The uncrystallised residue of the refining of sugar.

Characters. - A thick brown fermentable syrup, very sweet; not crystallising by rest or evaporation. Specific gravity about 1.40. Test. - Nearly free from empyreumatic odour or flavour.

Preparations.

b.p.

Pilula Aloes et Myrrhae (p. 522). „ Asafoetidae Composita. „ Conii Composita. ,, Ipecacuanhae et Scillae.

Pilula Rhei Composita.

,, Scillae Composita. Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinae.

Use. - To make up some of the pills of the Pharmacopoeia. With sulphur it is used as a domestic laxative.

Avenae Farina. Oatmeal. Not officinal. - The meal prepared from the seeds of Avenci sativa, the common oat.

Composition. - The seeds contain starch, gluten, and gum. The pericarp contains an amorphous alkaloid. This alkaloid is soluble in alcohol. It is more abundant in dark than in light oats. It probably gives to them their bitterish taste.

Action. - The alkaloid appears to act chiefly as a stimulant of the motor ganglia. It increases the excitability of the muscles, and in horses causes excitement.

Uses. - Oatmeal is chiefly used for making gruel or porridge, which, in addition to being nutritious, acts as a demulcent in coughs, and as a slight laxative. Warm oatmeal porridge at bed-time may have a soporific action (p. 198), though the exciting action of the alkaloid may render panada, indian corn, or lentils preferable. An infusion, decoction, or tincture has been recommended as a stimulant to replace opium in persons addicted to opium-eating, in order to help them to break off that habit.