books



previous page: A Text-Book Of Materia Medica And Pharmacy For Medical Students
  
page up: Materia Medica Books
  
next page: Dental Medicine. A Manual Of Dental Materia Medica And Therapeutics | by Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas

Introduction To Materia Medica And Pharmacology | by Oliver T.Osborne



Including the elements of medical pharmacy, prescription writing, medical latin, toxicology, and methods of local treatment.

TitleIntroduction To Materia Medica And Pharmacology
AuthorOliver T.Osborne
PublisherLea Brothers & Co
Year1906
Copyright1906, Lea Brothers & Co
AmazonThe Principles Of Therapeutics

By Oliver T.Osborne, M. A., M. D. Professor of Maleria Medica, Therapeutics and Clinical Medicine in the Yale University ; Ex-President of American Therapeutic society ; Ex-Chairman of the Section on Pharmacology and Therapeutics of the American Medical Association.

Pharmacology and Therapeutics of the American Medical Association

Lea Brothers & Co.

Philadelphia And New York

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1906, by Lea Brothers & CO., In the Office of the Librarian of Congress. All rights reserved.

-Preface
The object of this book is to introduce the student to the study of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, with the purpose constantly in mind of preparing him tor the prac-tice of medicine, i. e., to care fo...
-Introduction
Materia Medica is that branch of medical science which treats of the substances used as medicine, their origin, physical and chemical properties, physiologic and toxicologic action, preparations, dose...
-Chapter I. Pharmacology. Physiologic Action Of Drugs
Experimental Pharmacology Physiology teaches that the functional activities of the cells which compose the tissues of the body are dependent on the chemical reactions occurring in the living protopla...
-Early Pharmacologic Research
Though many centuries ago clinical notes were taken and occasionally some experiments were made to discover the physiologic action of drugs, nothing scientific was accomplished or recorded until Magen...
-Drugs For Demonstration
The characteristic physiologic activities of the following drugs can be demonstrated in the laboratory: 1. Drugs which act locally on muscle-tissue. Atropine (mydriatic) Eserine (myotic) Muscarine P...
-Method Of Recording Experiments
In experimentation with any of the above drugs the following data should, if possible, be recorded in notebooks in the order named: Date, species, breed, and physical condition of the animal used for...
-Aconite 2
The tincture is the preparation of aconite most used. It has little action on the unbroken skin, but causes secretion. It is quickly ebsorbed from mucous membranes from which it is quickly absorbed. ...
-Alcohol 2
Official alcohol contains 92.3 per cent. by weight of absolute ethyl alcohol. It is slightly irritant to the skin, tending to dry up its secretion. It is quickly absorbed from mucous membranes. whi...
-Apomorphine
This drug is prepared from morphine by the abstraction of its molecule of water, and is used as the hydrochloride. In solution it is rapidly absorbed from mucous membranes, but is largely used hypode...
-Arsenic 2
Arsenic is used in the form of the trioxide. It has no action on the unbroken skin except there is long exposure. It is intensely irritant and corrosive to mucous membranes, hence it is one of the co...
-Atropine
Atropine is the alkaloid of belladonna and is generally used as the sulphate. It has no action on the unbroken skin, but is readily absorbed from mucous surfaces. It quickens the heart, contracts the...
-Bromides 2
Potassium or sodium bromide are the salts most used. They have no action on the skin, and are mildly irritant to mucous membranes from which they are absorbed. They depress the heart, quiet the brain,...
-Caffeine
This is the alkaloid of tea and coffee, and is mostly used as the citrated caffeine. It has no action on the skin or mucous membranes, but is readily absorbed from the latter. It stimulates and stre...
-Chloral
Chloral is used in the form of the hydrate. It is irritant to the skin and mucous membranes, and is quickly absorbed from the latter. It depresses the heart, quiets the brain, causing sleep, depress...
-Chloroform
Chloroform consists of 99 per cent. by weight of absolute chloroform and 1 per cent. of alcohol. It is irritant to the skin and mucous membranes, and, vaporizing when exposed to the air at ordinary t...
-Cocaine 2
Cocaine is the alkaloid of coca, and is used as the hydrochloride. It has no action on the unbroken skin, but is absorbed readily from mucous membranes, which it anesthetizes. Its principal action i...
-Coniine
Coniine is a volatile fluid alkaloid of hemlock (conium). It is somewhat irritant to the skin and mucous mem branes, and is absorbed from the latter. It acts upon the terminations of the motor nerves...
-Curara
Curara, Curare, or Woorari, is an arrow poison used by the South American Indians. It has no action on the external skin, but is absorbed from mucous membranes. It paralyzes the end-plates of the mot...
-Digitalis 2
Digitalis is used most frequently in the form of the tincture. It has no action on the skin or mucous membranes, but is readily absorbed from the latter. It slows and strengthens the heart, contract...
-Ergot
Ergot of rye is used mostly in the form of the fluid extract. It has no action on the skin or mucous membranes, and is absorbed slowly from the latter. It contracts the blood vessels and raises the b...
-Ether
Ether contains 96 per cent by weight of absolute ether and 4 per cent. of alcohol and water. It is slightly irritant to the skin and mucous membranes. It becomes volatile when exposed to the air at o...
-Iodides
Potassium and sodium iodide are the forms most used. They have no action on the skin, are slightly irritant to mucous membranes, from which they are quickly absorbed. They increase the secretion of m...
-Magnesium Sulphate
Magnesium sulphate has no action on the skin or mucous membranes. It is very slowly absorbed, and causes a watery exudate into the intestines resulting in purging. It is excreted mostly in the faeces...
-Mercury
Most preparations of mercury are irritant to the skin and mucous membranes. It is slowly absorbed, causing purging and salivation. Poisoning by irritant preparations, as corrosive sublimate, causes ...
-Methylene Blue
The hydrochloride of methylthio-nine is the official title. It has no action on the skin, but is slightly irritant to mucous membranes, from which it is readily absorbed. It is quickly excreted in ...
-Morphine
Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium, and is generally used as the sulphate. It has no action on the skin or mucous membranes, but is quickly absorbed from the latter. In animals it stim...
-Muscarine
- Muscarine is an alkaloid of a poisonous mushroom. It is hard to obtain pure, and therefore is not used in medicine. Its action is quite similar to pilocarpine. ...
-Nicotine
Nicotine is the alkaloid of tobacco, and is used as nicotine only experimentally. It is a very poison ous volatile fluid, very irritant to the skin and mucous membranes, and is absorbed from the latte...
-Nitrites
Amyl nitrite, nitroglycerin, and sodium nitrite are the forms most used. They do not act on the skin, but are more or less irritant to mucous membranes. The first two are rapidly absorbed and quickly...
-Nitrous Oxide
Nitrous oxide gas is used to produce anesthesia. It prevents oxygenation of the blood, raises the blood pressure, and causes asphyxia by oxygen starvation. Death is caused by paralysis of the respira...
-Phenol
Phenol (carbolic acid) is very irritant to the skin, causes blisters and even necrosis. The same is true of mucous membranes, from which it is quickly absorbed. It causes convulsions in many animals,...
-Physiologic Saline Solution
This is distilled water containing .9 percent of sodium chloride. It is soothing to the skin and mucous membranes. When injected into the blood vessels it raises the blood pressure and stimulates the ...
-Pilocarpine
Pilocarpine is an alkaloid of pilocarpus (jaborandi) and is used mostly as the hydrochloride. It has no local action on the skin or mucous membranes, but is readily absorbed from the latter. It stim...
-Sparteine
Sparteine is the alkaloid of broom (scopar-ins) and is used in the form of the sulphate. It has no action on the skin and mucous membranes, but is rapidly absorbed from the latter. It slows the heart...
-Strophanthus
Strophanthus is used generally as the tincture. It has no action on the skin, but is irritant to mucous membranes, from which it is rapidly absorbed. It strengthens the heart, slightly contracts the...
-Strychnine
Strychnine is the alkaloid of nux vomica, and is generally used as the sulphate or nitrate. It has no action on the skin or mucous membranes, but is readily absorbed from the latter. It is a stimula...
-Suprarenal
This substance is prepared from the suprarenal glands of sheep, and is used in the form of a watery extract or as an active principle under the name of adrenalin or suprarenalin. It has no action on ...
-Theobromine
Theobromine is a purin derivative. It acts quite similarly to caffeine, but is much more of a diuretic. It is excreted in the urine. ...
-Veratrine
Veratrine is a mixture of alkaloids obtained from the seed of certain veratrum plants. It is a powerful poison, first irritant, then benumbing to the skin, and is exceedingly irritant to mucous mem b...
-Chapter II. Pharmacy. Pharmacognosy
knowledge) is the science of the physical properties and chemical characters of crude drugs. Pharmacy is the art of preparing medicinal preparations. A Dispensatory is a reference book of materia ...
-Pharmacopoeia
The title of a book, published by a local or national authority, which gives the drugs and preparations (together with their strength and the mode of preparation) that shall be used in filling the pre...
-Pharmacopoeia. Part 2
Emplastrum Adhaesivum (surgeon's plaster). Emplastrum Belladonnae (30%, sedative, can cause physiologic action). Emplastrum Capsici (mildly irritant). Emplastrum Plumbi (lead plaster, diachylon pl...
-Pharmacopoeia. Part 3
Pilulae Aloes (each contains .13 gm. (gr.2) of aloes) ............ Dose one or two pills. Pilulae Aloes et Ferri (each contains of aloes and iron each, .07 gm.(gr.1) ...........
-List Of Official Drugs
Class I, Acids. Class II, Alkaloids. Class III, Liquid and Semi-Liquid Substances. Class IV, Animal Substances. Class V, Solid Vegetable (Galenic) Substances. Class VI, Unclassified Solids. ...
-Class I. - Acids
Arranged according to the size of the dose. Thirty-two acida are official. Acids in Solid Form. Acidum Benzoicum ........ Dose, .50 gms. or gr. viiss Aci...
-Class II. - Alkaloids
Twenty-two alkaloids are official. The following arc the most used, and are arranged according to the size of the dose: Aconitina... Dose .00015 gm. or gr. 1-400 ...
-Class III. - Liquid And Semi-Solid Substances. Arranged Alphabetically
Adeps. Adeps Benzoinatus (2% of Benzoin). Adeps Lanae. Adeps Lanae Hydrosus. Aether..... Dose 1. c. c. or M x Aether Acet icus ............Dose 1....
-Class IV.- Animal Substances. Arranged Aphabetically
Fel Bovis Purificatum.......Dose. .30 gm. or gr. v Gelatinum. Gelatinum Glycerinatum. Glandulae Suprarenales Siccae.Dose, .25 gm. or gr. iv Glandulae Thyroideae Siccae... Dose, .20...
-Class V. - Solid Vegetable (Galenic) Substances
Arranged Alphabetically. Aconitum ................... Dose, .05 gm. or gr. j Aloe .................. Dose, .25 gm. or gr. iv ...
-Class VI. - Unclassified Solids Arranged Alphabetically
Acetanilidum ................. Dose, .20 gm. or gr. iij Acetphenitidinum (Phenacetine ........................... Dose, ...
-Table Of Thermometric Equivalents
To convert Degrees Centigrade to Degrees Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, divide by 5, and add 32 to the quotient. Centigrade. Fahrenheit. - 25 = - 13 - 20 =...
-Chapter III. Toxicology.- The Symptoms And Treatment Of Poisoning
The immediate treatment of poisoning does not vary greatly with drugs of the same class, therefore the drugs which most frequently cause poisoning are arranged alphabetically in classes. Class I Irr...
-Class I. - Irritants And Corrosives. Ammonia (Ammonium Hydrate)
Symptoms Burning pain in the oesophagus and stomach, usually vomiting, difficulty in swallowing, skin moist and cold, pulse weak and rapid, dyspnoea, convulsions, coma. If death, in a few hours. Ch...
-Arsenic
Symptoms Burning pain in the oesophagus and stomach, colicky pains, muscle cramps, thirst, akin moist and cold, headache, vomiting and later purging. Pulse weak and rapid, respiration shallow and rap...
-Chromium Trioxide (Chromic Acid)
Symptoms Burning pain in the mouth, oesophagus and stomach, colicky pains, cramps in the legs, vomiting, collapse. If death, usually within twenty-four hours. Chemical Antidotes Chalk, lime water,...
-Hydrochloric Acid
Symptoms Burning pain in the mouth, oesophagus and stomach, usually followed at once by vomiting and collapse. If death, usually within twenty-four hours from asphyxia, syncope, or perforation of th...
-Lead Acetate
Symptoms Metallic taste, thirst, colicky pains relieved by pressure, vomiting, cramps in the legs. Pulse hard and rapid, face livid, vertigo, stupor, twitching, convulsions, coma. If death, in a few...
-Mercuric Chloride
( Bichloride, Corrosive Sublimate, Bichloride of Mercury.) Symptoms Metallic taste, burning in the mouth, oesophagus and stomach, colicky pains and vomiting. Pulse weak, rapid and irregular, convuls...
-Nitric Acid
Symptoms Similar to Hydrochloric Acid. Treatment. - Same as Hydrochloric Acid. ...
-Oxalic Acid
Symptoms Hot. or sour taste, burning in the oesophagus and stomach. Thirst, pain in the abdomen, back and head usually vomiting. Face cyanotic, skin cold, pulse weak, convulsions;, coma. If death, i...
-Phosphorus
Symptoms Signs of poisoning may occur within an hour, or not until three or four days after the poison has been taken. Garlicky breath, pain in the stomach and abdomen, vomiting (bloody and with the ...
-Class II. - Nervous Stimulants. Aromatic Oils
Symptoms Nervous excitement, skin hot and flushed, pulse full and strong. Later the pulse becomes weak and rapid, skin moist and cold, delirium, convulsions, coma. If death, in a few hours. Treatme...
-Atropine (Belladonna)
Symptoms Intense thirst, skin dry, face flushed, pupils dilated, pulse and respiration rapid, restlessness, excitement, delirium, convulsions, coma. If death, in one to ten hours from paralysis of t...
-Camphor
Symptoms Similar to Aromatic Oils. Treatment. - Same as Aromatic Oils. ...
-Cocaine
Symptoms Nervous excitement, dyspnoea, pupils dilated, face cyanotic, extremities cold, pulse weak and rapid, respiration shallow, delirium, sometimes convulsions, coma. Death is rare, but if it occ...
-Hyoscyamus
Symptoms - Similar to Atropine. Treatment. - Same as Atropine. ...
-Stramonium
Symptoms Similar to Atropine, Treatment - Same as Atropine. ...
-Strychnia (Nux Vomica)
Symptoms- Restlessness and sense of impending death, difficulty in breathing, sudden muscular contractions (all muscles are involved ), increasing in severity and dura tion, opisthotonus. The contract...
-Turpentine
Symptoms Similar to Aromatic Oils. Treatment. - Same as Aromatic Oils. ...
-Class III. - Cardiac Depressants. Acetanilide
Symptoms Skin moist and cold, pulse weak and rapid, respiration shallow, prostration, subnormal temperature. cyanosis, - pupils dilated, convulsions, coma, collapse. If death, from cardiac paralysis...
-Aconite
Symptoms Signs of poisoning may come on with great rapidity. Tingling in the mouth and throat, tingling and numbness in the extremities, burning in the stomach and abdomen, prostration, pupils dilate...
-Antipyrine
Symptoms Similar to Acetanilide. Treatment. - Same as Acetanilide. ...
-Cyanides
Symptoms Similar to Hydrocyanic Acid. Treatment. - Same as Hydrocyanic Acid. ...
-Digitalis
Symptoms Nausea, vomiting, prostration, headache, and usually pain in the back and legs, exophthalmos, dis turbed vision, dizziness. The pulse is weak, but the heart-action is forcible, slow and irre...
-Gelsemium
Symptoms Similar to Aconite. Treatment. - Same as Aconite. ...
-Hydrocyanic Acid
Symptoms The signs of poisoning are immediate. Exophthalmos, pupils dilated, dyspnoea, pulse weak and irregular. Rapidly following, are loss of consciousness, convulsions, paralysis, involuntary urin...
-Nicotine (Tobacco)
Symptoms Similar to Aconite. Treament. - Same as Aconite. ...
-Phenacetine
Symptoms Similar to Acetanilide. Treatment. - Same as Acetahilide. ...
-Phenol (Carbolic Acid)
Symptoms The mucous membranes are white from contact with the phenol. Usually, but not always, there is intense burning pain from mouth to stomach. Occasion ally there is vomiting. Pupils contracted,...
-Physostigmine (Eserine)
Symptoms. Vomiting, prostration, pupils contracted, pulse weak and slow, respiration shallow and slow. If death, from paralysis of the respiratory center. Chemical Antidote Tannic acid, one grant St...
-Sulphonal
Symptoms Similar to Acetanilide. Treatment. - Same as Acetanilide. ...
-Trional
Symptoms Similar to Acetanilide. Treatment. - Same as Acetanilide. ...
-Veratrum
Symptoms Burning pain in the mouth, oesophagus and stomach, nausea and vomiting, colicky pains and purging. Pupils dilated, pulse weak and slow, respiration labored and slow, profuse perspiration, so...
-Alcohol
Symptoms Muscular relaxation, pupils dilated, pulse weak and rapid, temperature subnormal, hallucinations. stupor, respiration stertorous, coma. If death, from cardiac or respiratory paralysis. Tre...
-Bromides
Symptoms Similar to Chloral. Treatment. - Same as Chloral. ...
-Carbon Monoxide (Coal-Gas Poisoning)
Symptoms Face livid, pupils dilated, dizziness, weak ness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, coma. If death, in a few hours to several days. Treatment Keep up the body temperature with dry heat appli...
-Chloral (Chloral Hydrate)
Symptoms Prostration, pupils dilated, pulse slow at first, but later weak and rapid, respiration slow, temperature subnormal, coma. If death, from paralysis of the respiratory center. Treatment Wa...
-Methyl Alcohol (Wood Alcohol)
Symptoms Similar to Alcohol. Treatment. - Same as Alcohol. Sequela. - Amblyopia. ...
-Opium (Morphine, Codeine, Etc)
Symptoms Drowsiness and decreased sensibility. Pupils contracted, pulse weak and rapid, respiration slow and irregular, ultimately becoming very slow. Skin moist and cold, coma. If death, from paral...
-Drowning
Raise the body, with the back upwards, so that the bead is considerably below the chest level (this position is best attained by laying the body on its abdomen over a barrel). This allows the water to...
-Chapter IV. Prescription Writing
All prescriptions should be written on printed blanks bearing the name, address, office hours and telephone number of the physician. It is best to have a stub for a copy and memorandum of each prescri...
-Incompatibility
In writing a prescription care should be taken not to order drugs or preparations which are incompatible. Drugs may be incompatible therapeutically, chemically, and pharmaceutically. Therapeutic Inc...
-Latin
In the Latin of a prescription the following rules govern the case: 1. The noun expressing the name of the medicine takes the genitive when the quantity to be used is stated. 2. The noun expressing ...
-Greek Nouns
The following two Greek nouns are feminine, and simulate the first declension: Nominative Genitive Aloe Aloes Mastiche Mastiches ...
-Indeclinable Nouns
Buchu Kino Cajuputi Matico Cusso Sabal Diachylon Sassafras Gambir Sumbul Jaborandi ...
-Latin Verbs
The Latin verbs used are best placed in the imperative mood. The most frequently used are: Adde (add) Misce (mix) Divide (divide) Recipe (take) Fac (make) ...
-Prepositions
Ana (Greek) -- of each. Should be followed by the genitive. Ad - to, up to. Should be followed by the accusative. In - into. Supra - upon. Ante - be...
-Abbreviations Used In Prescription Writing
Abbreviation Latin Name Genitives, Etc. Translation aa Ana (Greek) Preposition (takes genitive) Of each A. c. Ante cibos Before mea...
-Weights And Measures Used In Compounding Prescriptions
The United States Pharmacopoeia has wisely adopted the French Metric or Decimal system of weights and measures. Consequently this system is given precedence in this book. The Decimal system is far su...
-Table of Lengths
10 Millimeters = 1 Centimeter. 10 Centimeters = 1 Decimeter. 10 Decimeters = 1 Meter. 10 Meters =...
-The Evolution Of A Prescription
In The New System. In The Old System. Weigh solids: measure liquids. 1. 1. Gm. Take C. C. Take Of salt ................ 1. ...
-Illustrative Prescriptions. New System
Pilulas ferri carbonatis, No. 10. Sig. - One pill, three times a day, after meals. ...
-Illustrative Prescriptions. Old System
Pilulas ferri carbonatis, No. x. Sig. - One pill, three times a day, after meals. N. B. - As these pills are official, and hence ready for dispensing, the word pilula ...
-Classification Of Drugs
This classification is based upon therapeutic indications. The drugs named under each heading are those which by their physiologic action best meet the indication. First Division. For Local Action. ...
-Dosage
The doses given in the section on pharmaceutical preparations are the ordinary average amounts for an adult of normal weight and size. These doses are considered safe and ordinarily efficient, but the...
-Conditions Modifying the Effect of a Dose
1. Condition of the stomach. 2. Condition of the patient. (a) Idiosyncrasy. (c) Tolerance. (b) Disease. (d) Presence of shock. 1. Condition of the Stomach Condition of the Stomach, i. e., the rat...
-Cumulative Effect of Drugs
1. Due to too frequent doses. 2. Due to too long continued administration. By cumulative effect is meant the unexpected, intense action of a drug after it has been given for some time, as differing ...
-Administration Of Drugs
Drugs reach the system: 1. By absorption from the stomach and intestines after their administration by the mouth in liquids, powders, wafers, tablets, pills, or capsules. 2. By absorption from the r...
-Chapter V. Special Treatments. Local Treatment Of The Upper Air Passages
The pleasantest and perhaps the most useful is medication by means of the atomizer. An almost innumerable variety are on the market, but for all practical purposes they may be divided into two classe...
-Insufflation
Insufflation is the application of medicated powders to mucous membranes by means of a powder-blower. For general use the simplest form of insufflator is the most satisfactory, consisting essentially...
-Inhalation
This is medication or treatment of the upper air pas^aiivs with substances which are rendered volatile and so inhaled by means of more or less elaborate ap paratus. One of the simplest forms of appar...
-Pastils, Medicated Papers And Medicated Cigarettes
These are all prepared to burn slowly and to give off vapors of drugs that have action on the mucous membranes of the upper air passages. Most of these are made to relax the spasm of asthma; others ar...
-Gargles
Gargling is an efficient means of treating the mucous membrane of the pharynx and tonsils. The quantity of fluid taken into the mouth at a time should be about what would make two swallows for the ind...
-Local Treatment Of The Skin
Powders Protective or Dusting Powders are used on excoriated and irritated surfaces of the body to protect and to prevent chafing. These powders have no medicinal value, but are efficient in furnishi...
-Schalpaste
Parasiticide. gm. c. c. Betanaphtholis ............................................................... 10. Sulphuris Praecipitati ........................... 50 ...
-Local Application Of Heat And Cold. Heat
Dry Heat is most conveniently applied by means of hot water bags. They are made in all sizes from one holding a few ounces to one holding two quarts or more. It is often advisable to have a flannel ba...
-Cold
Local cold applications are most conveniently made by means of ice bags, which are made in several sizes and shapes to accommodate the parts for which they are designed. Cold compresses may be used, t...
-Hot-Air Treatments
Turkish Baths These can only be given in establishments especially provided for that purpose. Sweat Cabinet This is a portable apparatus designed for domestic use and intended to take the place of ...
-Vapor Baths
The Russian bath is the most elaborate of these and cannot be given outside of a bathing establishment, but a most excellent substitute for it is to be had in the so-called bath cabinets. These are ...
-Wet Pack
A woolen blanket is laid upon the bed or couch, and upon this a wet sheet. The patient then lies upon the sheet, which is folded aboul him as follows: Raise the arms above the head and draw one half o...
-Blood Letting
Blood is removed therapeutically by venesection, cup ping, and leeching. ...
-Venesection
For this purpose the veins of the forearm are generally selected, first because the arm is easy to get at, second because the veins are easily made prominent, and third because there are several to se...
-Leeching
Before applying leeches the skin should be thoroughly cleansed. If the leech shows no inclination to take hold a little sweetened water or milk rubbed on the part will usually obviate the difficulty. ...
-Wet Cupping
The skin is first cleansed and dry cups are applied to bring the blood to the surface. The skin is then punctured in a number of places, either with the scarifier or the scalpel, and then the dry cup ...
-Dry Cupping
This may be done in several ways. The most elaborate is the method of connecting a vacuum pump with a small bell jar having a cock in its top. This is applied to the skin, and the removal of the air i...
-Aspiration
This is the removal of fluid from the body by means of suction. It is used to determine the presence and character of fluid, as well as to remove it. There are several types of apparatus generally sp...
-Counter-Irritation
The effects of this procedure have been thought to depend upon the vascular relation between the affected organ and the adjacent skin surfaces. This explanation is applicable to superficial affections...
-Irrigation. Colon Irrigation (Enteroclysis)
Several instruments are made for this purpose, the principle of all, however, is the same, namely, a tube within a tube, the inner carrying the supply of fluid, and the outer serving for a drain. An e...
-Vaginal Irrigation (Vaginal Douche)
The reservoir, tubing, and douche pan or Kelly pad, are required. An ordinary fountain syringe with a vaginal hard rubber tip will answer, but a glass tube with side perforations makes the best douche...
-Intra-Uterine Irrigation
This is used only to control baemorrhage after parturition, directly after curettement of the uterus, and for. uterine sepsis. To stop uterine haemorrhage the temperature should be as high as can be b...
-Bladder Irrigation
There are a number of two-way catheters on the market, but the best has a partition run ning through a single tube. This form has the maximum ingress and egress for the minimum calibre. The catheter ...
-Urethral Injections
As in the majority of cases these are given by the patient himself, he should be instructed as follows: First, he should always urinate before injecting, to so far as possible wash out the urethra and...
-Stomach Washing (Gastric Lavage)
For this purpose a tube similar in type to the two-way eatheter is made of soft rubber, but for ordinary use the plain stomach tube answers all purposes. This may be connected by a two-way cock to the...
-Gavage (Forced Feeding)
Resource is had to the administration of food by means of the stomach tube, or by means of a long catheter passed through the nostrils, when insane patients refuse to eat, The food so introduced must,...
-Enemata
There are two forms, the high and low enema. The latter may be administered with any suitable irrigating tip, but for the former is required a rectal tube, more properly called a colon tube. The tube,...
-Hypodermatic Medication
This system of medication was introduced by Dr. Alexander Wood, of Edinburgh, in 1843. A great number of syringes for this purpose are on the market, but the three principal types are the all metal s...
-Intravenous Injection
The median basilic or cephalic vein is chosen by preference. The skin is cleaned as for a hypodermic injection and a bandage is placed about the arm to make tense the veins, as explained under transfu...
-Hypodermoclysis
This is the introduction of physiologic saline solution into the subcutaneous cellular tissue. Although it is not possible to introduce it quite as rapidly as by the intravenous method, the saving of ...
-Transfusion
Transfusion is now practically limited to the intravenous injection of physiologic saline solution. Several varieties of apparatus are used for this purpose, but like the majority of emergency operati...
-Antitoxin Injection
By far the most used of the antitoxin sera is the Serum Antidiphtheriticum of the United States Pharmacopoeia. This serum is sold in sealed packages bearing a definite date, later than which the conte...
-Nutrient Enemata
These are indicated in ulcer of the stomach, in persistent vomiting, and when trauma or stricture precludes mouth feeding. Before giving a nutrient enema the lower bowel and rectum should be cleansed...
-Vaccination
The best place for vaccination is on the upper arm over the region of, or just above, the insertion of the del toid The outer side of the thigh or the calf of the log may be used, but on account of th...
-Disinfection
The value of a disinfectant varies with the object for, and the manner in, which it is used. For instance, corrosive sublimate is not effective when there are large amounts of albuminous matter presen...
-Chapter VI. Simple Food Preparations. Milk
Cream should represent at least 25 per cent of the fata of milk. Skimmed Milk is the part of the milk left after the cream has been removed, and contains considerable proteid and sugar. Butter-Milk ...
-Eggs
Eggs may be given raw either whole, or as the egg-albumin alone. The white of an egg beaten well with half a pint of water and strained, flavored perhaps with lemon, makes what is termed albumin wate...
-Beef
Beef Serum or muscle juice, is really an organic ex-tract. It is best prepared by adding to chopped round steak enough water to cover it. This is then allowed to stand one or two hours, and the whole ...
-Soothing Drinks
Barley Water is made by adding a tablespoonful of pearl barley to a quart of boiling water. Let it stand on the back of the stove so that it will keep warm for three hours, then strain and add sugar a...







TOP
previous page: A Text-Book Of Materia Medica And Pharmacy For Medical Students
  
page up: Materia Medica Books
  
next page: Dental Medicine. A Manual Of Dental Materia Medica And Therapeutics | by Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas