The title of a book, published by a local or national authority, which gives the drugs and preparations (together with their strength and the mode of preparation) that shall be used in filling the prescriptions of physicians.
Though a number of documents and books on materia medica, that were authorities for formulas, were published from early times down to a recent period, there were no regular pharmacopoeias until the beginning of the 16th century, and it was not until the last century that national pharmacopoeias appeared in the different countries.
Though England, Scotland and Ireland had long possessed national pharmacopoeias, the first British pharmacopoeia was published in 1864, and the last one bears the date of 1898.
The first national pharmacopoeia of France appeared in 1818, though many cities had such pharmacal authority before.
The different German states had separate pharmacopoeias, but the German national pharmacopoeia, or "Pharmacopoeia Germanica," was first published in 1872, and the last edition in 1900.
Italy had the earliest pharmacopoeia of any country, its first one bearing the date of 1498.
Russia's first national pharmacopoeia bears the date of 1866.
The first national pharmacopoeia of Spain appeared in 1794.
Sweden's first pharmacopoeia appeared in 1775, and the last revision was in 1879, though several amended editions have appeared since.
The first attempt at a pharmacopoeia in the United States was published in 1778, at Philadelphia, for the use of the military hospital of the United States Army.
The first convention for the formation of a national pharmacopoeia for the United States met at Washington, in 1820, and the result of their work was published, in Boston, at the end of the same year. The second edition appeared in 1828, and from 1830 there have been decennial conventions of representatives from the professions of medicine and pharmacy with delegates from state medical societies, medical and pharmaceutical colleges, and from the army, navy and marine hospital service of the United States. At these conventions, held in Washington, are appointed Revision Committees, whose labors develop the decennial editions of the pharmacopoeia.
The present pharmacopoeia is the result of the revision committee appointed in 1900, and is known as the "Eighth Decennial Revision" of the "United States Pharmacopoeia." All drugs and preparations appearing and described in this book are termed official. In other words, to be official in this country a drug must appear in the United States Pharmacopoeia.
United States Pharmacopoeia of 1900.
In the following list of pharmacopoeial preparations only the most important preparations of the most important drugs are mentioned. They are classed as poisonous and non-poisonous, and are then named, as far as possible, in the order of the size of their doses.
As the measure of a dose the "teaspoon," though only approximately accurate, is a useful means of administration. Teaspoons are not of uniform capacity, but always hold about five cubic centimeters (5 c. c.) in the Metric system, and about one fluidrachm (fl. 3 i) in the old system.
A "drop"is so constantly inaccurate, that it should be discarded, and is discarded in this book.
The doses are given in even figures or in integers in both systems and are not translated from one to the other. Consequently the dose in one system is only approximately equivalent to the dose in the other.
Official, September 1, 1905.
Aceta (Vinegars) are solutions of the active principles of drugs in dilute acetic acid.
They are made by maceration and percolation.
Two aceta are official, and both are strong preparations.
Aquae (Waters) are as nearly as practicable saturated solutions of volatile substances in water.
They are made:
1. By solution in cold water.
2. By solution in hot water.
3. By filtration through an absorbent powder containing the drug. 1. By percolation through cotton saturated with the drug. 5. By distillation. Seventeen aquae are official.
Preparations Used for Flavoring and Dilution.
Aqua Chloroformi .............
fl. 5 iv
Aqua Cinnamomi ...............
fl. 3 iv
Aqua .Menthae Piperitae
fl. 3 iv
Aqua Menthae Viridis ......
fl. 3 iv
Aqua Rosae ......................
fl. 3 iv
Preparations Used Externally.
Aqua Ammonia, Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi.
Cerata (Cerates) are semi-solid preparations intended for external use. They do not melt when applied to the skin.
Their usual base is wax and lard, and they are made by melting together their ingredients and stirring while cooling.
Six cerata are official.
Ceratum (white wax 30%, white petrolatum 20%, benzoinated lard 50%.)
Collodia (Collodions) are liquid preparations for external use, having collodion as a base. They are made by solution. Four collodia are official.
Collodium (gun cotton 4%. other 75%. alcohol 25%). Collodium Cantharidatum (60%). to blister. Collodium Flexile (contains 3% of castor oil). Collodium Stypticum (contains 20% of tannic acid).
Confectiones (Confections) are sweet, semi-solid prepa-tions in which one or more medicinal substances are incorporated.
They are made by mechanical mixture.
Two confectiones are official. Both are unimportant.
Decocta (Decoctions) are liquid preparations made by boiling vegetable substances in water.
Unless otherwise ordered, decoctions are made of five per cent. strength.
There are no official decocta.
Elixira (Elixirs) are sweet, aromatic, alcoholic preparations containing small amounts of medicinal substances.
They are made by solution.
Three elixira are official.
Elixir Aromaticum (used as a vehicle). Elixir Ferri, Quininae et Strychninae Phosphatum. Dose, 5 c. c. or fl. 3 j
Emplastra (Plasters) are preparations for application to the skin and are adhesive at the body temperature.
They are made by spreading semi-solid substances on muslin, leather or rubber.
Seven emplastra are official.