These are all prepared to burn slowly and to give off vapors of drugs that have action on the mucous membranes of the upper air passages. Most of these are made to relax the spasm of asthma; others are made to relieve corvza. The medicated paper most used is that impregnated with potassium nitrate. The next most frequent ingredient of these papers or pastils is, perhaps, stramonium.

Oxygen Inhalations - Oxygen is indicated whenever there is dyspnoea or apnoea, whether the cause be gas poisoning (carbon monoxide), oxygen starvation (sewer, well, or cellar gas), profound anesthesia (chloroform, ether, or laughing gas), strangulation (laryngeal occlusion), pulmonary consolidation (pneumonia, tuberculosis, pleurisy, empyema, or tumors), or cardiac failure.

In sudden emergency oxygen may be curative; in chronic dyspnoea it relieves but cannot cure.

Oxygen is supplied in steel cylinders into which it is compressed. Before administration it is passed through a wash bottle filled with water, which serves the double purpose of washing and moistening it before coming in contact with the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract.

When the valve is opened the gas escapes from the cylinder into a rubber bag (after passing through the wash bottle) from which the patient inhales. Or a stream of oxygen is directed from the wash bottle into the patient's mouth or nostrils. The former is more economical, the latter is the easier for the patient.