very slowly, and probably in a manner different from that in the small intestines. In the ...
-Cathartic Measures
Cathartic measures are laxative when employed to produce soft stools of about normal frequency, and purgative when em-ployed to produce copious soft or liquid ...
-C. The Irritants
In Class C we have a large and valued list of cathartics, and these may be subdivided for convenience of study into several small groups. These are.: (a) Bile ...
-(A) Bile And Bile Salts
(A) Bile And Bile Salts The bile salts are sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate. They hold lecithin and cholesterol in solution in the bile, and serve ...
-(B) The Fixed Oils, Soaps, And Glycerin
1. Olive oil (oleum olivae) is essentially a nutritive and digestible fat. However, in amounts of one or two tablespoonfuls it may have a mildly laxative ...
-(C) The Cathartic Mercurials
Calomel (hydrargyri chloridum mite), the mild chloride of mercury, HgCl, is a bland or unirritating heavy powder, completely insoluble in water. It has few ...
-(D) The Anthracene Derivatives
The drugs of this class are the chemicals, phenolphthalein and other phthaleins, and the vegetable drugs, aloes, frangula, cas-cara, rhubarb, and senna. These ...
-(E) The Drastics
These are so named because their action is harsh. In overdoses they tend to produce violent inflammations. Their active principles are chiefly resinous ...
-D. Saline Cathartics
The saline cathartics are certain salts of sodium, potassium, and magnesium. In the study of salts it has been found that their power of penetrating animal ...
-D. Saline Cathartics. Continued
On the other hand, a theory propounded by Aubert (1852), that the salts had to be absorbed in order to act on the intestine, received some corroboration by the ...
-Rectal Treatment
Enemata, or rectal injections, may be for cathartic, nutritive, or cleansing purposes, or they may be employed to supply liquid to the body, to cause the ...
-Anti-Diarrheics
Diarrhea has so many causes that remedies of entirely different action may be required in the different types. In fermentative diarrhea castor oil may be ...
-Mineral Waters
A mineral water is a natural water containing one or more ingredients different from, or in greater quantity than, those in ordinary drinking or washing water.
-Remedies Whose Chief Action Is Upon The Circulation
(a) General circulatory stimulants. (b) Measures to increase the volume of the blood. (c) Cardiac depressants. (d) Arterial dilators. (e) Measures to lessen ...
-The Physiology Of The Circulation
The following is a brief review from a pharmacologic standpoint: The circulatory organs are for the purpose of carrying certain materials to and from the ...
-The Heart
The activities of the heart depend upon a number of things, viz., the strength of contraction (contractility), the tone of the muscle, the recuperative power, ...
-Coronary Circulation
Other things being equal, slowing of the heart means improved supply of coronary blood, resulting in better nutrition and better recuperative power. It has ...
-The Vessels
The Arteries Changes in the caliber of the arterioles may be local, affecting the blood-supply of only one or two organs, or may be general, affecting general ...
-Arterial Pressure
The gross factors which go to maintain arterial pressure are four in number, viz., the arteriole or peripheral resistance, the heart's output in a given time, ...
-The Pulmonary Circulation
The pulmonary arteries have no vasoconstrictor nerves, but maintain an intrinsic muscular tone of moderate degree. They transmit just as much blood as the ...
-Compensation
A term much employed in connection with disturbances of the circulation is compensation, which refers to the ability of the heart to maintain arterial pressure ...
-The General Circulatory Stimulants
Besides drugs, various remedial measures are adopted in the treatment of failing circulation, such as rest in bed, light, non-fermenting diet with restriction ...
-Digitalis
Digitalis (Lat, digitalis), or foxglove, is the dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea (Fam. Scrophulariaceae). It is an ornamental flower of the gardens, grows ...
-Digitalis Allies
There are some other drugs with effects of the digitalis kind, and the whole group is known as the digitalis group, or the digitalis series. The members of the ...
-Digitalis Allies. Continued
Pharmacologic Action Local Action Digitalis has no effect on the unbroken skin, but to mucous membranes and subcutaneous tissues is irritant. When administered ...
-A. The Sinus Node
This is believed to be the normal controller or pacemaker of the rate of the heart. From it impulses are given to the auricles at more or less regular ...
-Arhythmia
Another effect of digitalis upon the sinus node is to change its rhythmic projection of impulses, so that the heart-rate shows regularly alternating short ...
-B. The Cardiac Muscle
The striking properties of the heart muscle, as viewed pharmacologically, are tonicity, contractility, irritability, and stimulus production. 1. Contractility ...
-C. The Auriculoventricular Bundle
The function of this bundle is to conduct impulses from the auricle to the ventricle, so that normally the ventricular beat follows that of the auricle in ...
-D. Digitalis Combined Effects
In cases with auricular fibrillation already established from disease the combined effects on irritability and conduction are strikingly to be observed after ...
-E. The Coronary Arteries
(a) Constriction of the coronary arteries is a real digitalis effect, as shown by perfusion experiments. In the coronaries of young rabbits a solution of 1: 20, ...
-F. The Systemic Arteries
Besides its effect upon the structures of the heart, digitalis in the laboratory may produce another effect on the circulatory organs, viz., contraction of the ...
-The Pulmonary Arteries
These tend to be contracted, though the extent or the significance of this effect is not known. The Cutaneous Arteries. - The arteries of the face and neck ...
-Kidneys
The cardiac effects of digitalis extend further and may be seen in the action of the kidneys. With an unobstructed ureter a normal kidney will secrete more ...
-Value Of Digitalis
We might sum up the theoretically valuable effects of digitalis in a failing circulation as follows: 1. On the heart: (a) Slowing, (b) Increased contractility, ...
-The Digitalis Allies
Strophanthus would seem to be absorbed from the alimentary tract with less rapidity and more uncertainty than digitalis (Hatcher). It is at least 50 times as ...
-Toxicology
1. Poisoning From An Overwhelming Dose As of 1 mg. of strophanthin per kilo intravenously in a dog, produces a regular sequence of effects in four well-defined ...
-Manifestations Of Overdosage Of Digitalis
I. Subjective Manifestations: a. Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. b. Oppression about heart, palpitation, tachycardia, consciousness of premature ...
-Manifestations Of Overdosage Of Digitalis. Part 2
Heart-Block In incipient or partial heart-block digitalis is contraindicated, for it tends to increase the degree of block. In complete block it has been ...
-Manifestations Of Overdosage Of Digitalis. Part 3
Use As Determined By Rhythm And Rate The rhythm serves merely to determine the functional condition. The most met with rhythms, with their probable ...
-Manifestations Of Overdosage Of Digitalis. Part 4
In mitral stenosis the mitral orifice is narrowed by thickening of the valves or their adherence together so as to obstruct the filling of the ventricle from ...
-Epinephrine
Epinephrine, more familiarly known by the proprietary name adrenaline, is an animal alkaloid or leukomain obtained from the medullary portion of the suprarenal ...
-Epinephrine. Part 2
Fig. 25. - Adrenaline chloride solution. At a, 2 c.c. subcutaneously. No effect on blood-pressure. At b, 2 c.c. deep in thigh muscles. At c, 0.1 c.c. by vein; ...
-Epinephrine. Part 3
From quickly repeated large doses the very great constriction of the arteries may result in failure of the left ventricle with dilatation and weakness, at a ...
-Epinephrine. Part 4
Secretion The sweat, tears, saliva, bile, and mucus are increased by stimulation of the sympathetic nerve-endings in the glands. Glands There is a distinct ...
-Pituitary Extract
Pituitary extract (hypophysis sicca, desiccated hypophysis) consists of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland of cattle, cleaned, dried, and powdered. Dose, ...
-Pituitary Extract. Continued
Subcutaneous injections tend to inhibit the flow of saliva and pancreatic juice. Weed and Cushing found an increase in the rate of production of cerebrospinal ...
-Barium
The common soluble salts of barium {barium) are the chloride and the nitrate, dose, 1 grain (0.06 gm.). They are little employed except in pharmacologic ...
-Camphor
Camphor (camphora, ae) is a stearopten, C9H16CO, which is chemically a ketone. It is made synthetically or is obtained by boiling the twigs and wood of ...
-Camphor. Continued
Heard and Brooks (1913) tested camphor on human beings. In 5 cases with normal circulation a hypodermatic of camphor, 20 grains (1.3 gm.) in oil, showed in ...
-Ammonium
The ammonium radicle (Nh4) is of dual nature, for, on the one hand, it is strongly alkaline and forms salts homologous with those of the alkali metals, K, Na, ...
-Ammonium. Part 2
It is evident, then, that the liver is an important factor in the disposal of ammonia, and that if the liver is functionating properly, it can effectually ...
-Ammonium. Part 3
Therapeutics And Administration 1. As a counterirritant - ammonia liniment or ammonia water. As a blistering-agent to the gums - ammonia water. 2. As a rapid ...
-Mechanical Measures For Raising Arterial Pressure
In hemorrhage or collapse, the immediate indication is to restore the circulation of the brain centers, particularly of the vasoconstrictor and respiratory; so ...
-Measures For Increasing The Volume Of The Blood In The Arteries
These are - (1) The transfusion of blood; and (2) the administration of saline solution (by intravenous infusion, by hypo-dermoclysis, or by rectal injection).
-How To Increase The Volume Of The Blood In The Arteries. Part 2
To understand the effects of saline solutions in the body we must know what is meant by the physiologic terms filtration, diffusion, and osmosis, and the ...
-To Increase The Volume Of The Blood In The Arteries. Part 3
Therapeutics 1. In hemorrhage - to restore the blood volume to normal and thus permit the maintenance of arterial pressure. Probably not over 1200 c.c. should ...
-Increasing The Volume Of The Blood In The Arteries. Part 4
Circulation After a very brief period of increased activity from accelerator stimulation, the heart becomes slowed through prolongation of the diastolic pause, ...
-Veratrum
The dried rhizome and roots of Veratrum viride, American hellebore, (Fam. Liliaceae), a tall coarse herb of wet regions, growing in all parts of North America.
-Nitrites
The pharmacologic group of nitrites includes the nitrites of amyl, ethyl, and sodium, and, in addition, certain drugs which are not nitrites, but yield ...
-Nitrites. Part 2
The veins are also somewhat relaxed, but this has not been shown to have any therapeutic importance. The Heart On the isolated heart ordinary doses have no ...
-Nitrites. Part 3
Medulla The respiratory center is somewhat stimulated. The vagus center is depressed. Eye Besides the temporary blurring of the sight, which is due, perhaps, ...
-Nitrites. Part 4
Action It has the effect of lessening the systemic venous congestion and the plethora which exists in a stagnant circulation. In conditions of circulatory ...
-Nitrites. Part 5
Shock And Collapse Following severe trauma or a surgical operation, there develops at times a condition of pronounced muscular relaxation, with rapid, weak ...
-Remedies Whose Chief Action Is Upon The Central Nervous System
a. The stimulants. b. The depressants. Those which stimulate the central nervous system are: caffeine, strychnine, atropine, and cocaine. Central Nervous ...
-Caffeine
Trimethylxanthine, or caffeine, is a feebly basic alkaloidal body usually prepared from damaged tea-leaves. It is found in plants growing in different parts of ...
-Caffeine. Part 2
Medulla Caffeine stimulates strongly the respiratory center, and slightly the vasoconstrictor and the vagus centers. Spinal Cord Caffeine stimulates the motor ...
-Caffeine. Part 3
Caffeine as a circulatory stimulant is, therefore, purely an emergency drug, and not one to be used repeatedly. It can in no sense do the work of digitalis. We ...
-Caffeine. Part 4
Fig. 35. - Dog after vascular nephritis produced by arsenic: a, Before caffeine; b, eight minutes after caffeine; c, twenty-two minutes after caffeine. I, ...
-Caffeine Allies
Theobromine, occurring in chocolate to the extent of 0.3 to 2 per cent., and theophylline, which occurs in minute quantities in tea leaves, but is manufactured ...
-Theobromine And Caffeine Beverages
The ones that are in more or less universal use among civilized people are coffee, tea, and chocolate. Most of our coffee comes from Brazil, our tea from Japan, ...
-Nux Vomica
Nux vomica is the dried ripe seed of Strychnos Nux vomica (Fam. Loganiaceae), yielding, when assayed, not less than 2.5 per cent. of alkaloids. It is native in ...
-Nux Vomica. Part 2
3. Claude Bernard's Experiment Cut the posterior nerve-roots to prevent afferent impulses from getting to the cord, strychnize the frog, and no convulsions ...
-Nux Vomica. Part 3
A. B. Fig. 36. - Kolliker's schema to show the reflex arc. A shows the posterior root-fiber (black) dividing and spreading up and down the cord, and connecting ...
-Nux Vomica. Part 4
To test strychnine clinically, Cook and Briggs injected 1/60 to 1/10 grain (0.001-0.006 gm.). In persons ill enough to be in bed, they obtained a slow rise of ...
-Nux Vomica. Part 5
The convulsion is at first tonic, that is, the contraction is continuous, making the muscle rigid; it then changes to clonic, i. e., rhythmic intermittent ...
-Nux Vomica. Part 6
In nervous disease strychnine is extensively employed, but its use requires careful discrimination. Its application is as follows: (a) In the postoperative ...
-Remedies Which Depress The Central Nervous System. Narcotics
As the remedies which depress the central nervous system regularly depress the cerebrum, they are known generally as narcotics, a narcotic being a remedy which ...
-General Anesthetics
The ones in common use are: Ether, chloroform, nitrous oxide, ethyl chloride, and magnesium sulphate. As ether and chloroform have uses in therapeutics which ...
-Ether
Ether, or ethyl oxide, (C2H5)2O, is obtained by distilling a mixture of sulphuric acid and alcohol. It is a very volatile, light, colorless, limpid liquid, ...
-Ether. Continued
After absorption it acts as a direct cerebral depressant or sedative, depressing the intellectual centers and the motor areas. Hence small amounts may be ...
-Chloroform
Chloroform (chloroformum), Chc13, is a non-inflammable, volatile liquid, which is about 1 1/2 times as heavy as water, boils at 141 F., and has a burning, ...
-Ether And Chloroform As General Anesthetics
When one of these drugs is administered in sufficient amount to put the patient into a state of coma, with muscular relaxation and the abolition of nearly all ...
-Ether And Chloroform As General Anesthetics. Continued
The third stage is that of stupor, i. e., unconsciousness from which one can be aroused only with difficulty. The pupils are contracted as in sleep, the heart ...
-Indication For Ether As General Anesthetic
Ether, especially with proper preventive precautions, is preferred to chloroform in almost all cases, including those with heart or kidney disease. It is not ...
-Chloroform Anesthesia
In the production of anesthesia by chloroform there are four stages, as in ether anesthesia, and the symptoms are the same in nature. But chloroform, properly ...
-Chloroform Anesthesia. Continued
The Third Danger In the last few years a great many cases have been reported in which the patient, after apparently recovering from chloroform, would pass in a ...
-Rectal Or Colonic Anesthesia
Ether is sometimes given by rectum, the bowel being thoroughly cleansed beforehand. It may be given with oxygen or oil as the diluent. The opportunity for free ...
-Intravenous General Anesthesia
The intravenous route was early tried with chloroform and was given up as too dangerous. Then Burkhardt in 1911 used ether, 5 per cent. in normal saline at 82.
-Anesthesia By Intratracheal Insufflation
In 1909 Meltzer and Auer, working with dogs, found that the ventilation of the alveolar air could be accomplished, and that an animal could be kept alive and ...
-Treatment Of Untoward Symptoms In General Anesthesia
(A) Cyanosis If this is due to excessive secretion or the falling back of the tongue or jaw, or falling of the paralyzed epiglottis so as to act as a valve ...
-Nitrogen Monoxide (Nitrous Oxide)
Nitrous oxide, N20, or laughing-gas, is obtained by heating a mixture of salts containing ammonium nitrate. It is marketed under compression in steel cylinders, ...
-Ethyl Chloride
Ethyl chloride (aethylis chloridum), C2H5C1, is a highly volatile and inflammable gas, prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid upon absolute alcohol. It ...
-Magnesium Sulphate (Epsom Salt)
In 1899 Meltzer noted paralysis in a rabbit from the intracerebral injection of magnesium sulphate, and in 1905 was joined by Auer in an investigation of this ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol
Common alcohol, grain-alcohol, ethyl alcohol, C2H5(OH), is made by fermenting a sugar solution with yeast in the presence of nitrogenous substances. The sugar ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 2. Alcoholic Drinks
The alcoholic drinks in common use are of five classes: 1. The malt liquors. 2. The red and white wines. 3. The fortified wines. 4. The distilled liquors, or ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 3. Alcoholic Drinks
The following table of percentages, calculated to volume from Hutchinson's report, gives an idea of their alcohol and sugar contefit: Alcohol Cane-sugar ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 4
There are two official elixirs: Elixir aromaticum, aromatic elixir (compound spirit of orange, 1.2; syrup, 37.5; alcohol, about 25 per cent., and water to make ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 5
2. Action On The Structures Of The Stomach-Wall As it cannot evaporate from the stomach, alcohol dilates the vessels and gives a feeling of warmth in the ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 6
Summary of the Effects upon the Stomach and its Functions: 1. In so far as they stimulate the appetite, alcoholic beverages induce a psychic secretion of ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 7
Nervous System As alcohol is an ethyl compound, C2H5OH, with a close relation to ether, (C2H5)2O, it is not surprising to find that the alcohol effect upon the ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 8
Sexuality From depression of the cerebrum the sexual desires are under much less restraint than normal, and Havelock Ellis rightly says: It is obvious that ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 9
Food Value A food may be defined as a substance whose dominant property in the body is to build up the tissues or to yield energy. Protein is our reliance for ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 10
The caloric value of alcohol is 7.1 calories per gram - i. e., one gram of alcohol is equivalent in energy-producing power to 1.75 grams of carbohydrate, or 0.
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 11
Circulation Before Absorption On the ingestion of strong alcoholic liquors there is an immediate rise in arterial pressure, the rate of the beat being ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 12
Arteries From ordinary amounts there is regularly no change in arterial pressure, but when intoxicating doses are given, there is a slow and very gradual ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 13
Elimination Von Noorden states that 1.5 to 6 per cent. is eliminated in the breath, 1 to 2 per cent. in the urine, and traces in the sweat. As we have seen ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 14
Toxicology In susceptible people even a teaspoonful of a strongly alcoholic tincture is enough to flush the face and make the head feel light. Acute Alcoholism ...
-Chronic Alcoholism
It is now quite generally considered that inebriety is a neurosis and that the alcoholic is a mental defective in some way. White says that the life history of ...
-Chronic Alcoholism. Continued
Late in the course of lobar pneumonia in persons accustomed to much alcohol there is sometimes seen a peculiar maniacal delirium verging on delirium tremens.
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 17
The Liver Mcjunkin (1917) gave 80 per cent. alcohol daily or on alternate days in intoxicating amounts to guinea-pigs, rabbits, cats and dogs; the greatest ...
-Intoxicants. Alcohol. Part 18
Preventives Leonard Hill reports that in alcohol poisoning fatty infiltration of the liver is prevented by feeding glycogen-builders, i. e., carbohydrates.
-Methyl Alcohol
Methyl alcohol, wood naphtha, or wood alcohol, Ch3oh, is not employed as a remedy, but is of interest because of the number of cases of poisoning following its ...
-Chloral Hydrate
Chloralum hydratum, or hydrated chloral, CCl3Coh+H2O, is prepared by passing chlorine gas through absolute alcohol and precipitating by water. It occurs in the ...
-Chloral Hydrate. Continued
Temperature On account of diminished activity there is lessened production of heat, and on account of the dilatation of the cutaneous vessels there is ...
-Ethylated Compounds
In experimental chemistry it has been found that the introduction of the radicle ethyl, C2H5, into an organic chemical will frequently confer upon it a ...
-Hypnotics Which May Be Used To Abolish Pain. Bromides
The bromides in common use for narcotic effect are those of potassium, sodium, and ammonium, and to a small extent those of lithium, strontium, and calcium.
-Hypnotics Which May Be Used To Abolish Pain. Bromides. Continued
Skin And Mucous Membranes Scattered acne pustules very frequently appear on the face, chest, and back; more rarely the eruption may be erythematous, urticarial, ...
-Opium
Opium is the concrete milky exudation obtained by incising the unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum (Fam. Papaveraceae), and yielding, in its normal moist ...
-Opium. Part 2
Stomach Through its central action it tends to lessen motor activity and to retard the secretion of gastric juice. Riegel, also Hirsch, asserts that after a ...
-Opium. Part 3
Fig. 45. - Record showing typical Cheyne-Stokes respiration (from a case of aortic and mitral insufficiency with arteriosclerosis). The time record gives ...
-Opium. Part 4
Spinal Cord In some of the lower mammals, e. g., the cat, there is increased activity of the reflexes, and there may be convulsions of the typical strychnine ...
-Opium. Part 5
Untoward Effects Excitement instead of quiet, an effect seen mostly in women, and common among eastern women; it is the regular effect in cats. Occasionally ...
-Opium. Part 6
Morphine Habit Chronic Poisoning Or Morphinism Opium, and its alkaloid morphine, are vicious habit-drugs, the habit being common among physicians, nurses, and ...
-Codeine
This, the methyl ester of morphine, is a weaker narcotic, and its power to allay pain and induce sleep is very much less than that of morphine. Yet where the ...
-Papaverine
Papaverine, as the hydrochloride, soluble in alcohol but not readily in water, or the sulphate, soluble in both water and alcohol, is employed locally in 2 to ...
-Di-Acetyl Morphine
Di-acetyl morphine, or heroine, of which the hydrochloride, soluble in alcohol and water, is in use, is somewhat like codeine, its powers to diminish pain and ...
-Ethyl-Morphine Hydrochloride
Ethyl-morphine hydrochloride, or dionine, is soluble in water and alcohol. In dose of 1/2 to 1 grain (0.003-0.06 gm.) it is not so sedative as its composition ...
-Cannabis
Cannabis is the dried flowering tops of the pistillate plants of Cannabis sativa (Fam. Moracece), grown in the East Indies, and gathered while the fruits are ...
-The Antihysterics (Antispasmodics)
These are all aromatic carminative drugs, but they have a tendency beyond that of other carminatives to lessen states of nervous instability and hysteria. The ...
-Drugs Which Chiefly Affect The Peripheral Nervous System
I. Those which depress the peripheral nervous system - the belladonna group, cocaine, etc. II. Those which stimulate the peripheral nervous system - pilocarpus ...
-Belladonna Group
The belladonna group includes belladonna (deadly nightshade), stramonium (jimson-weed or thornapple), and hyoscya-mus (henbane), all of which belong to the ...
-Belladonna Group. Part 2
Alimentary Tract The chief effects of the drug are to lessen secretion and overcome colic (spasmodic contraction with pain). The taste is bitter. (A) Secretion ...
-Belladonna Group. Part 3
Heart The vagus center is stimulated, but any effect from this is soon prevented by depression of the vagus nerve-endings, so that from large doses there ...
-Belladonna Group. Part 4
Eye Atropine has four important effects on the eye: It dilates the pupil, paralyzes accommodation, increases intraocular tension, and lessens pain. (A) The ...
-Belladonna Group. Part 5
Temperature In poisoning it is characteristic that the temperature may rise several degrees. The author saw a case with a temperature of 106o F. (41.1 C).
-Belladonna Group. Part 6
B. To relax over contracted smooth muscle - as in spasmodic asthma and the spasm of smooth muscle which results in colic. The latter occurs in the esophagus, ...
-Belladonna Group. Part 7
Its chief uses are: 1. As narcotic in the insomnia and excitement of acute mania, uremia, and delirium tremens, in the delirium of pneumonia (especially in ...
-Cocaine
Cocaine is an alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Erythroxy-lon coca, or of Erythroxylon truxillense (Fam. Erythroxylacea). The coca shrub is extensively ...
-Cocaine. Part 2
Spinal Analgesia To obtain spinal analgesia, 1/4 or 1/2 grain (0.015-0.03 gm.) of cocaine hydrochloride in aqueous solution is injected into the spinal canal, ...
-Cocaine. Part 3
Heart In perfusing the isolated heart the addition of cocaine does not change the rate or force of the beat, therefore neither the muscle nor the accelerator ...
-Cocaine. Part 4
Treatment Because of the marked anxiety it is of great importance to reassure the patient. In the excitement stage an ice-bag to the head and whisky or large ...
-Cocaine Substitutes
The drawbacks in the use of cocaine are: 1. Its general poisonous action. 2. The frequency of undesirable idiosyncrasy to it. 3. Its decomposition at boiling ...
-Some Other Local Anesthetics Not Used Hypodermatically
Orthoform, methyl-para-amido-meta-oxybenzoic ester, is applied as a powder to painful ulcers, or in ointment form to projecting hemorrhoids or to the vulva in ...
-Curare
Curare, containing the alkaloid curarine, is a South American arrow-poison. It is probably obtained from a species of Strych-nos, the genus to which the ...
-Conium
Conium, or poison hemlock (not hemlock ), contains the volatile liquid alkaloid, coniine. It is not official, but the fluidextract is employed, dose, 3 minims ( ...
-Gelsemium
Gelsemium, yellow jasmine, has as its active principle the alkaloid, gelseminine. The fluidextract, dose, 1 minim (0.06 c.c.), and the 10 per cent. tincture, ...
-Sparteine Sulphate
Sparteine sulphate, dose, 1 grain (0.06 gm.), is the sulphate of an alkaloid obtained from Scoparius, or broom. It slows and weakens the heart by stimulating ...
-Lobelia
Lobelia, Indian tobacco, the active principle of which is the volatile liquid alkaloid lobeline, resembles nicotine or real tobacco in its action. Its chief ...
-Tobacco (Tabacum)
Tobacco is the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum (Fam. Solanaceae), subjected to a process of fermentation to remove certain proteins and fats that would make the ...
-Tobacco (Tabacum). Part 2
Acute nicotine or pyridine poisoning is frequently seen after the first cigar, or when an unusually large quantity of tobacco is consumed in a short time. The ...
-Tobacco (Tabacum). Part 3
As a matter of fact, the cigarette fiend does not consume any more tobacco than the cigar or pipe fiend, for 10 average cigars represent the tobacco of 50 or ...
-Physostigma (Calabar Bean)
The ripe seed of Physostigma venenosum (Fam. Leguminosce), yielding, when assayed, not less than 0.15 per cent. of alkaloid soluble in ether. The plant is a ...
-Pilocarpus (Jaborandi)
The leaflets of Pilocarpus jaborandi or of Pilocarpus micro-phyllus (Fam. Rutaceae), yielding, when assayed, not less than 0.6 per cent. of alkaloids. It is a ...
-Muscarine And Mushroom Poisoning
Muscarine is an alkaloid contained in the mushroom known as the fly agaric, Amanita muscaria, and in some other agarics. Its actions are very similar to those ...
-Diaphoretics
A diaphoretic is a remedy which tends to induce profuse sweating. Profuse sweating is diaphoresis. The measures employed to produce diaphoresis are either ...
-Diaphoretics. Continued
When the surrounding medium is hotter than the body, as in these hot-bath methods, radiation and convection are abolished, and consequently the only cooling ...
-Diuretics
A diuretic is a remedy which tends to promote the flow of urine. Diuresis is copious flow of urine. The kidney is a highly vascular organ, with numerous ...
-Diuretics. Part 2
On account of these complex factors we must not forget, in treating patients, that the volume of the urine is made up of water, and that, therefore, the ...
-Diuretics. Part 3
The result in any case is diuresis, unless the molecular concentration of the plasma is decreased. For example, a hypotonic sodium chloride solution ...
-Diuretics. Part 4
To compare the various diuretics, Raphael (1894) placed him-self on a uniform diet for a long period, the daily allowance of fluid being 1180 c.c. His twenty- ...
-Antipyretics
Antipyretics are remedies which tend to reduce the temperature in fever. The reduction of temperature may be brought about by cold or by drugs. Cold Some of ...
-The Analgesic Antipyretics
The official ones are antipyrine, acetanilid, and acet-phenet-idin. Some of the quinoline derivatives, among the so-called coal-tar drugs, have been employed ...
-The Analgesic Antipyretics. Part 2
A chill is considered to be the result of surface cooling from constriction of the cutaneous arterioles, the skin being the site of the nerve-endings through ...
-The Analgesic Antipyretics. Part 3
That they act through the centers is shown by their failure to affect the temperature in health, by their failure to reduce temperature if the spinal cord is ...
-The Analgesic Antipyretics. Part 4
Untoward Effects From idiosyncrasy, antipyrine not infrequently has produced a scarlatiniform rash with edema of the face and fever; or urticaria, or a ...
-The Analgesic Antipyretics. Part 5
It is an interesting fact that various cells, under the influence of quinine, will undergo asymmetric cell division, e. g., the ova. In certain low vertebrates, ...
-The Analgesic Antipyretics. Part 6
Ear The deafness and ringing in the ears which are of such frequent occurrence seem to be due mostly to congestion, though arterial contraction and anemia of ...
-The Analgesic Antipyretics. Part 7
The treatment is: for cinchonism, bromides; for collapse, the regular treatment for collapse. Therapeutics Locally 1. Quinine and urea hydrochloride in ...
-Ethylhydrocupreine
Ethylhydrocupreine has actions and uses similar to those of quinine, but because of a specific bactericidal effect upon all forms of the pneumococcus it has ...
-Ethylhydrocupreine. Continued
Giglio found salicylate in the synovial fluid of many joints; and Fillippi and Nesti obtained it from the synovial fluid from the hip-joint of dogs one hour ...
-Salicylic Allies
Acetyl-salicylic acid, or aspirin, C6H4.O.Coch3.Cooh, of slightly sour taste and acid reaction, is soluble in 125 parts of water and freely in alcohol. It ...
-Colchicum
Though it bears no relation to salicylic acid, colchicum, because of its use in gout, may properly be mentioned here. Both the seed and the corm of Colchicum ...
-Phenyl-Cinchoninic Acid
Phenyl-cinchoninic acid, phenyl-quinoline-carboxylic acid, marketed under the proprietary name atophan, is official; dose, 8 grains (0.5 gm.). It is insoluble ...
-Disinfectants And Antiseptics
A disinfectant is an agent that has the power to destroy microbic life, i. e., it is a germicide. An antiseptic is an agent that tends to retard the growth of ...
-I. Heat And Cold
The surest disinfection of all for soiled dressings is burning. In the preparation of sterile dressings there is nothing more destructive to bacteria or more ...
-II. Oxidizers
These act by liberating oxygen, and in their action are themselves quickly destroyed. They are very inferior disinfectants, but are effective deodorizers. They ...
-III. Deoxidizers
These are the sulphite group, viz., sulphur dioxide and sulphurous acid, sodium sulphite, sodium bisulphite, and sodium thiosulphate (hyposulphite). The ...
-IV. Free Halogens And Their Compounds
Chlorine And' The Hypochlorites Chlorine gas is set free from chlorinated lime on contact with moisture, or it may be prepared by adding dilute sulphuric acid ...
-IV. Free Halogens And Their Compounds. Continued
3. At the same time dissolve, cold, in the five other liters of water the sodium carbonate and the bicarbonate. 4. Pour all at once the solution of the sodium ...
-V. Metals And Their Compounds
These combine chemically with albumin to form precipitates of metallic albuminates, which make an impenetrable pellicle. Thus the metallic salts have little ...
-VI. Miscellaneous Inorganic Compounds
Potassium nitrate (niter or saltpeter), sodium chloride, sodium borate (borax), and boric acid are employed as food preservatives, as in corned beef, ham, ...
-VII. Phenol Compounds
This group includes phenol, the sulphocarbolates, resorcinol, pyrogallol, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, salol, cinnamic acid, cresol, creosol, guaiacol, ...
-Pharmacology And Therapeutics
Europhen = Cresol iodide. Losophan = Tri-iodo cresol. The Chemical Relationships of the Phenol Group of Disinfectants. Creosote, which is an empyreumatic ...
-Phenol, Or Carbolic Acid
Phenol is made synthetically and is also obtained from coal-tar by fractional distillation. It is a crystalline substance, of faintly acid reaction, freely ...
-Phenol, Or Carbolic Acid. Continued
Excretion is by the urine. The phenol passes out partly unchanged and partly oxidized to hydroquinone and pyrocat-echin in combination as ethereal sulphates ...
-VIII. Miscellaneous Organic Compounds
Ichthyol and thiol are oily-looking sulphur compounds which are soluble in water and the oils, and not in alcohol. Ichthyol is obtained from a shale, and thiol ...
-VIII. Miscellaneous Organic Compounds. Continued
Poisoning There are a number of reported cases of poisoning from its ingestion by mouth, with intense irritation of the esophagus and stomach, vomiting, ...
-Therapeutic Classification Of Disinfectants. I. General Disinfectants And Deodorizers
(a) Used in dry form - for water-closets, sinks, and cess-pools, copperas (ferrous sulphate), naphthalin (tar balls), lime, and chlorinated lime are preferred ...
-II. Preservatives
1. Pharmaceutic - alcohol, glycerin, sugar, benzoin, aromatic oils, boric acid. 2. Foods - boric acid, borax, saltpeter (Kn03), salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, ...
-III. Disinfectants For Surgical Supplies
For utensils, surgical instruments, and dressings the best of all disinfectants is live, superheated steam at 220o to 225o F. The next best is dry heat.
-IV. Disinfectants For Local Use About The Body
1. Skin. - (a) For the patient's skin, preliminary to operation Scrubbing with soft soap and application of tincture of iodine. (B) For The Surgeon's Hands ...
-V. Disinfectants To Be Given By Mouth
For the stomach - sodium salicylate, 10 grains (0.7 gm.); resor-cinol, 10 grains (0.7 gm.); sodium sulphocarbolate, 10 grains (0.7 gm.); creosote, 5 minims (0.
-The Heavy Metals
The heavy metals, though differing markedly in some of their details of action and in their therapeutic uses, have certain pharmacologic actions in common.
-Mercury
There are many official salts and preparations of mercury (hydrargyrum), and their actions and uses are so distinct that they may well be considered separately ...
-Mercury. Part 2
For deep intramuscular injection the insoluble mercuric salicylate and the soluble bichloride, biniodide, and benzoate are the favorites. The former is ...
-Mercury. Part 3
2. Severe acute poisoning is usually due to the bichloride, either from swallowing the tablets or a solution (often with suicidal intent), or from the ...
-Lead
The lead (plumbum) salts are not much employed in medicine. Preparations (A) For External Use The acetate and sub-acetate are antiseptic and astringent and are ...
-Copper
Copper (cuprum) and its salts have a peculiarly deleterious action upon the lower forms of plant life, a mere trace in water, as from dragging bags of copper ...
-Zinc
The zinc (zincum) salts fall into two distinct classes, viz., those which are irritant locally, and those which are soothing locally. The irritant salts are ...
-Bismuth
The bismuth (bismuthum) salts commonly employed are the subcarbonate and the subnitrate, which are white, and the sub-gallate, which is yellow. Dose, 30 grains ...
-Cerium
The Official Salt Of Cerium (Cerium) Is The Oxalate, Ce2(C2o4)2 10H2O, an inert powder, insoluble in water. The commercial article is very impure. Its action ...
-Silver (Argentum)
The official salt employed is silver nitrate, a crystalline salt which is decomposed by oxidizable organic matter and light, and is soluble in less than its ...
-Aluminium (Aluminum)
Alum (alumen, aluminis) of the Pharmacopoeia is potassium alum, the double sulphate of aluminium and potassium, KAl(So4)2.12H2O, or ammonium alum, Nh4al(So4)2.
-Iron
There are many official preparations of iron (ferrum), but a knowledge of only seven or eight will give a good equipment for iron therapy. (Those made in our ...
-Manganese
Though found in the tissues in minute quantity, manganese is not essential to life, and does not form an integral part of any protein molecule. Bertrand and ...
-Arsenic (Arsenum)
Arsenic is widely distributed in nature and can be detected in many of our commonly used chemicals and even in certain chemic drugs. It is said to appear in ...
-Arsenic (Arsenum). Part 2
Alimentary Tract Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and colic are commonly seen from the use of arsenic. These effects seem to be produced after absorption, for they ...
-Arsenic (Arsenum). Part 3
Besredka injected sublethal doses in rabbits, and found that the leukocytes usually contained arsenic, but not in the cases that proved fatal. He thought the ...
-Arsenic (Arsenum). Part 4
From the arsenic treatment of chorea, G. M. Swift has seen the following: hemorrhage from stomach, hemorrhage from kidneys, conjunctivitis, neuritis, serious ...
-Arsenic (Arsenum). Part 5
Untoward Effects 1. Locally, there may be a cellulitis from leakage of the drug into the tissues, or phlebitis and thrombosis of the vein. 2. From the ...
-Antimony
The only official salt is the double tartrate of antimony and potassium, or tartar emetic, K(SbO).C4H4O6. It is soluble in 12 parts of water and insoluble in ...
-Phosphorus
Phosphorus is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, chloroform, and the oils. It is readily oxidized to phosphorous acid, which is an inert compound. It ...
-The Iodides
Preparations And Doses Iodine (iodum), 1/10 grain (0.006 gm.)- Sodium iodide, potassium iodide, 10 grains (0.7 gm.); diluted hydriodic acid, 10 per cent., 1 ...
-The Iodides. Continued
Untoward Actions Besides the local irritation of the stomach, the most frequent undesirable effects are those upon the skin and mucous membranes. 1. Skin The ...
-Thyroid Gland
Desiccated thyroid glands (thyroideum siccum) are the dried thyroids of various domestic animals, and are required by the Pharmacopoeia to contain between 0.17 ...
-Expectorants
Expectorants are remedies which facilitate the expulsion of mucus from the respiratory organs. They do this largely by increasing the fluidity or the rate of ...
-Ipecacuanha
Ipecac (ipecacuanha) is the root of Cephaelis Ipecacuanha from Brazil, and of the Carthagena ipecac, Cephaelis acuminata (Fam. Rubiacece), and it is required ...
-Emmenagogues
These are remedies which tend to bring on the menstrual flow. They are: 1. Local measures, as hot or mustard foot- or sitz-baths, hot-water bottle or ...
-Ergot
Ergot (ergota) is a fungus which replaces the grain of rye. It rapidly deteriorates and should not be more than one year old. Our supply comes from Europe.
-Ergot. Continued
Respiration After the intravenous injection of 0.001 gm. per kilo of ergotoxine, the respiratory center is depressed, as shown by slow and shallow breathing or ...
-Hydrastis
Hydrastis, or goldenseal, is the dried rhizome and roots of Hydrastis canadensis (Fam. Ranunculaceae), yielding, when assayed, not less than 2.5 per cent. of ...
-Hydrastinine Hydrochloride
This salt (hydrastinince hydrochloridum), C11H11No2.HCl, is the hydrochloride of an artificial alkaloid formed by the oxidation of hydrastine. Dose, 1/2 grain ( ...
-Carbon Monoxide
This gas (CO) becomes of interest from the frequency of its poisoning. Most of the cases result from illuminating-gas, which contains 6 to 10 per cent., and is ...
-Benzine And Gasoline
The benzine of the Pharmacopoeia has a specific gravity of 0.638-0.660 at 25 C. and is known commercially as petroleum ether. Commercial benzine has a specific ...
-Benzol
Benzol (benzene, C6H6) is a colorless, inflammable liquid, insoluble in water, soluble in 4 parts of alcohol, and freely miscible with the oils. It is a ...
-Oxygen
Oxygen gas (oxygenium) is marketed under compression in steel containers. It is regularly used by inhalation, but has also been employed subcutaneously, ...
-Part III. Prescription Writing
For three obvious reasons the writing of prescriptions is the dread of the young medical practitioner. The reasons are: (1) His fear that he may not express ...
-Liquid Prescriptions
Liquid medicines for internal use are administered by measure only, hence it is the custom to make the total quantity of the prescription such that its dose ...
-Administration Of Liquids Vehicles And Flavors
The vehicle is the diluent or solvent. It is generally employed in sufficient quantity to make the dose a readily measurable amount. A vehicle maybe - (a) non- ...
-Administration Of Solids
The regular diluent for powdered drugs dispensed in very small quantities is sugar of milk. Of drugs in tablet form, the tablet triturates are made with sugar ...
-Latin
The names of the ingredients are always written in Latin, for the following reasons: 1. Latin is a universal language, so is readable anywhere. 2. It is a dead ...
-Latin Nouns
A general rule for case-endings in the name of ingredients is: The name of the substance or the class of remedy takes the genitive ending when the quantity is ...
-Latin Adjectives
Adjectives agree in number, gender, and case with the noun which they modify. (a) Those ending in us (masculine), a (feminine), um (neuter), are of the second ...
-Other Latin Words
Besides nouns and adjectives, there are employed in the directions for the pharmacist and for the label a few special words that should be known. They are: 1.
-The Form Of A Prescription
Almost all prescriptions are of two classes, viz.: I. Material to be sent in bulk, as liquids, ointments, mixtures of powders, etc. II. Objects to be counted, ...
-Figuring The Quantities
To acquire careful habits it is wise, in writing a compound prescription, to put down the names of all the ingredients desired before inserting the quantities.
-Good Usage
In prescription writing, clearness is the important thing and Latin is the medium of expression, but certain forms have become approved, and certain modes of ...
-Abbreviations
When there can be no possible mistake in meaning, abbreviations are allowable as follows: I. Of Ingredients. - (a) In the name of the class of preparations, as ...
-I. Practice In Bulk Prescriptions
According to the forementioned rules, write out, correctly using approved abbreviations, the following prescriptions. Ascribe each prescription to some person, ...
-II. Practice In Prescriptions For Objects To Be Counted
Write for - 1. Thirty five-grain capsules of quinine sulphate. Directions: Three at time of chill, then one three times a day after eating. 2. Twenty-four ...
-Miscellaneous
Take belladonna plaster and spread it upon surgeon's adhesive plaster over a circular area 2 inches in diameter. (In this case it would be better to write the ...
-Incompatibility
Incompatibility between two substances may be said to exist when their admixture brings about physical or chemical change other than simple solution. Such a ...
-Books
Surgery And Anatomy W. B. Saunders Company West Washington Square Philadelphia 9, Henrietta Street Covent Garden, London Elsberg's Surgery of Spinal Cord ...
-Books. Part 2
Surgery: Its Principles and Practice. Written by 81 eminent specialists. Edited by W. W. Keen, M. D, LL.D., Hon. F.R.C.S., Eng. and Edin., Emeritus Professor ...
-Books. Part 3
Rudolph Mat as, M. D., Professor of Surgery, Tulane University of Louisiana. This edition is destined to rank as high as its predecessors, which have placed ...
-Books. Part 4
Moynihan's Abdominal Operations Abdominal Operations. By Sir Berkeley Moynihan, M. S. (London), F. R. C. S., of Leeds, England. Two octavos, totaling nearly ...
-Books. Part 5
Whiting's Bandaging Bandaging. By A. D. Whiting, M. D., Instructor in Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania. 12mo of 151 pages, with 117 illustrations.







TOP
previous page: The Materia Medica Of The Hindus | by Udoy Chand Dutt
  
page up: Materia Medica Books
  
next page: A Practical Treatise On Materia Medica And Therapeutics | by Roberts Bartholow