They are usually employed as lotions. The syringe used to inject them should not have a small thin nozzle, but should have a conical point, such as that shown in Fig. 163, which fills up the opening of the urethra and allows the injection to be forced up to the neck of the bladder without any escaping.

Fig. 163.   Vulcanite syringe for injecting solutions into the urethra.

Fig. 163. - Vulcanite syringe for injecting solutions into the urethra.

Application of Drugs to the Vagina and Uterus. - Lotions are usually either injected into the vagina with a syringe, or allowed to flow into it from a reservoir at some height above the patient. In either case, if it is desirable that the lotion should remain in contact with the vaginal walls or cervix uteri, the patient should lie on her back with the hips raised by a pillow. The syringe employed for the vagina is usually furnished with a shield to prevent it from being introduced too far, and it ought to have no central opening, but only openings at the side, as occasionally, when astringent and irritating fluids have been used with syringes having a central aperture, they have been forced into the cavity of the uterus, and have there produced uterine contraction and consequent pain. Sedative and astringent substances are often introduced in the form of pessaries or vaginal suppositories, in which the active substance is mixed with either cacao-butter or with gelatine and glycerin. Solids such as caustics are applied either to the vaginal walls or cervix directly through a speculum, and powders are applied on pledgets of cotton-wool. Tents, consisting of thin sticks of a porous substance, are introduced into the cervix itself for the purpose of dilating it, and solutions may be injected into the uterine cavity itself by means of a syringe provided with a long nozzle.