In this extensive field almost any kind of "aide-memoire" will be of value. It will, therefore, be our general plan to take up in natural succession the actions of each drug as follows: first, its action independently of the body, then its local action, its absorption into the system, its systemic action, its elimination from or disposal by the body, and finally its action (remote local) as it is being excreted. Such a scheme in detail is illustrated in the following chart:

A. On microorganisms and enzymes - action away from the body, e. g., antiseptic action.

B. Local action -

1. On skin and adjacent mucous membranes - nose, throat, eye, vagina, rectum, urethra, bladder.

The Pharmacologic Action 7

2. On alimentary tract:

Mouth - taste, appetite, saliva, astringency.

Stomach on contents - acids, enzymes, food substances.

on wall - secretion, movements, absorption of food and drugs, pain - emetic, antem-etic.

Intestines - on contents, secretion, movements, pain, character of stools. Liver, pancreas - flow of bile, pancreatic juice, etc.

C. Absorption of drug at what points or not at all. how rapidly.

D. Systemic action:

1. On the circulatory organs:

Blood - corpuscles, alkalinity, coagulability.

Heart - auricles and ventricles rate - slower, faster.

force - weaker, stronger.

rhythm - regular or irregular.

Arteries - contracted or dilated. Arterial pressure - higher or lower.

Always learn through what mechanisms, and how, an effect is brought about. It is not enough to know simply that the heart is faster or slower, or weaker or stronger. 2. On the respiratory organs:

Movements depth. rate.

Bronchi - secretions, muscle.

Cough - effect of drug depends on whether cough is due to excessive secretion, or lack of secretion, or sensitiveness of throat. 3. On the nervous system and sense organs:

Cerebrum - intellect, emotions, sleep, pain, motor area (motion, convulsions, paralysis).

Cerebellum - equilibrium.

Medullary and basal centers - vagus, vasoconstrictor, respiratory, heat-regulating, pupil-dilating, secretory, vomiting.

Spinal cord - reflexes muscle tone, convulsions, paralysis.

Peripheral - sensory, motor, secretory. Senses - sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch.

Eye external internal female - menstruation, pregnancy, labor, etc.

(See Local Action.)

4. On muscle and bone.

5. On metabolism and temperature.

6. On secreting glands.

7. On genital organs male.

E. Elimination or disposal of drug how changed in body.

elimination by what route and in what form.

rapidly or slowly - cumulative.

F. Remote local action - on excretory organs during elimination - by kidneys, bladder, urethra, skin, bowels, lungs, mammary glands; or in urine, milk, sweat, breath, etc.

G. After-effects.

H. Untoward effects - unexpected or unusual. I. Tolerance - habit formation.

Such a scheme as the above leads to completeness in the consideration of a drug's action.