Mixtures of active substances in water for external application.

Lotio Hydrargyri Flava (1 part Perchloride of Mercury to 243 of Lime-water). „ „ Nigra ( „ Subchloride „ 146 „ ).

U.S.P. Massae. Masses.-These simply consist of substances mixed together to a consistence suitable for making pills.

Massa Copaibae.

„ Ferri Carbonatis. „ Hydrargyri.

Mellita. Honeys.- In these preparations honey is used as a vehicle. Oxymel and oxymel scillae of the B.P., which contain acetic acid, may be regarded as belonging to this class.

B.P. (4)

Mel Boracis.

,, Depuratum. Oxymel.

,, Scillae.

U.S.P. (2). Mel Despumatum. ,, Rosae.

Misturae. Mixtures. - These usually consist of insoluble substances simply mixed with water or suspended in it by the aid of gum or other viscid substances. In almond (B.P. and

U.S.P.), chalk (B.P. and U.S.P.), guaiac (B.P.), and compound glycyrrhiza (U.S.P.) mixtures, gum is added. In the ammonia-cum (B.P. and U.S.P.), asafoetida (U.S.P.) and compound iron (B.P. and U.S.P.) mixtures, gum is contained in the ammonia-cum, asafoetida, and myrrh used in their preparation respectively.

In scammony mixture (B.P.) the scammony resin is simply suspended in milk. In egg flip or brandy mixture (mistura spiritus vini gallici) (B.P.) and chloroform mixture (U.S.P.) yolk of egg forms the basis of the mixture.

The magnesia and asafoetida,1 and rhubarb and soda mixtures of the U.S.P. contain insoluble substances mixed with water without the addition of any viscid substance; in the creasote mixture (B.P.) the syrup may be looked upon as viscid and tending to keep the ingredients mixed, but the aromatic iron and compound senna mixtures of the B.P. and the acetate of iron and ammonium (U.S.P.) mixture are simply solutions and not mixtures in the usual sense.

B.P. (10).

Dose.

Mistura

Ammoniaci...................

1/2-1 fl. oz.

"

Amygdalae...................

1-2 fl. oz.

"

C reasoti.......................

"

"

Cretae............................

"

"

Ferri Aromatica.............

"

"

" Composita.............

"

"

Guaiaci............................

"

"

Scammonii......................

"

"

Sennae Composita ..........

"

"

Spiritus Vini Gallici

"

U.S.P. (11).

Dose.

Mistura

Ammoniaci..................

1/2-1 fl. oz.

"

Amygdalae...................

1-2 fl. oz.

"

Asafoetidae...................

1/2-1 fl. oz.

"

Chloroformi...................

"

"

Cretae..............................

1-2 fl. oz.

"

Ferri Composita...............

"

"

" et Ammonii

Acetatis..........................

1/2-1 fl. oz.

"

Glyeyrrhizee Composita................................

1/2 oz.

"

Magnesiae et Asafcetidae.................................

20 m.

"

Potassii Citratis......

1/2 fl. oz.

"

Rhei et Sodae...................

1/2-1 dr.

Mucilagines. Mucilages. - These are thick solutions, partial or complete, of gum or starch, which are convenient for suspending heavy powders in mixtures.

B.P. (3)

Mucilago Aeaciae. Amyli. „ Tragacanthae.

u.s.p. (5).

Mucilago Acaciae. „ Cydonii. „ Sassafras Medullae. „ Tragacanthae. „ Ulmi.

Olea. Oils.- These are divided into fixed and volatile. The fixed are obtained by simple expression; the volatile by distillation excepting in the case of oil of lemon, which being contained in distinct vittae in the rind, may be expressed instead of being distilled.

1 In this mixture there is no gum, for although it is contained in crude asafoetida, it is not contained in the tincture of asafoetida used in this preparation.

Fixed Oils

B.P. (9).

Dose.

Oleum

Amygdalae..................

1-4 fl. dr.

"

Crotonis (croton oil)...

1/3-1 min.

"

Lini...............................

"

Morrhuae.....................

1-8 fl. dr.

"

Myristicae Expressum..

"

Olivae............................

"

"

Phosphoratum...............

5-10 min.

"

Ricini............................

1-8 fl. dr.

"

Theobromatis................

U.S.P. (11).

Dose.

Oleum

Adipis...........................

"

Amygdalae Expressum

1-8 fl. dr.

"

Gossypii Seminis...........

"

Lini.................................

"

Morrhuae........................

1/2-4 fl. oz.

"

Olivae..............................

"

Phosphoratum.................

1-5 min.

"

Ricini..............................

1-8 fl. dr.

"

Sesami............................

"

Theobromae....................

"

Tiglii (croton oil)............

1/4-l min.

Volatile Oils

b.p. (25).

Dose Of Each

1-4 m. unless otherwise mentioned.

Oleum

Anthei.......................................

"

Anisi.........................................

"

Anhtemidis..............................

"

Cajuputi...................................

"

Carui.........................................

"

Caryophylli...............................

"

Cinnamomi................................

"

Copaibae...................................

5-20 min.

"

Coriandri...................................

"

Cubebae...................................

5-20 min.

"

Eucalypti....................................

"

Juniperi.....................................

1-10 min.

"

Lavandulae..............................

"

Limonis.................................

"

Menthae Piperitae..................

"

" Viridis......................

"

Myristicae................................

"

Pimentae..................................

"

Pini Sylvestris.........................

for use as vapour.

"

Rosmarini..............................

"

Rutae......................................

"

Sabinae....................................

"

Santali.....................................

10-30 min.

"

Sinapis....................................

For external use only.

"

Terbinthinae............................

10-20 m. as diuretic, 2-6 fl. dr. as anthelmintic.

u.s.p. (40).

Dose.

Oleum

aethereum..............................

"

Amygdalae Amarae................

1/4-1 min (0.016-0.06 c.c).

"

Anisi........................................

5 15 min. (0.3-0.9 c.c).

"

Aurantii Corticis.....................

"

" Florum.......................

"

Bergamii.................................

"

Cajuputi.................................

5-20 min. (0.3-1.25 c.c).

"

Cari........................................

1-10 min. (0.06-0.6 c.c).

"

Caryophylli...........................

2-6 min. (0.12-0.36 c.c).

"

Chenopodii............................

4-8 min. for a child (0.25-0.5 c.c).

"

Cinnamomi.............................

1-3 min. (0.06-0.18 c.c).

"

Copaibae................................

10-15 min. (0.6-0.9 c.c).

"

Coriandri...............................

"

Cubebae.................................

10-12 min. at first (0.6 or 0.72 c.c), gradually increased.

U.S.P.

Dose.

Oleum

Erigerontis..................................

10 min. to 1/2 fluid drachm (0.6-l.9 c.c.).

,,

Eucalypti...................................

10-15 min. (0.6-0.9 c.c.).

,,

Foeniculi...................................

5-15 min. (0.3-0.9 c.c.).

,,

Gaultheriae................................

,,

Hedeomae (pennyroyal)..........

2-10 min. (0.12-0.6 c.c.).

,,

Juniperi......................................

5-15 min. (0.3-0.9 c.c.).

,,

Lavandulae................................

1-5 min. (0.06-0.3 c.c.).

,,

,, Florum....................

,,

Limonis.....................................

,,

Menthae Piperitae......................

2-6 min. (0.12-0.36 c.c.).

,,

,, Viridis.......................

2-6 min. (0.06-0.36 c.c.).

,,

Myrciae....................................

,,

Myristicae..................................

2-3 min. (0.12-0.18 c.c.).

,,

Picis Liquidae............................

,,

Pimentae....................................

3-6 min. (0.18-0.36 c.c.).

,,

Rosae.........................................

,,

Rosmarini..................................

3-6 min. (0.18-0.36 c.c.).

,,

Rutae........................................

2-5 min. (0.12-0.3 c.c.).

,,

Sabinae.....................................

2-5 min. (0.12-0.3 c.c.).

,,

Santali........................................

20-30 min. (1.25-1.9 c.c.).

,,

Sassafras....................................

3-5 min. (0.18-0.3 c.c.).

,,

Sinapis Volatile..........................

,,

Succini......................................

5-15 min. (0.3-0.9 c.c.).

,,

Terebinthinae...........................

5-30 min. (0.3-1.9 c.c.).

,,

Thymi...........................

,,

Valerianae................................

4-5 min. (0.24-0.3 c.c.).

Oleata. Oleates. - Solutions of bases in oleic acid. They are more readily absorbed by the skin than ointments.

B.P

Oleatum Hydrargyri. „ Zinci.

U.S.P

Oleatum Hydrargyri. „ Veratrinae.

Oleoresinae. Oleoresins. - These are, as the name implies, mixtures of volatile oil and resin. They are extracted by treating the crude substance with stronger ether, and removing the ether partly by distillation and partly by evaporation. Their advantage is that they remain in a liquid or semi-liquid state, and are stable, not requiring alcohol to prevent decomposition.

B.P.

Dose.

Oleoresina

Cubebae..............................

................................5-30 min.

U.S.P.

Dose.

Oleoresina

Aspidii..............................

1/2-1 fl. dr. (1.9-3.75 c.c.).

,,

Capsici.............................

1/4-1 min. (0.015-0.06 c.c.).

,,

Cubebae............................

5-30 min. (0.3-1.9 c.c.).

,,

Lupulini............................

2-5 gr. (0.13-0.33 gm.).

,,

Piperis..............................

1/4-1 min. (0.015-0.06 c.c.).

,,

Zingiberis..........................

1/10-1 min. (0.006-0.06 c.c.).

Oxymel. - Vide Mellita.

Pilulvae. Pills.- Pills are small round masses which can be conveniently swallowed. They are rarely made of a greater

B.P. (21)

dose : 5-10 grains, with the exception of those mentioned.

Pilula

Curare. - Basis

Proportion of Basis

Cito. - Adjuvant

Proportion of

Adjuvant

Tute . - Corrective

Jucunde. - Vehicle.

Dose

Aloes Barbadensis . .

Barbadoes Aloes . .

l in 2

Hard Soap . .

l in 4

Oil of Carraway

Confection of Roses

Aloes et Asafoetidae . .

Socotrine Aloes . .

l in 4

,, ,, . .

1 in 4

Asafoetida

,, ,,

Aloes et Ferri . .

Barbadoes Aloes . .

1 in 5 1/4

Sulphate of Iron .

1 in 7

Compound Powder of Cinnamon

,, ,,

Aloes et Myrrhae . . .

Socotrine Aloes . .

1 in 2 1/4

Myrrh . . .

1 in 4 1/2

Saffron .

,, ,,

Aloes Socotrinae . .

,, ,, . .

l in 2

Hard Soap . .

1 in 4

Volatile Oil of Nutmeg

,, ,,

Asafoetidae Composita (syn. Galbani Composita)

Asafoetida . . .

1 in 3 1/2

Galbanum . .

1 in 3 1/2

Myrrh .

Treacle

Cambogiae Composita .

Gamboge . . .

l in 5

Barbadoes Aloes .

l in 5

Compound Powder of Cinnamon

Syrup

Hard Soap . .

l in 5

Colocynthidis Composita

Colocynth pulp . . .

l in 5

Barbadoes Aloes .

1 in 2 1/2

Oil of Cloves.

Water

Scammony . .

1 in 2 1/2

Sulphate of Potassium

1 in 20

Colocynthidis et Hyos-cyami

Compound pill of Colocynth

2 in 3

-

-

Extract of Henbane

Conii Composita . .

Extract of Hemlock .

5 in 6

Ipecacuanha . .

1 in 6

-

Treacle

Ferri Carbonatis . .

Saccharated Carbonate of Iron

4 in 5

-

-

Confection of Roses

5-20 grs.

Ferri Iodidi . . .

Iron Wine . . . .

-

-

-

Refined Sugar

Liquorice Root and Water

3-8 grs.

Iodine . . .

Hydrargyri . . .

Mercury . . .

1 in 3

-

-

Confection of Roses

Liquorice Root .

3-8 grs.

Hydrargyri Subchloridi Composita

Subchloride of Mercury

l in 5

Sulphurated Antimony

1 in 5

Guaiacum Resin (1 in 2 1/2)

Castor Oil

Ipecacuanhae cum Scilla

Compound Powder of Ipecacuanha

3 in 5

Squill . . .

l in 5

Ammoniacum (1 in 5)

Treacle

Phosphori . . .

Phosphorus . . .

1 in 90

Balsam of Tolu .

1 in 2 1/4

Yellow Wax .

Curd Soap

2-4 grs.

Plumbi cura Opio . .

Acetate of Lead . .

3 in 4

Opium . .

1 in 8

-

Confection of Roses

3-5 grs.

Rhei Composita . .

Rhubarb Root. .

1 in 3 2/3

Socotrine Aloes .

1 in 5

Myrrh

Hard Soap . .

l in 7 1/3

Oil of Peppermint.

Glycerine and Treacle

Saponis Composita (syn. Opii)

Opium ....

1 in 5

-

-

Hard Soap .

Glycerine . .

3-5 grs.

Scammonii Composita.

Resin of Scammony .

1 in 6

Resin of Jalap .

1 in 6

Strong Tincture of Ginger

Rectified Spirit .

5-15 grs.

Curd Soap . .

1 in 6

Scillae Composita . .

Squill ....

l in 6 1/4

Ammoniacum .

l in 6 1/4

Ginger . . . .

Hard Soap

Treacle

u.s.p. (15). Vide also Masssae.

Aloes. . . .

Purified Aloes . .

1 in 2

Soap . . . .

l in 2

-

-

1-5 pills

Aloes et Asafoetidae .

,, ,, . .

l in 3

,, . . .

l in 3

Asafoetida . .

-

2-5 pills

Aloes et Ferri . .

,, ,, . .

1 in 3

Sulphate of Iron .

l in 3

Aromatic Powder .

Confection of Rose

1-3 pills

Aloes et Mastiches .

,, ,, . .

2 in 3

-

-

Mastic . . .

Red Rose . .

1 pill

Aloes et Myrrhae .

,, ,,

l in1 3/4

Myrrh . . . .

1 in3 1/2

Aromatic Powder .

Syrup . . .

3-6 pills

Antimonii Compositae (Plummer's Pills)

Sulphurated Antimony.

l in 4

Mild Chloride of Mercury

l in 4

Guaiac . . .

Mucilage of Traga-canth

1-2 pills

Asafoetidae . . .

Asafoetida . . .

3 in 4

-

-

-

Soap . . .

1 pill

Catharticae Compositae.

Compound Extract of Colocynth

1 in 3

(nearly)

Abstract of Jalap .

1 in 3 1/2

-

Water . . .

1-3 pills

Mild Chloride of Mercury . .

1 in 3 1/2

Gamboge . .

1 in 14

Ferri Compositae . . .

Sulphate of Iron . .

l in 4

Carbonate of Sodium

l in 4

Myrrh . . .

Syrup . . .

2-6 pills

Glycyrrhiza, Extract of Glycyrrhiza

Sugar

Balsam of Tolu

Stronger Ether .

l pill

Ferri Iodidi . .

Reduced Iron, Iodine .

-

-

-

Acacia

Galbani Compositae .

Galbanum . . . .

l in 2 1/3

Myrrh . . .

1 in 2 1/3

Asafoetida . . .

Syrup . . .

2-4 pills

Opii. . . .

Opium ...

l in 1 1/4

-

-

-

Soap . . .

l pill

Phosphori . . .

Phosphorus . . . .

1 in 100

Althaea . . .

1 in 2 1/2

Acacia . . .

Balsam of Tolu .

1-2 pills

Glycerin

Chloroform . .

Stronger Ether

Rhei . . . .

Rhubarb . . .

l in 1 1/3

-

-

-

Soap . . .

1-6 pills

Rhei Compositae . .

,, . . . .

l in 2 1/3

Aloes . . .

l in 3

Myrrh . . .

-

2-4 pills

Oil of Peppermint

weight than five grains, as they then become too bulky to be swallowed easily. Those of the U.S.P. are four grains each. In their composition the old rule of curare cito, tute, et jucunde, has been pretty strictly followed, and most of them in addition to the basis contain an adjuvant, corrective, and vehicle (see Table, pp. 522, 523). To prevent them sticking together they are generally shaken with some dry powder, such as lycopodium, carbonate of magnesium, flour, starch, or liquorice powder. Sometimes they are gilt or silvered by shaking them while freshly prepared, and without the addition of any dusting powder, along with gold or silver leaf in a hollow spherical wooden box. Sometimes pills are coated with sugar. Recently a coating of firm gelatine has been used, and perhaps the best coating of all in certain cases is keratin (q. v.).

Pulveres. Powders. - The fineness of powders is ascertained by the size of the meshes of the sieve through which they pass, and is represented by numbers ranging from No. 20 to No. 60, these numbers indicating the numbers of parallel wires of ordinary thickness within a linear inch forming the meshes of the sieves used. The officinal powders contain two or more substances triturated and mixed together.

B.P. (15).

Dose.

Pulvis

Amygdalae Compositus......................................................

60-120 grs.

"

Antimonialis.......................................................................

3-10 grs.

"

Catechu Compositus..........................................................

20-40 grs.

"

Cinnamomi Compositus......................................................

3-10 grs.

"

Cretae Aromaticus..............................................................

10-60 grs.

"

" " Cum Opio...............................................

10-40 grs.

"

Elaterini Compositus..........................................................

1/2-5 grs.

"

Glycyrrhizae Compositus...................................................

30-60 grs.

"

Ipecacuanhae Compositus...................................................

5-15 grs.

"

Jalapae Compositus............................................................

20-60 grs.

"

Kino Compositus................................................................

5-20 grs.

"

Opii Compositus.................................................................

2-5 grs.

"

Rhei Compositus................................................................

20-60 grs.

"

Scammonii Compositus.....................................................

10-20 grs.

"

Tragacanthae Compositus..................................................

20-60 grs.

u.s.p. (9).

Dose.

Pulvis

Antimonialis.................................................

3-8 grs. (0.2-0.52 gm.).

"

Aromaticus...................................................

10-30 grs. (0.65-1.95 gm.).

"

Cretae Compositus.......................................

10-30 grs. (0.65-1.95 gm.).

"

Effervescens Compositus............................

One powder.

"

Glycyrrhizae Compositus...........................

30-60 grs. (1.95-3.9 gm.).

"

Ipecacuanhae et Opii.................................

5-15 grs. (0.33-1 gm.).

"

Jalapae Compositus...................................

30 60 grs. (1.95-3.9 gm.).

"

Morphinae Compositus.............................

10 grs. (0.65 gm.).

"

Rhei Compositus.......................................

30-60 grs. (1.95-3.9 gm.).

Resinae. Resins. - These are brittle, amorphous solids, consisting of an acid or mixtures of acids formed by the oxidation of terpenes which are volatile hydrocarbons having the formula C10H16. Resins are insoluble in water, but soluble in spirit. They melt when heated, and solidify again on cooling. They dissolve in alkalies, forming a kind of soap. They frequently occur in plants along with unoxidised volatile oils as oleo-resins. Resins may be obtained from oleo-resins, e.g. turpentine, by simple distillation, when the volatile oil distils over and the resin remains. They may be got by heating the part of the plant in which they are contained, e.g. guaiac resin. They may be prepared by dissolving them out of the plants by means of alcohol and removing the alcohol by distillation, or precipitating them by throwing the strong tincture into water. Resins are of an acid nature, and the addition of a little mineral acid to water causes them to be precipitated more readily.