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A Text-Book Of Pharmacology, Therapeutics And Materia Medica | by T. Lauder Brunton



The rapid exhaustion of the second edition of this work has prevented me from making as many improvements in the present edition as I could have desired. At the same time I have tried, as far as the short time at my disposal would allow, to amend the imperfections of former editions, as well as to bring the work up to date and render it more useful by the introduction of new matter. The treatment of one of the most important portions of Pharmacology, viz. the Connection between Chemical Constitution and Physiological Action, is still very meagre, because I find that the size of this work would be too much increased were I to treat the subject fully, and I am therefore preparing a small text-book upon it...

TitleA Text-Book Of Pharmacology, Therapeutics And Materia Medica
AuthorT. Lauder Brunton
PublisherMacmillan And Co
Year1885
Copyright1885, Macmillan And Co
AmazonA text-book of pharmacology, therapeutics and materia medica

By T. Lauder Brunton, M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S, Fellow Of The Royal College Of Physicians J Assistant - Physician And Lecturer On Materia Medica At St Bartholomew's Hospital; Examiner In Materia Medica In The Universities Of Oxford And Of London J Late Examiner In The University Of Edinburgh, In The Victoria University, And In The Royal College Of Physicians, London

Adapted To The United States Pharmacopoeia By Francis H. Williams, M.D.Boston, Mass.

Third Edition

London

Macmillan And Co

The right of translation is reserved

Printed By Spottiswoode And Co., New-Steeet Square, London

To The Memory of Sir Robert Christison, Bart. etc.

His Honoured Teacher And To Carl Ludwig, His Beloved Master

This Book Is Gratefully Dedicated By The Author

-Preface To The Third Edition
The rapid exhaustion of the second edition of this work has prevented me from making as many improvements in the present edition as I could have desired. At the same time I have tried, as far as the s...
-Preface To The Third Edition. Continued
Perhaps it may be well to take this opportunity of saying a few words in regard to homoeopathic remedies and homoeopathy generally. The mere fact that a drug in small doses will cure a disease exhibi...
-Preface To The First Edition
Some apology is required for the long delay in the appearance of this work, for a number of years have now elapsed since it was advertised as being in the press. More than fifteen years ago, I had a w...
-Articles and Preparations included in the British Pharmacopoeia Of 1885, Which Were Not In That Of 1867 Nor in the ' Additions ' of 1874
Acidum Boricum. Acidum Carbolicum Liquefactum. Acidum Chromicum. Acidum Hydrobromicum Dilutum. Acidum Lacticum. Acidum Lacticum Dilutum. Acidum Meconicum. Acidum Oleicum. Acidum Phosphoricum C...
-Preparations the Composition of which has been altered
(Minor alterations are not included.) Acidum Sulphurosum. Alumen. Antimonium Sulphuratum. Extractum Cinchonae Liquidum. Infusum Cinchonae Acidum. Injectio Morphinae Hypodermica. Liquor Epispast...
-Introduction
By Materia Medica we understand a knowledge of the remedies employed in medicine. This knowledge may be subdivided into several divisions: Materia Medica proper, Pharmacy, Pharmacology, and Therapeuti...
-Section I. General Pharmacology And Therapeutics. Chapter I. General Relations Between The Organism And Substances Affecting It
In discussing the inter-action between the animal organism and the substances which act upon it, it may be well to take a slight glance first at the substances which compose its environment, although ...
-Nature of the Elements
Considerable additions have been made to the number of elements during late years. The reason of this is that the spectroscope has indicated the presence of metals previously unknown, and by the use o...
-Nature of the Elements. Continued
This behaviour of the element appears to show that it also is a compound, but that it is stable under ordinary conditions, and is only dissociated at a high temperature. Other proofs of this hypothes...
-Classification of the Elements
The vegetable and animal kingdoms are divided into various groups. Formerly, men tried to arrange them in linear succession so that there should be an unbroken line from the lowest to the highest memb...
-Classification of the Elements. Continued
The last members of the even series resemble in many respects (in their lower oxides, etc.), the first members of the uneven series; thus chromium and manganese in their basic oxides are analogous to ...
-Mendelejeff's Classification Of The Elements
The relationships of the metal which Mendelejeff believed would fill this gap will be more easily seen by omitting the even series on either side of it, and taking only the odd series with which it wi...
-Organic Radicals
Whether the so-called elements be compounds or not, it is certain that several of them have the power of uniting with themselves and with others in such a way as to form bodies called compound radical...
-Chemical Reactions and Physiological Reactions
Each element and each of its compounds has chemical reactions special to itself, by which it can be recognised and distinguished from all others. The number of these chemical reactions is therefore ve...
-Relation Between Isomorphism And Physiological Action
From a number of experiments made by Dr. Blake, he concluded that when inorganic salts were injected directly into the circulation, the intensity of their physiological action increased in proportion ...
-Relation between Spectroscopic Characters and Physiological Action
The quickness with which a pendulum oscillates is less or greater according to its length, a long one oscillating slowly, and a short one quickly. The vibrations of a string or pipe are also slow or q...
-Relation between Atomic Weight and Physiological Action
From experiments made on the toxic action of the chloride, bromide, and iodide of potassium, Bouchardat and Stewart Cooper came to the conclusion that a relation existed between the physiological acti...
-Relation of Atomic Weight and Smell
The idea has been put forward by Ramsay that the sense of smell is excited by vibrations of a lower period than those which give rise to the sense of light or heat. These vibrations are conveyed by ga...
-Relation of Atomic Weight to Taste
Haycraft considers2 that 'quality' in taste depends upon the nature of the atoms found in the sapid molecule. A study of the periodic law demonstrates that similar tastes are produced by combinations ...
-Connection between Chemical Composition and Physiological Action
In considering this subject and other subjects allied to it, we must carefully distinguish between chemical composition and chemical constitution; between the mere elements of which a compound is form...
-Physiological Action Of The Constituents Of A Drug
In the case of acids and bases, the physiological action of each is modified by their union, e.g. when caustic soda and hydrochloric acid unite, the caustic action of each is destroyed, and we obtain ...
-Relation between Physiological Action and Chemical Constitution
An immense step has been made of late years in our knowledge of the relation between chemical constitution and physiological action by the discoveries of Crum-Brown, Fraser, and Schroff, who have show...
-Chapter II. Circumstances Which Affect The Action Of Drugs On The Organism
One of the most important circumstances affecting the action of any drug is the mode in which it is brought into contact with the various parts of the organism. Local And Remote Action The local act...
-Direct And Indirect Action
The direct action of a drug is the effect it produces on any organ with which it comes in contact. Thus sulphuric acid applied to the skin, or taken into the stomach, will, according to its degree of ...
-Selective Action Of Drugs
Drugs sometimes seem to affect only one part of the body and to leave the other organs unaffected; although the drugs may be carried equally by the blood to every part of the body, they appear to comb...
-Primary And Secondary Action
I have already stated (p. 5) that the so-called action of a drug is not one-sided: it is the reaction between the drug and the organism. While drugs are circulating in the body they may modify the che...
-Relation Of Effect To Quantity Of The Drug
The effect of drugs varies very much according to the quantity employed. Sometimes this is due to the interaction of different parts of the body on one another, as already mentioned in regard to verat...
-Homoeopathy
This opposite action of large and small doses seems to be the basis of truth on which the doctrine of homoeopathy has been founded. The irrational practice of giving infinitesimal doses has of course ...
-Mode Of Administration
If a substance be injected into the veins, the whole of it mixes with the blood and becomes active immediately, and the maximum effect is thus at once obtained and will again diminish as the substance...
-Duration Of Action Of Drugs
When a soluble drug is introduced into the stomach, it will undergo absorption, and the whole of it may possibly be absorbed without any portion of it even passing into the intestine. After absorption...
-Cumulative Action
If a substance be naturally so slowly excreted from the body that the whole of the dose in ordinary use is not excreted before another is given, the amount present in the body will gradually increase,...
-Effect Of Fasting
When a drug is given upon an empty stomach, it is usually absorbed much more rapidly. Thus the same quantity of alcohol which would have no effect on a man if taken during or after dinner, might intox...
-Effect Of Conditions Of The Stomach
In some conditions of the nervous system, absorption takes place much more slowly than others; indeed, both digestion and absorption appear to be sometimes totally arrested. Thus in persons in whom a ...
-Effect Of Habit
The tissues seem to have a certain power of adapting themselves to changes in their surroundings. Thus salt-water amoebae will die when placed at once in fresh water, but if the fresh water be added v...
-The Effect Of Temperature
Chemical reactions, as a rule, go on more rapidly the higher the temperature, excepting when very high temperatures are reached and dissociation occurs. The effect of drugs upon living organisms may b...
-Effect Of Season
The action of drugs is altered by the changes in temperature due to the seasons. Galen supposed that the quantity of blood in the body was increased in spring, and in this country, till within recent ...
-Effect Of Disease
The direct and indirect, the local and remote action of drugs upon the complicated mechanism of a mammalian body is so perplexing that the attempt to ascertain the precise mode of action of a drug by ...
-Comparative Pharmacology
It may seem almost absurd to those unacquainted with the subject, that so much attention should be devoted to experiments on the effect of drugs on the lower animals, when our object is, as we have ju...
-Idiosyncrasy
In their onward development from the lowest forms of life, man and the higher animals have not only permanently retained in their bodies certain parts which resemble organisms low in the scale of exis...
-Experiments Upon Healthy Man
As the action of drugs upon animals is to a certain extent different from that on man, it is undoubtedly desirable to ascertain the action of drugs by experiments upon healthy man. This is all the mor...
-Fallacies Of Experiment Upon Man
But the high development of the nervous system in man, its susceptibility to various influences, and the power of expression which man possesses - the very qualities which render him such a valuable s...
-Experiments In Disease
In the present state of medicine every attempt which we make to treat disease by the administration of medicine partakes more or less of the nature of experiment, because we can rarely be absolutely c...
-Objections To Experiment
Some people object entirely to experiments upon animals. They do this chiefly on two grounds. The first is that such experiments are useless, and the second is that, even if they were useful, we have ...
-Erroneous Deductions From Experiments
A great fault - and one which is only too common in the works of experimental pharmacologists - is that of drawing general conclusions from limited data. One experimenter tries the effect of a drug, ...
-Chapter III. Action Of Drugs On Protoplasm, Blood, And Low Organisms. Action Of Drugs On Albumin
In all living bodies we find that the protoplasm is of a more or less albuminous nature. Albuminous substances possess a very complex inter-molecular grouping, and very high atomic weights. Many diff...
-Action of Drugs on Protoplasmic Movements
The amoeba consists of a small mass of structureless protoplasm, without any distinct cell-wall. It contains numerous granules and nucleus, with nucleolus, as well as one or more vacuoles, which appe...
-Amoebae
The effect of heat and cold upon the movements is very marked, cold rendering them slow, or arresting them altogether. Heat at first greatly quickens their movements, but when raised to 35 C. it ...
-Leucocytes
In their appearance and movements leucocytes strongly resemble amoebae: they are affected in a similar manner by heat, electricity, and drugs. Their resistance to the action of drugs varies somewhat i...
-Effect Of Drugs
Cinchona alkaloids - quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, and cinchonidine have a remarkable power of arresting these movements in the proportion of 1 in 1,500. They quickly stop the migratory movements of...
-Movements Of Leucocytes In The Blood-Vessels
In the processes of inflammation leucocytes pass in great numbers through the walls of the capillaries. The effect of quinine in arresting their movements, when mixed with them directly, naturally le...
-Red Blood Corpuscles
The size of the red corpuscles is diminished by carbonic acid, by morphine, or by warmth, either applied locally on the hot stage of a microscope, or acting on them in the vessels of an animal sufferi...
-Action of Drugs on Infusoria
Among the infusoria, like the amoebae, each individual consists of a single mass of protoplasm, and not of a number of distinct cells; but the protoplasm is differentiated. Round the greater part of t...
-Relations of Motion and Oxidation
All animals, from the lowest to the highest, evidence their life by motion at one time or another; and the energy required for this motion is maintained by processes of combustion. The materials for ...
-Oxidation Of Protoplasm
The movements of protoplasm are intimately connected with processes of oxidation going on in it. By these processes chemical energy is converted into the mechanical energy exhibited in the movements,...
-Action of Drugs on Blood
The haemoglobin of blood has also the power of taking up oxygen readily and giving it freely off again. Haemoglobin free from oxygen, or, as it is sometimes called, reduced haemoglobin , is recognised...
-Catalysis Fermentation. - Inorganic Ferments
There are many examples of chemical reactions which only occur between two bodies when a third is present, which may nevertheless be found unchanged at the end of the process. Notwithstanding the fact...
-Ferments Organic and Organised
The mechanical energy displayed in the movements of protoplasm is supplied by processes of chemical change, and chiefly of oxidation. By these processes some of the substances contained in the protop...
-Action Of Drugs On Enzymes
Although, with the exception of a kind of pepsin in the naked protoplasm of aethalium septicum, a species of myxomycetes,1 enzymes have not been shown to be present in the protoplasm of the lowest org...
-Zymogens
As several enzymes act readily in neutral or slightly alkaline fluids, it is evident that if they existed free in every part of the animal body, they would soon lead to its speedy destruction. Accordi...
-Organised Ferments
The chief organised ferments are the yeast-plant, which produces alcohol and carbonic acid from grape sugar, and various kinds of bacteria, one of which produces butyric, another lactic, and another a...
-Yeasts
The yeast-plant, to which various names have been given, as torula cerevisiae, saccharomyces, consists of ovoid cells, which multiply by budding. The buds may remain attached, forming torula-chains, b...
-Mould Fungi, Or Hyphomycetes
These form long filaments or hyphae, which become agglomerated into a mycelium or mass of compact tufts. They multiply not only by gemmation, but by the formation of spores. These moulds vary conside...
-Bacteria, Or Schizomycetes
Bacteria are every day becoming more and more important on account of the relation in which they are found to stand to various diseases. Anthrax, diphtheria, phthisis, and typhoid fever, are probably ...
-The Struggle For Existence Between The Organism And The Microbes Which Invade It
This has been found by Metschnikoff to occur both in the blood and the tissues. In the daphne, or water-flea, where the tissues are transparent, he has been able to observe the spores of a kind of yea...
-Action of Drugs on the Movements of Bacteria
Mode Of Experimenting In order to test the effect of a drug on the movements of bacteria already developed, a drop of the solution containing bacteria may be mixed, under the microscope, with a drop ...
-Action of Drugs on the Reproduction of Bacteria in general
The spores of bacteria have an enormous power of resisting agents destructive to their vitality, very much greater than that of the fully-developed bacteria. Thus it happens that a quantity of an anti...
-Action of Drugs on particular species of Bacilli
In these experiments of De la Croix, however, the nature of the bacteria experimented on was not determined, and there might be a mixture of several sorts. Koch has therefore sought to ascertain the a...
-Action of Drug's on the Development and Growth of Bacilli
In order to test the action of disinfectants on the development and growth of bacteria, Koch put into a number of small watch-glasses, or rather crystallisation-glasses with flat bottoms, a few drops ...
-Alterations In Bacteria By Heat And Soil
By careful cultivation through successive generations of a slip taken from a wild fruit-tree, the chemical processes of growth may be so modified in it that the fruit will lose its acrid character and...
-Possible Identity of Different Forms of Bacteria
It has already been mentioned that we are not quite certain whether all the species, genera, or even orders of bacteria are natural divisions, or whether the same organism under various conditions of ...
-Action Of Bacteria And Their Products On The Animal Body
When bacteria are injected into the animal body, they produce different effects according to the original nature of the bacteria or bacilli, the conditions under which they have been cultivated, and t...
-Alkaloids formed by Putrefaction. Ptomaines
From decomposing organic matter substances can be separated which have all the characters of alkaloids. The alkaloids produced by putrefaction are usually known by the name of ptomaines. It was at on...
-Leucomaines
Gautier, to whom much of our knowledge regarding alkaloids produced by albuminous decomposition is due, has given the name of leucomaines to alkaloids which are not produced by putrefaction due to bac...
-Antiseptics, Antizymotics, Disinfectants, Deodorizers
These classes of remedies are often confounded together. It is well, however, to distinguish their meanings: Antizymotics are remedies which arrest fermentation. It has already been mentioned (p. 73e...
-Uses Of Antiseptics
Antiseptics are employed externally in order to destroy microbes before their entrance into the body, and are administered internally with a like object, or for the purpose of at least preventing the ...
-Disinfectants
These are generally employed in order to destroy the germs of disease in the excreta of a patient suffering from an infectious disease, or those germs which may be adhering to articles of clothing or ...
-Deodorizers
Deodorizers are mainly strong oxidizing and deoxidizing substances, as chlorine and its oxides, sulphurous acid, nitrous acid, ozone, peroxide of hydrogen, permanganate of potassium. Charcoal, in addi...
-Antiperiodics
These are remedies which lessen the severity or prevent the return of attacks of certain diseases which tend to recur periodically. The chief of these are :Cinchona bark and its alkaloids :Quinine. C...
-Chapter IV. Action Of Drugs On Invertebrata
The study of the action of drugs on invertebrata has not been carried out methodically to any great extent, but it offers a very promising field for investigation, and probably in the course of a few ...
-Action Of Drugs On Invertebrata. Continued
In healthy medusae chloroform first arrests the spontaneous movements of the bell. When now irritated it answers by a single contraction, instead of by a series, to such stimulation. After the bell h...
-Action of Drugs on Mollusca
In the lamelliforanchiata, instead of a chain of ganglia, as in the medusae, we have three pairs of ganglia : cerebral at the mouth, pedal in the foot, and parietal-splanchnic supplying the bronchial ...
-Action of Drugs on Ascidians
The heart in ascidians consists of a tube open at both ends, and which, by its contraction, drives the visceral fluid alternately towards the viscera and away from them. Its action does not seem to de...
-Action of Drugs on Annulosa
In annulosa the nervous system consists of ganglia in each segment united together by nervous bundles. These bundles in general appearance correspond with the gangliated cord of the sympathetic in hig...
-Chapter V. Action Of Drugs On Muscle. Action Of Drugs On Voluntary Muscle
In the bodies of animals we find the protoplasmic masses or cells of which they are composed variously modified, in order to perform special functions. In some the power of nutrition is chiefly devel...
-Irritability Of Muscle
In order to ascertain the irritability of muscle itself or the readiness with which it responds to various stimuli independently of the nerves within it, the muscle is first poisoned by curare, and th...
-Latent Period Of The Muscle
The mechanical energy developed by muscle during its contraction is derived from chemical energy liberated by changes in the constituents of the muscle itself. These are of the nature of oxidation, an...
-Contraction Of Muscle
In the muscular curve we notice (1) the rapidity of its rise, which indicates the rapidity of contraction of the muscle; (2) its length, indicating the duration of contraction; (3) its height, indicat...
-Fatigue
Fatigue makes the ascent slow, the height less, and the descent slow (Fig. 44). Exhaustion of the animal has a similar action; and dilute acids applied to the muscle produce the same effect (Fig. 36)...
-Contracture
When the stimulation is exceedingly strong, the relaxation after contraction may become very slow, and the descent of the curve may be divided into two parts. At first it descends for a short time pre...
-Tetanus
If instead of a single stimulation a number of stimuli rapidly succeeding each other are applied either directly to the muscle itself or to its motor nerve, we get, in place of a single contraction, a...
-Muscular Poisons
We may distinguish several groups of muscular poisons, but at present the classification is difficult, and the division into six groups based on that of Robert, which I have adopted, although it posse...
-Muscular Poisons. Continued
Fig. 48. - Tracing of the contraction curve of a muscle poisoned by veratrine, showing enormous prolongation of the contraction, the recording cylinder making many complete revolutions before the musc...
-Massage
The effect of kneading a muscle so as to remove the waste products from it is very extraordinary. When the muscles of an uninjured frog are stimulated to contraction by the rhythmic application of ma...
-Propagation Of The Contraction Wave In Muscle
When a muscle is irritated at one point, the contraction wave which occurs at that point is conducted along the muscle in both directions. This contraction wave, like that which occurs in the contrac...
-Rhythmical Contraction Of Muscle
Rhythmical contraction is frequently regarded as a function of involuntary muscular fibre only; this, however, is not the case, for it is observed also in voluntary muscles. Rhythmical contraction of ...
-Pathology of Tremor
Rapid alternation of contraction and relaxation, or tremor, may be observed to affect either - (a) a few bundles of muscular fibres, (b) a single muscle, or (c) groups of muscles. The tremors affecti...
-Treatment Of Tremor
If tremor should depend upon insufficient rapidity of the stimuli passing to the muscles from the nerve-centres, it is evident that any drug which, like veratrine, will increase the duration of each i...
-Connection between Chemical Constitution and Physiological Action on Muscle
I have already mentioned (p. 29) that one can hardly look for a general relation between the atomic weights of metals and their lethal activity, so that what we want is really a knowledge of the parti...
-Action of Drugs on Muscle is Relative and not Absolute
In considering the action of drugs on muscle, the first point which comes clearly out is that the action of a drug on the muscle is not absolute, but merely relative. Thus veratrine and salts of bariu...
-Action of Drugs on Involuntary Muscular Fibre Contraction
Involuntary muscles, with the exception of the heart, differ from voluntary not only in their anatomical structure but in their functional activity: instead of contracting or relaxing rapidly, both th...
-Effect Of Stimuli
Mechanical distension appears to be one of the most powerful of all stimuli to excite rrrythmical contraction in involuntary muscular fibre. Luchsinger observed distinct pulsation in the veins of a b...
-Propagation Of Contraction Waves
Although involuntary muscular fibre consists of short cells and not of long fibres like voluntary muscle, yet the contraction wave may be propagated along a strip of involuntary muscular tissue in bot...
-Hypothetical Considerations regarding the Action of Drugs on Muscle
The modifications which drugs produce in the functions of the animal body and of its parts are so numerous and varied that we are unable fully to explain them on the basis of our present physiological...
-Chapter VI. Action Of Drugs On Nerves. General Action Of Drugs On The Nervous System
In low organisms the contractile protoplasm fulfils the functions of both nerve and muscle, but as we ascend in the scale differentiation becomes more and more complete. From their original common ori...
-Action of Drugs on Motor Nerves
The readiness with which a muscle responds to a stimulus depends both on the condition of the muscle itself, and on the terminations of motor nerves within it. A faradaic current readily stimulates th...
-Paralysis Of Motor Nerve - Endings
Curare produces symptoms of paralysis. Paralysis may be due to the action of the drug on the muscles themselves, on the motor nerves which set them in action, or on the nerve-centres which originate m...
-Advantage Of The Method Of Local Protection
The advantage of this method is that it affords information regarding the action of the poison upon other parts of the nervous system, viz. the nerve-centres and sensory nerves, as well as upon the mo...
-Paralysers Of Motor Nerves
Many other drugs have an action somewhat similar to that of curare upon the motor nerves :Ammonium cyanide.1 iodide. Ethyl ammonium chloride.1 Amyl ammonium chloride.1 iodid...
-Exact Localisation of the Action of Curare
The experiments already described have shown that curare does not paralyse the trunks of motor nerves (p. 148), nor the muscular substance (p. 148), and does paralyse the peripheral terminations of th...
-Action of Drugs in Increasing Excitability of Motor Nerves
It is not so easy to prove positively that a drug has increased as that it has diminished the excitability of motor nerves. The fact that the nerves of the poisoned leg are found to be more excitable ...
-Irritation Of Motor Nerve-Endings By Drugs
The peripheral terminations of motor nerves in muscle appear to be irritated by certain poisons, so that the excised muscle exhibits fibrillary twitchings. This might be due to irritation of the muscu...
-Action Of Drugs On The Trunks Of Motor Nerves
Nerve-trunks are, as a rule, very much less affected by poisons than the end-plates; but they may, nevertheless, be also acted upon by strong solutions of a poison. It appears necessary to apply the p...
-Action of Drugs on Sensory Nerves
The general action of a drug on sensory nerves is much more difficult to ascertain with precision than its effect upon motor nerves, because the evidences of sensation we have in the lower animals are...
-Local Sedatives And Local Anaesthetics
Local sedatives are substances which diminish, and local anaesthetics are substances which destroy, the sensibility of the skin for the time being. Local Sedatives. Aconite. Atropine. Belladonna. ...
-Chapter VII. Action Of Drugs On The Spinal Cord
In the spinal cord we have to distinguish three functions : that of conduction, that of reflex action, and that of origination of nerve-force, as in the sweat-centres, etc, contained in it. The spina...
-Action On The Conducting Power Of The Cord
Its conducting power for motor impulses is assumed to be impaired when it is noticed that any drug causes partial paralysis of the hinder extremities of an animal before the anterior extremities. It ...
-Action On The Conducting Power Of The Cord. Continued
1 For convenience sake both the sciatic and the brachial nerves are taken in this experiment on the opposite side from the muscle, so that the time of longitransmission of stimuli in the cord is ascer...
-Direct, Indirect, And Inhibitory Paralysis Of The Spinal Cord By Drugs
When it is found that the reflex action of the cord is greatly diminished or apparently entirely abolished, it must not be at once concluded that this is necessarily due to the direct paralysing actio...
-Spinal Depressants
The following drugs belong to this class :Depress without marked previous excitement. Antimony. Emetin. Ergot. Hydrocyanic acid. Methylconime. Saponine. Physostigmine. Turpentine. Zinc. Silver...
-Inhibitory Paralysis
The higher parts of the nervous system have the power of lessening the action of the lower, and in the frog this power seems to be especially marked in the optic lobes. Irritation of these either mech...
-Nature Of Inhibition
Inhibition and the action of drugs on inhibitory centres play a very important part indeed in pharmacology, and on the present hypothesis they are very puzzling. By inhibition we mean the power of re...
-Interference
In the case of both sound and light we find that if two waves should fall upon one another so that their crests coincide, the intensity of the sound or light is increased (Fig. 61), while if they fall...
-Interference In Nervous Structures
Supposing nervous stimuli to consist of vibrations like those of light or sound, the action which any nerve-cell would have upon the others connected with it would be stimulant or inhibitory according...
-Effect Of Altered Rate Of Transmission
But it is evident that the coincidence or interference of nervous stimuli travelling along definite nerve-paths, will vary according to the rate at which they travel, so that when stimuli which ordina...
-Stimulation And Inhibition On This Hypothesis Are Merely Consequences Of Relation
Stimulation and Inhibition are not due to any particular stimulating or inhibitory centres; they are merely dependent on the wave-length of nervous stimuli or the rapidity of transmission, and on the ...
-Stimulation And Inhibition On Hypothesis Are Merely Consequences Of Relation. Part 2
1 Marshall Hall, Memoirs on the Nervous System, p. 7 (London, 1837). Wit-kowski, Archiv fur exper. Path. und Pharm., Band vii. p. 247. Ammonium bromide also causes, first, complete loss of voluntary ...
-Stimulation And Inhibition On This Hypothesis Are Consequences Of Relation. Part 3
This view is to some extent borne out by the different effect produced by a constant current upon these convulsions, according as it is passed transversely or longitudinally through the spinal cord. R...
-Stimulating Action of Drugs on the Reflex Powers of the Cord
The reflex action of the cord is greatly increased by certain drugs, more especially by ammonia and by strychnine. The action of strychnine was first investigated by Magendie, and his research is not ...
-Stimulating Action of Drugs on the Reflex Powers of the Cord. Continued
Fig. 66. - Diagram illustrating Magendie's method of investigating the mode of action of upas (strychnine). A, femoral vein; B, peritoneum; c, pleura; d, femoral artery; E, F, g, spinal cord, to whi...
-Spinal Stimulants
Spinal stimulants are remedies which increase the functional activity of the spinal cord. Ammonia. Strychnine. Brucine. Absinthe. Nicotine. Thebaine. Gelsemine. Buxine. Calabarine. Caffeine. Th...
-Chapter VIII. Action Of Drugs On The Brain
We are able to judge to a certain extent of the order and kind of action of drugs upon the different parts of the nerve-centres by-watching their effect upon the movements of animals after their injec...
-Functions of the Brain in Mammals
In higher animals, such as rabbits and guinea-pigs, the cerebral hemispheres are comparatively much more developed than in the frog, and their removal interferes very much with the animal's motions. A...
-Depressant Action of Drugs on the Motor Centres
The excitability of the brain may be altered either by conditions which modify the nerve-cells or the circulation. A deficient circulation greatly depresses the excitability, and it is very low when m...
-Irritant Action of Drugs on Motor Centres in the Brain
Certain drugs when administered to animals or taken by man produce convulsions. The muscular actions which occur in these convulsive movements may be induced by (a) irritation of the motor centres in ...
-Action Of Drugs On The Sensory And Psychical Centres In The Brain
The effect of drugs upon the higher mental functions can only be ascertained satisfactorily in man. These functions vary in complexity from simple choice to the highest efforts of genius. The effect ...
-Drugs which increase the Functional Activity of the Brain
Nerve Stimulants These are remedies which increase the nervous activity of the cerebro-spinal system. They are subdivided into those which act on the cerebrum, or cerebral stimulants, and those which...
-Hypnotics or Soporifics
These are remedies which induce sleep. Although many of them are also narcotic, yet we may distinguish between hypnotics and narcotics. Pure hypnotics are substances which in the doses necessary to pr...
-Narcotics
Narcotics are substances which lessen our relationships with the external world. They are closely related, as I have already stated, to stimulants; and alcohol in the various stages of its action affo...
-Anodynes or Analgesics
Anodynes are remedies which relieve pain by lessening the excitability of nerves or of nerve-centres. They are divided into local or general: Local Anodynes. Cold-Cold water. Ice-bags. Warmth - Poul...
-Anaesthetics
Anaesthetics are remedies which destroy sensation. It has already been mentioned that both sensation and pain require for their perception a certain condition of the cerebral centres and of the senso...
-Dangers Of Anaesthetics
(1) One danger is that just mentioned, of paralysis of the respiration from an overdose. This, however, is one of the least of the dangers, and if the enfeeble-ment of the respiration be observed in t...
-Mode Of Administering Anaesthetics
In order to obtain the first stages of the action of anaesthetics, as in cases of intestinal, biliary, or renal colic, intense neuralgia, or in parturition, the best means of administration is one for...
-Anaesthesia in Animals
In the course of many investigations into the action of drugs on animals it is necessary to perform experiments which would be painful unless the animals were anaesthetised. The easiest way of doing t...
-Antispasmodics
These are remedies which prevent or relieve spasm. Spasm is contraction of voluntary or involuntary muscles, in a way that is unnecessary or injurious to the organism generally. The spasmodic contrac...
-Action of Drugs on the Cerebellum
The chief function of the cerebellum appears to be the maintenance of equilibrium. Symmetrical lesions on both sides of the organ or division of it down the centre from before backwards, cause very li...
-Chapter IX. Action Of Drugs On The Organs Of Special Sense. Action Of Drugs On The Eye. Action On The Conjunctiva
Before light can reach the retina, it has to pass through the cornea, which is covered by epithelium continuous with that of the conjunctiva. Alterations in either or both of these textures are theref...
-Action Of Drugs On The Lacrimal Secretion
The great power of certain volatile oils, such as those of onion or mustard, to irritate the eyes and cause secretion of tears is well known. The prolonged action of atropine diminishes the secretion....
-Action On The Pupil
The iris is usually said to consist of two muscles, the sphincter, which has circular fibres and contracts the pupil, and the dilator, which has radial fibres and dilates the pupil. All observers are ...
-Mydriatics
General anaesthetics - chloroform, ether, etc. *Atropine. *Belladonna. Belladonnine. Benzoyltropine. Cocaine. Daturine. *Duboisine. Gelsemine locally. *Homatropine (oxytoluylic-acid-tropine). Hy...
-Action On Intra-Ocular Pressure
The intra-ocular pressure depends greatly on the amount of fluid contained in the vitreous, and this in turn is determined by two factors :(1) The amount of fluid secreted by the ciliary body. (2) Th...
-Uses Of Mydriatics And Myotics
Belladonna is employed locally for its sedative action, to relieve pain and allay irritation and inflammation in the conjunctiva, cornea, choroid, or iris. Mydriatics and myotics are used not only fo...
-Action Of Cocaine
Cocaine, when applied locally to the eye, has several actions. It produces local anaesthesia, dilatation of the pupil, and relaxation with more or less complete paralysis of the ciliary muscle. When t...
-Action Of Drugs On The Retina
By a comparison of the retina of a frog kept in darkness with one exposed to light, it has been found that light causes not only the internal segments of the conesl and rods2 but also the pigment-cell...
-Action Of Drugs On The Sensibility Of The Eye
The sensitiveness of the eye to impressions is increased by strychnine, the field of vision becoming larger, and the sight more acute, so that objects can be distinctly observed at a greater distance,...
-Action Of Drugs In Producing Visions
It may be well here to mention the effect of some drugs in causing subjective sensations of sight, although these probably depend rather upon the action of the drugs on the brain, than on the eye itse...
-Toxic Amblyopia
Belladonna taken internally in sufficient quantity causes dilatation of the pupil and misty vision. Alcohol, tobacco, quinine, and lead all cause failure of the power of vision for form and for certai...
-Action of Drugs on Hearing
The sense of hearing depends on the transmission of sonorous vibrations from the air to the auditory nerve by means of the membrana tympani and the ossicles of the ear, and upon the perception of thos...
-Action of Drugs on Smell
Many drugs, such as musk and ethereal oils, have a marked and characteristic smell, due to their effect upon the terminal branches of the olfactory nerve. This nerve is soon exhausted, so that in a ve...
-Action of Drugs on Taste
Most of the substances used in medicine have a strong taste, and many a very unpleasant taste. What is usually termed taste frequently depends on a mixture of taste and smell, and if the sense of sme...
-Chapter X. Action Of Drugs On Respiration. Respiratory Stimulants And Depressants
It is usually supposed by naturalists that in the descent of man from some organism low in the scale of existence, he has passed, at a remote period, through a stage resembling the Ascidians or Tunica...
-Action Of Drugs On Respiration. Respiratory Stimulants And Depressants. Part 2
Such subdivisions appear absurd if we imagine that each centre represents a distinct nervous mass, and we become puzzled to understand how the medulla oblongata can contain so many distinct centres in...
-Action Of Drugs On Respiration. Respiratory Stimulants And Depressants. Part 3
According to Bernstein, want of oxygen appears to stimulate the inspiratory and the presence of carbonic acid to stimulate the expiratory centre.1 As the blood becomes venous the activity of the resp...
-Action of Drugs on the Respiratory Centre
A useful method of testing the action of the drug itself on the respiratory centre is to perform artificial respiration vigorously so as to produce apnoea, to allow the respiration to become normal ag...
-Action of Drugs on the Respiratory Nerves
In experiments regarding the effect of drugs upon the respiration, the voluntary influence of the brain is excluded by the use of ether, chloroform, opium, or chloral, or by section of the crura cereb...
-Sternutatories or Errhines
These are drugs which cause sneezing and increased secretion from the nose when locally applied to it. The drugs must be in a pulverised condition. The chief are :Tobacco (snuff). Veratrum album. Ipec...
-Pathology Of Cough
Cough consists in a deep inspiration followed by a forcible expiration with closed glottis, so that the air is driven rapidly through the larynx, carrying with it foreign substances, liquid or solid, ...
-Remedies which Lessen Irritation
Soothing remedies applied to the pharynx greatly relieve cough, although they do not reach so far down as the epiglottis. Mucilaginous remedies are very useful for this purpose, and they may either be...
-Pulmonary Sedatives
These are remedies which lessen the irritability of the respiratory centre or of the nerves connected with it. The chief drugs which diminish the excitability of the respiratory centre are opium and i...
-Expectorants
Expectorants are remedies which facilitate the removal of secretions from the air-passages. The secretion may be rendered more easy of removal, either by an alteration in its character rendering it le...
-Action Of Drugs On The Secretion
Alkalies, such as carbonate of sodium, injected into the blood, lessen, or in large quantity completely arrest, the secretion of mucus from the trachea. This experimental result is in contradiction t...
-Action Of Drugs On The Expulsive Mechanism
The expectorants which act by increasing the activity of the expulsive apparatus may be divided into (1) Those which increase the rapidity of the ciliary motion in the tracheal mucous membrane. (2) T...
-Arrest Of Colds
Catarrhal affections of the respiratory passages may be excited by irritants of various kinds, and it is probable that these irritants are frequently living organisms. The form of coryza usually calle...
-Selection of Remedies in the treatment of Cough
Cough, as I have already said, is a reflex act which is performed by means of a reflex mechanism, and is adopted for the purpose of expelling foreign bodies from the air-passages. It is evident that, ...
-Action Of Drugs On The Bronchi
The bronchi contain muscular fibres in their walls, which appear to maintain a state of tonic contraction similar to that of the arteries. The motor fibres which supply these muscles are contained in ...
-Pathology Of Bronchial Asthma
The attacks of dyspnoea which occur in spasmodic asthma in all probability depend upon spasmodic contraction of the unstriped muscular fibres in the bronchi. In some cases no definite cause can be ass...
-Treatment Of Asthma
In cases where the cause of the attacks can be ascertained, the cause is to be removed. Thus in gouty patients the free use of water as a beverage, and the administration of iodide and bromide of pota...
-Chapter XI. Action Of Drugs On The Circulation
It has already been mentioned that the cells of which higher organisms are composed live in the intercellular fluid or lymph which bathes them. This nutritive fluid is continually being renewed by fr...
-Arteries And Veins
It is important in this respect to remember that it is only so long as blood is in the arteries that it is available for the nutrition of cells. Once in the veins it is useless for nutrition; and were...
-Blood-Pressure
The continuity of the circulation of blood through the capillaries is not maintained by the heart alone : the elastic pressure of the arteries on the blood within them plays a most important part, and...
-Fainting And Shock
In fainting there is sudden unconsciousness, which appears to be caused by sudden arrest of the supply of blood to the brain. This arrest may be due to a rapid fall in blood-pressure, either from stop...
-Schema Of The Circulation
In order to understand the action of drugs on the circulation it is absolutely necessary to have a clear idea regarding the effect of the heart and capillaries in maintaining the blood-pressure. This ...
-Circulation In The Living Body
The phenomena of the circulation in the heart and vessels are very much the same as in the schema. When the heart stands still (as when the vagus is strongly galvanised), the blood flows from the arte...
-Method of ascertaining the Blood-Pressure
The blood-pressure is usually estimated in animals by connecting a large artery, such as the carotid or femoral, with a bent tube containing mercury by means of a connecting tube, which is filled with...
-Fallacies Of Mercurial Manometers
The oscillating mercurial column does not give the variations in blood-pressure quite truly, because the oscillations are compounded of these variations and of the oscillations due to the inertia of t...
-Fallacies From Anaesthetics
Even if the instrument be free from fallacy, we still have difficulty in ascertaining the real action of the drug on the circulation, inasmuch as the blood-pressure is much affected by movements, and ...
-Alterations in Blood-pressure
In speaking of blood-pressure, arterial blood-pressure is always meant, unless otherwise stated. As the blood-pressure depends on the difference between the quantity pumped into the arterial system b...
-Relation of Pulse-rate and Arterioles to Blood-pressure
Although we are unable, from the mere fact that the blood-pressure rises or falls after the administration of a drug, to say whether the result is due to the action of the drug on the heart or on the ...
-Effect Of The Arterioles On Pulse-Curves
The influence of the arterioles upon the blood-pressure in a living animal can be to a great extent ascertained by the rapidity or slowness of the fall of the blood-pressure during the diastole of the...
-Investigation of the Action of Drugs on the Arterioles
The arterioles become contracted by the action of the involuntary muscular fibre contained in their walls; they dilate partly by their own elasticity and partly by the pressure of fluid within them. ...
-Method Of Measurement By Rate Of Flow
Another method of ascertaining the effect of drugs on the vessels is to measure the amount which flows out of them in a given time. This method may be employed either in the frog or in the higher anim...
-Action of Drugs on Vaso-motor and Vaso-dilating Nerves
The effect which irritation of the vascular nerves produces in the living body is also altered by the action of drugs. This effect is of two kinds - vaso-motor or vaso-contracting, and vasodilating. F...
-Action Of Other Parts On The Blood-Pressure
It has already been mentioned that the blood-pressure rises during muscular exertion, as, for example, during the struggles of an animal. The cause of this has not been definitely ascertained, but it ...
-Reflex Contraction Of Vessels
Experiments on the outflow of blood from divided vessels, while the nervous system is intact, are sometimes made on frogs for the purpose of ascertaining the direct effect of drugs on the arterioles t...
-Action Of Drugs On Reflex Contraction Of Vessels
Irritation of a sensory nerve usually produces reflex stimulation of the vaso-motor centre and consequent contraction of the vessels and rise in the blood-pressure both in the frog and higher animals....
-Comparative Effect Of The Heart And Vessels On Blood-Pressure In Different Animals
The influence of these two factors - the heart and the vessels - on the blood-pressure varies in different animals, and under different conditions; and a number of the discrepancies observed by variou...
-Influence Of Nerves On Blood-Pressure
Both the quickness of the heart's beat and the contraction of the arteries are regulated by the nervous system; and it is generally by their action on it that drugs alter the blood-pressure, though it...
-Action Of The Heart On Blood-Pressure
I have already mentioned that we can to a certain extent ascertain whether a rise or fall in blood-pressure is due to the heart or arterioles, by comparing the pressure-curve with the pulse-curve (p. ...
-Effect Of Drugs On The Pulse-Rate
The pulse-rate, i.e. the rapidity of the heart's beats, is chiefly regulated by the inhibitory fibres of the vagus, although it is affected also by accelerating fibres. In the frog the latter, excepti...
-Action of Drugs on the Cardio-inhibitory Functions of the Vagus
When speaking in the following pages of the inhibitory action of the vagus on the heart I mean its power to affect the rhythm of the heart so as to render its pulsations slow or stop them entirely, an...
-Reflex Stimulation Of The Vagus
The vagus-centre may be also stimulated reflexly, and slowing or stoppage of the heart produced by irritation of sensory nerves. This stimulation occurs most readily through the nasal, dental, or othe...
-Action Of Drug's On Vagus-Roots
We may wish to know, however, what the action of the drug has been on the vagus-roots, and it is evident that if the ends in the heart are paralysed, no action on the vagus-centre could alter the puls...
-Action On Accelerating Nerves
We ascertain whether a drug has a stimulating action on the accelerating nerves of the heart by cutting both vagi and then injecting the drug. If it quickens the heart still further, we assume that it...
-Stimulating Effect Of Asphyxial Blood On The Medulla
In order to prevent fallacies arising from stimulation of the vagus-roots by an asphyxial condition of the blood due to the action of the drug upon respiration, it is usual to maintain artificial resp...
-Palpitation
In what I have just said regarding the effect of blood-pressure on the heart I have spoken of the total work, including in it both the rapidity of pulsation and the amount of work done by each beat. T...
-The Heart of the Frog
This is a very convenient object on which to study the action of drugs. Their effects upon it are somewhat, though not absolutely, the same as their effects on the mammalian heart; and the frog's hear...
-Action of Drugs on the Heart of the Frog
The effect of drugs may be observed by simply destroying the brain, exposing the heart, and either injecting the drug subcutaneously, or into the dorsal lymph-sac, or even laying it upon the heart its...
-Action of Drugs on the Heart of the Frog. Continued
For the purpose of observing alterations in the strength of the cardiac pulsations as well as their rhythm, a convenient piece of apparatus is the one devised by Ludwig and used under his directions b...
-Action of Drugs on the Muscular Substance of the Heart
Since the lower two-thirds of the ventricle or apex, as it is usually termed, contains no nerves, it forms a convenient object for ascertaining the action of drugs upon the muscular substance of the h...
-Differences between the Heart-Apex and the Heart
When the heart is tied on to a cannula in the same way as the apex, by a ligature round the auricles or even the sinus, so that, instead of containing no ganglia at all, it contains either Bidder's or...
-Action Of Drugs On The Vagus In The Frog
When the vagi are stimulated by an induced current, the heart usually stops in diastole. Fig. 105. - Tracing of the pulsations of a ventricle separated from the auricles by section at the auriculo-...
-Action Of Drugs On Inhibition Of The Heart
The effect of certain drugs upon the still-stand produced by irritation of the vagus or of the venous sinus is very remarkable. A large number of drugs, more especially atropine, curare, coniine, and ...
-Theories regarding the Mode of Action of Drugs upon the Heart
In order to explain the effects of various poisons upon the heart, a hypothetical view of its nervous system has been proposed by Professor Schmiedeberg,1 and I have endeavoured to represent this in t...
-Cardiac Muscle
Stimulated By [Stimulation is shown by increased energy of contraction, the rate of pulsation remaining the same or becoming slower.] So-called cardiac poisons. With a larger dose the stage of stimu...
-Inhibitory Ganglia
Stimulated By [Stimulation is shown by the direct application of the drug to the heart, stopping its spontaneous pulsations completely, while it still contracts on the application of a stimulus eithe...
-Accelerating Centre
Stimulated By [Stimulation is evidenced by the injection of the drug after previous section of the vagi rendering the pulse still more rapid than before.] Irritants of motor centres. Venous blood. ...
-Vaso-motor Centre
Stimulated By [Stimulation is evidenced by a rise of blood-pressure, which disappears on section of the spinal cord below the medulla, and does not occur if the cord has been divided before the injec...
-Stannius's Experiments
Some of the most important experiments relating to the action of the various cavities of the frog's heart were first performed by Stannius, and bear his name. When the venous sinus is separated from ...
-General Considerations regarding the Heart
In ascidians the heart is a mere contractile sac open at both ends, and drives the fluid alternately in opposite directions. In snails it is a simple sac of protoplasm without differentiated nerves, b...
-Regulating Action of the Nervous System
The necessity of some means for regulating the action of the heart in accordance with the wants of the body is obvious, and in the heart we find that such an arrangement exists in relation both to the...
-Hypothesis Regarding The Action Of The Vagus
Nervous interference as a cause of inhibition was clearly pointed out by Bernard, and in the case of the heart has been discussed by Eanvier with his usual clearness. In the grey matter of the spinal...
-Inhibition In The Heart
But it is probable that interference between the nervous structures is not the sole cause of inhibition in the heart; we must look also to the relationship between nervous and muscular rhythms. Thus d...
-Therapeutic Uses of Drugs acting on the Circulation
The drugs which act on the circulation have been divided according to their action into stimulants, tonics, and sedatives. Each of these classes has been further subdivided into cardiac and vascular, ...
-Vascular Stimulants
These are substances which cause dilatation of the peripheral vessels,1 and thus render the flow of blood through them more rapid. The most important are : Heat. Alcohol in its various forms. Ether...
-Cardiac Tonics
These are drugs which have no perceptible immediate action on the heart, but when given for a little while render its beats much more powerful, although usually much slower. The most important of them...
-Risks Attending The Administration Of Digitalis And Other Cardiac Tonics
The great risk attending the use of these drugs is sudden death from syncope. Whenever it is necessary to push them to any extent, the patient should be kept strictly in the recumbent posture, and not...
-Vascular Tonics
Vascular tonics are substances which cause increased contraction of the arterioles or capillaries. They not only raise the blood-pressure, but influence to a considerable extent the quantity of lymph ...
-Pathology Of Dropsy
Dropsy consists in the accumulation of lymph, either in small lymph spaces in the tissues (oedema, anasarca) or large serous cavities (ascites, pleural or pericardial effusions). The accumulation is c...
-Cardiac Sedatives
Cardiac sedatives are substances which lessen the force and frequency of the heart's action. They are chiefly used, either for the purpose of lessening violent action or palpitation of the heart, or ...
-Vascular Sedatives
Vascular sedatives are substances which, by increasing the contraction of the vessels, lessen the flow of blood through them. They are chiefly used to lessen local inflammation or prevent haemorrhage....
-Chapter XII. Remedies Acting On The Surface Of The Body. Irritants And Counter-Irritants
Irritants are substances which, when applied to the skin, cause a greater or less degree of vascular excitement or inflammation. They are employed for the sake of their local action, to produce increa...
-Remedies Acting On The Surface Of The Body. Irritants And Counter-Irritants. Continued
Fig. 121.__Diagram to show the effects of heat and cold in lessening the pain of inflammation. The Fig. 122. - Diagram to show congestion of the lung. The pulmonary vessels are shown dilated, and...
-Rubefacients
One of the simplest rubefacients is mere friction. This may be made either with the hand, or more effectually still, with a rough cloth or a flesh-brush. Friction also greatly aids the action of many ...
-Vesicants
Vesicants are employed locally in chronic ulcers and to cause absorption of effusions into joints, or chronic thickening about them. When applied around the inflamed joints in acute rheumatism, they n...
-Pustulants
Pustulants are employed for the purpose of keeping up a continuous moderate irritation in chronic inflammations : tartar emetic ointment, and croton-oil liniment, seem sometimes to be of considerable ...
-Caustics
Caustics are used to destroy excrescences on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes : warts, condylomata, or polypi; to destroy exuberant and unhealthy granulations in ulcers and fungating sores...
-Emollients and Demulcents
Emollients are substances which soften and. relax, while Demulcents are substances which protect and soothe the parts to which they are applied. Many substances exercise both of these actions, and so...
-Astringents
These are substances which cause contraction of the tissues to which they are applied and lessen secretion from mucous membranes. Acids. Alcohol. Alum. Chalk and Lime. Salts of the heavier metals, e...
-Styptics
Styptics are substances which arrest the flow of blood from broken or wounded surfaces or vessels. They may do this either by aiding the rapid formation of a coagulum which will plug up the wounded ve...
-Chaptee XIII. Action Of Drugs On The Digestive System. Action Of Drugs On The Teeth
Although the hurry and bustle of modern life is apt to make people forget it, mastication is a most important part of the digestive process. During early life the stomach and intestines may be able to...
-Action Of Drugs On The Salivary Glands. Sialagogues
These are remedies which increase the secretion of saliva. Anything which is chewed, or even turned about in the mouth, such as a pebble, will increase the secretion of saliva; but the chief sialagog...
-Reflex Sialagogues
Acids, mineral and vegetable. Acid salts. Alkalies. Ethereal bodies Ether. Chloroform, etc. Pungent substances Mustard. Horseradish. Ginger. Pyrethrum. Mezereon. Tobacco, etc. Rhubarb. Cubebs. Nau...
-Excretion by the Saliva
Iodide of potassium is very quickly excreted by the kidneys, so that the great bulk of it passes out of the body in a short time after it has been taken. But a little of it is retained very persistent...
-Refrigerants
Refrigerants are remedies which allay thirst, and give a feeling of coolness. There appear to be two kinds of thirst: one of which is general, the other of which is local. Local thirst is occasioned ...
-Anti-sialics
Anti-sialics are substances which lessen the salivary secretion. They may do this : First, by removing the stimulus to secretion. Second, by lessening the excitability of the efferent nerves or refl...
-Action Of Drugs On The Stomach. Gastric Tonics
These are substances which increase the appetite and aid gastric digestion. From observations made on the stomach in persons or animals where a gastric fistula has been present, it has been found tha...
-Action of Drugs on Secretion in the Stomach
The secretion of the gastric juice is stimulated by gentle mechanical and chemical irritation, as by dilute alkalies and alcohol. The name of peptogens is given to substances which increase the gastr...
-Action of Drugs on the Movements of the Stomach
Digestion is greatly aided by the movements of the stomach, which assist it by breaking up the food and mixing it thoroughly with the gastric juice. When these are deficient, it is probable that they ...
-Antacids
Antacids are remedies employed to lessen or counteract acidity. The excessive acidity for which antacids are given may be present in the stomach, intestines, or urine. Antacids are divided into direc...
-Emetics
These are remedies which produce vomiting. Action. - The act of vomiting consists in compression of the stomach by the simultaneous spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles, while...
-Local Emetics
Alum. Ammonium carbonate. Copper sulphate. Mustard. Salt. Subsulphate of Mercury. Water (lukewarm and in copious draughts). Zinc sulphate. Strong infusions of vegetable bitters, as camomile, q...
-Anti-emetics and Gastric Sedatives
Gastric sedatives are substances which lessen the irritability of the stomach and thus diminish pain, nausea, and vomiting. Their action may be either local on the stomach, or general on the nervous ...
-Carminatives
Carminatives are substances which aid the expulsion of gas from the stomach and intestines. They appear to do this by increasing the peristaltic movements of these organs, and in the case of the stoma...
-Action Of Drugs On The Intestines
Intestinal Movements and Secretion. - The peristaltic movements of the intestine occur even when it is separated entirely from the body. Their rhythmical occurrence appears to be due to the action of ...
-Action Of Drugs On The Intestines. Part 2
1 T. Lauder Brunton and Pye-Smith on 'Intestinal Secretion and Movement,' British Association Reports, 1874, 1875, 1876. In order to simplify the problem presented by the complicated nervous arrangem...
-Action Of Drugs On The Intestines. Part 3
Fig. 137. - Represents a piece of duodenum, a, after irritation by potassium chloride; b, after irritation by sodium chloride, o indicates the point of irritation, and the arrows the direction in wh...
-Action of Drugs on Absorption from the Intestines
Ether introduced into the intestine greatly increases its vascularity. It also quickens absorption very much, as is shown by the fact that poison acts more quickly, and such substances as ferro-cyanid...
-Purgatives
Purgatives are substances which cause intestinal evacuations. They are divided according to their nature into laxatives, simple, drastic, and saline purgatives, hydragogues, and cholagogues. Laxative...
-Purgatives. Continued
In the case of some of the salines, the secretion is greatly increased, while the peristaltic movement is so little affected that the secretion may lie so long in the intestine as to be reabsorbed, an...
-Action of Irritant Poisons
A great number of drugs which are employed in medicine, and are most useful when given in small doses, act as irritant poisons in large ones. Their action is then not restricted to the stomach, nor ev...
-Action Of Drugs On The Liver
The liver is by far the largest organ in the body, and it is placed in a very peculiar situation. It acts as a porter or doorkeeper to the circulation, all the substances which are absorbed from the i...
-Action Of Drugs On The Liver. Continued
In relation to this subject it is interesting to bear in mind that alkaloids to which the name of ptomaines has been given (p. 99), are formed in dead bodies during the process of decomposition, and t...
-Cholagogues
In making experiments, similar to those of Rutherford and Vignal, Schiff observed that the secretion of bile was very much greater for a short time immediately after the bile-duct was tied, than it wa...
-Hepatic Depressants
Purgatives will act as hepatic depressants and lessen the secretion of the liver by removing from the intestine the bile which would otherwise be re-absorbed, and by hurrying out also the food ...
-Action of Drugs on the Pancreas
The pancreatic juice is important in the process of digestion, as it has the threefold power of converting starch into sugar, of digesting proteids with the formation of peptones, and of splitting up ...
-Anthelmintics
These are remedies which kill or expel intestinal worms. They have been divided into vermicides, which kill the worm, and vermifuges, which expel the worm without necessarily killing it, e.g. purgati...
-Chapter XIV. Drugs Acting On Tissue-Change. Tonics
These are remedies which impart permanent strength to the body, or its parts. When an individual is loose and limp, and feels unfit for work, like a relaxed bowstring, tonics restore his energy and st...
-Haematinics
Blood-tonics, blood-restoratives, analeptic tonics. These are generally remedies which improve the quality of the blood; but the name blood-tonics or haematinics is generally applied specially to such...
-Alteratives
These are remedies which improve the nutrition of the body without exerting any very perceptible action on individual organs. The chief alteratives are :Arsenic. Mercury. Iodine. Iodides. Cod-liver...
-Antipyretics, Febrifuges
These are remedies which reduce the temperature of the body in fever. They act much more powerfully when the temperature is abnormally high than when it is normal. The constant temperature of warm-bl...
-Antipyretics, Febrifuges. Continued
Antipyretics Lessen production of heat.......................... Acting on tissue change.................... Quinine. Cinchonine. Quinidine. Cinchonidin...
-Chapter XV. Action Of Drugs On Excretion Action Of Drugs On The Kidneys
The kidney has a twofold office. It has (1) to regulate the amount of water in the body under various conditions; (2) to remove the products of tissue-waste. These products must be removed in a state ...
-Action Of Drugs On Excretion Action Of Drugs On The Kidneys. Part 2
1 Ribbert, Virchow's Archiv, July 1883, p. 189. 2 Adami, Journ. of Phys., vol. vi. 1885. Urea, on the contrary, is not only excreted by the tubules after ligature of the renal artery, but carries wi...
-Action Of Drugs On Excretion Action Of Drugs On The Kidneys. Part 3
The pressure of blood in the glomeruli may be raised: (1) By increase of the arterial tension generally. (2) By increased tension locally. Such a general increase may be brought about by greater ac...
-Action Of Drugs On Excretion Action Of Drugs On The Kidneys. Part 4
tion of the renal vessels, succeeded by dilatation, or vice versa. Thus Mr. Power and I found that on injecting digitalis into the circulation of a dog, the blood-pressure rose, but the secretion of u...
-Diuretics. Refrigerant Diuretics
Water in large quantities. Carbonic acid (aerated waters), Sodium salts, e.g. common salt. Potassium salts, Acetate. Bitartrate. Chlorate. especially the Citrate. Nitrate. Hydragogue Diuretics. Ad...
-Lithontriptics
These are remedies employed for the purpose of preventing the solids of the urine from being deposited, or of causing resolution. One of the most important is the abundant use of water, and sometimes...
-Action Of Drugs On The Skin. Diaphoretics and Sudorifics
The difference between these classes of remedies is simply one of degree. When a drug increases the secretion of sweat only slightly, so that it can still evaporate from the skin without running down ...
-Action Of Drugs On The Skin. Diaphoretics and Sudorifics. Continued
Relations between Sweat-glands and Kidneys. - The sweat-glands and the kidneys both remove water and small quantities of salts from the blood, and thus tend to keep it at its normal concentration. The...
-Antihidrotics or Anhidrotics
These are substances which lessen the secretion of sweat: Acids. Belladonna and Atropine. Hyoscyamus. Amanita muscaria and muscarine. Agaricus albus. Jaborandi and Pilocarpine. Nux vomica and Stry...
-Action Of Drugs On The Bladder
The walls of the bladder consist of involuntary muscular fibre which expels the urine by its contraction. Around the neck of the bladder is a band of involuntary muscular fibre, the sphincter vesicae,...
-Urinary Sedatives and Astringents
When the urinary passages are healthy, the secretion of mucus from them is very slight, and the presence of urine in the bladder or its passage along the urethra usually gives rise to no pain. Pain an...
-Chapter XVI. Action Of Drugs On The Generative System. Aphrodisiacs And Anaphrodisiacs
The sexual function is regulated by two nerve-centres, one of which is cerebral and the other spinal. The cerebral centre is the seat of the feelings and appetite which prompt the individual to seek s...
-Aphrodisiacs
These are medicines which increase the sexual appetite. Irritation of the nates, either mechanically alone, by flogging, or mechanically and chemically combined, by urtication or flogging with nettle...
-Anaphrodisiacs
These are medicines which diminish the sexual passion. The agents employed as anaphrodisiacs are :Ice. Cold baths, local and general. Bromides of potassium and ammonium. Iodide of potassium. Conium....
-Emmenagogues and Ecbolics
Emmenagogues are remedies which restore and regulate the normal menstrual flow when it is absent or deficient or irregular. Ecbolics are remedies which cause the expulsion of the contents of the uter...
-Ecbolics
The involuntary muscular fibres of the uterus appear, like those of the ureter or of the frog's heart, to possess the power of rhythmical contraction, and may contract when entirely separated from the...
-Action of Drugs upon the Mammary Glands
The milk-glands somewhat resemble the salivary glands in the way in which they are affected by the central nervous system, and by the action of drugs upon them. The action of the central nervous syste...
-Chapter XVII. Methods Of Administering Drugs
Drugs may be used either for their local or general action, and sometimes for a combination of the two. Thus a solution of opium may be applied to the eye for its local effect in relieving irritation ...
-Application of Drugs by the Skin
There are three different methods of applying drugs by the skin which are well recognised, these are :1. Epidermic, to the skin covered by epidermis. 2. Endermic, to the skin denuded of epidermis. 3...
-Baths
These may be either local or general. In general baths, the whole of the body excepting the head is exposed to the action of various agents. According to the nature of the agent, baths may be divided ...
-Baths. Continued
Cold sponging, as recommended by Ringer in his excellent work on Therapeutics, is exceedingly useful in laryngismus stridulus. It should be used two or three times a day whatever be the weather. If th...
-Local Application of Cold
Sitz-bath. - When a person sits down in a cold sitz-bath, or when he sits down in an empty bath and cold water is poured into it, until it covers the hips, the vessels of the parts exposed to the cold...
-Cold Compresses
By the application of cold over the course of an artery, it can be made to contract, and the amount of blood to the district which it supplies may consequently be diminished. This is shown by the acco...
-Warm Baths
Tepid Baths. - These baths range from 85 F. to 65 F. or 29.4 C. to 18.3 C. They are chiefly used for cleansing purposes, and at the lower margin of about 65 F. they may be use...
-Medicated Baths
The addition of stimulating substances, such as salt, to the water, increases the stimulation to the skin, and the amount of after-reaction. In sea-bathing the stimulating effect of the salt is furth...
-Vapour Baths
In these the body is exposed to steam instead of being immersed in hot water. The effect is much the same as that of the hot bath. The so-called Russian bath consists of a room filled with steam and p...
-Air Baths
Turkish Bath. - The Turkish bath usually consists of three rooms, although frequently there are more. The temperature of the first, or dressing-room, is moderate, that of the second is higher, and tha...
-Friction and Inunction
Friction of the skin causes first a temporary contraction of the vessels, followed by a more or less permanent dilatation, so that the skin continues red for a length of time after the irritation has ...
-Endermic Application of Drugs
This method consists in applying the drug to the skin previously denuded of its epidermis or epithelial layer by blistering. The drug may be applied in the form of powder, solution, ointment, liniment...
-Hypodermic Administration of Drugs
This method, the introduction of which we owe to Dr. Alexander Wood of Edinburgh, possesses great advantages. It consists in the injection of a solution of a remedy under the skin. Absorption takes p...
-Application of Drugs to the Eye
For inflammation of the lids, ointment is smeared between the edges. Cold water is applied to the conjunctiva for its tonic action, by keeping the eyes open and then dipping the face into a basin of w...
-Application of Drugs to the Ear
Astringent solutions are usually applied to the auditory meatus, by injecting them in a gentle stream by means of a small syringe (Fig. 160). Fig. 160. - Vulcanite syringe for injecting solutions i...
-Application of Drugs to the Nose
Drugs are applied to the nose in the form of powder, which may be taken in the same way as snuff by putting a little on the top of the thumb, holding it in front of the nose and strongly inspiring; or...
-Application of Drugs to the Larynx
Solid powders may be applied to the larynx by insufflation. The insufflator (Fig. 162) used for this purpose consists of a tube curved at one end, and having at the other a piece of india-rubber tubin...
-Application of Drugs to the Lungs
Inhalations. - Vapours employed as inhalations act not only on the bronchial tubes but upon the larynx, pharynx, and nostrils. One of the commonest is that of simple hot water. A jug is filled about h...
-Application of Drugs to the Digestive Tract
Mouth and Pharynx. - Weak solutions are applied to the mouth in the form of washes with which the mouth is rinsed out. Stronger ones may be painted with a camel's-hair brush inside the cheek, lips, gu...
-Application of Drugs to the Urethra
They are usually employed as lotions. The syringe used to inject them should not have a small thin nozzle, but should have a conical point, such as that shown in Fig. 163, which fills up the opening o...
-Chapter XVIII. Antidotes
Antidotes are remedies which counteract the effect of poisons. Action. - Antidotes may act in two ways; they may either prevent the action of the poison on the body, or they may counteract its effect...
-Chapter XIX. Antagonistic Action Of Drugs
The idea that one drug might be made to counteract the deadly effects of another is a very old one, and in the middle ages alexipharmics and mithridates were used as antidotes. Of late years, however,...
-Antagonistic Action Of Drugs. Continued
Another very important antagonism is that between drugs acting on the respiratory centre and spinal cord. The mode of action of these drugs is difficult to explain on account of our imperfect knowledg...
-Chapter XX. Dosage
The circumstances which affect dosage have already been discussed (p. 37). In practice we reckon the dose according to age, making allowances, however, for the size and sex of the patient. Various tab...
-Section II. General Pharmacy. Chapter XXI. Pharmaceutical Preparations
Pharmacy includes both the general preparation of drugs from crude natural products and their combinations with other substances, so as to render them either more effectual or more easily administered...
-U.S.P. Abstracta. Abstracts
These are very dry, powdered extracts. They are twice the strength of the crude drug, and about twice the strength of the corresponding fluid extracts. They are prepared by extracting the active princ...
-U.S.P. Abstracta. Abstracts. Continued
Aquae. Waters. (16 in B.P.; 15 U.S.P.) - One is simply water, another distilled water. The others in the B.P. are water containing small quantities of volatile oils in solution, with the exception of ...
-U.S.P. Cerata. Cerates
These are ointments containing wax. The admixture of wax with oil or lard in cerates renders them harder than ointments, though they are softer than plasters. They can be spread on linen or leather, a...
-B.P. Enemata. Injections, Enemas, or Clysters
These are preparations for injection into the rectum. When the quantity injected is large, and especially if cold, it is usually returned almost immediately; therefore, when we wish to get it retained...
-B.P. Essentia. Essences
These are strong solutions of 1 part volatile oil in 4 of rectified spirit. They are used as carminatives, and are usually given in the form of a few drops on a piece of lump sugar, or with a little h...
-B.P. Fresh or Green Extracts
These extracts have already been enumerated among the others. In preparing them, the juice obtained from the fresh leaves, flowering tops or fruits, of the plant, by pressure, is heated to 130 F....
-B.P. Lamellae. Gelatine Discs
These are thin discs of gelatine with some glycerine, each weighing about 1/50 th grain and containing a small quantity of an alkaloid. They are chiefly used for local application to the eye. They may...
-B.P. Lotiones. Lotions
Mixtures of active substances in water for external application. Lotio Hydrargyri Flava (1 part Perchloride of Mercury to 243 of Lime-water). Nigra ( Subchloride 146 &...
-B.P. Lotiones. Lotions. Continued
B.P. (5) Resina. ,, Guaiaci. Jalapae. ,, Podophylli. Scammoniae. u.s.p. (5). Resina Copaibae. Jalapae. Podophylli. Scammonii. Guaiaci Resina. Spiritus. ...
-U.S.P. Triturationes. Triturations
These are intimate mixtures of substances with sugar of milk. Each contains 10 per cent, of the active substance. A general formula for their preparation is given in the U.S.P., although only one is n...
-U.S.P. Trituratio Elaterini. Trochisci. Lozenges
These are small, flat, and hard, so that they can be readily carried about and melt slowly in the mouth. They are thus convenient for giving drugs which are intended to act upon the mouth or throat lo...
-B.P. Vapores. Vapours, Inhalations
These are preparations for applying volatile drugs to the air-passages for the purpose of deodorising, disinfecting, stimulating or soothing. The drug is mixed with water and the vapour inhaled. If th...
-Section III. Inorganic Materia Medica. Chapter XXII. Hydrogen, Oxygen, Ozone, Carbon, Sulphur, And The Halogens
Although the officinal substances included in this chapter differ widely from each other in many respects, yet their relations to oxygen form a connecting link between them. Sulphur belongs to the sam...
-Hydrogen (H;1). Not Officinal
Preparation. - By adding diluted hydrochloric or sulphuric acid to granulated zinc Zn + 2HC1 = ZnCl2 + H2. Uses. - It is of little or no use as a remedy, and is only used as a test. It is very frequ...
-Oxygen (O;16). Not Officinal
Properties. - Oxygen is a colourless gas without smell, slightly heavier than common air. It forms rather more than a fifth by volume of the atmosphere. Preparation. - By heating chlorate of potassiu...
-Ozone. Not Officinal
When an electric spark is passed through air a peculiar smell is noticed; this is due to the formation of ozone. The electricity in passing through the air appears to break up the molecules of ordinar...
-Peroxide Of Hydrogen (H2O2; 34). Not Officinal
Properties. - When the watery solution thus obtained is evaporated it forms a transparent oily liquid; but it is generally employed in the form of a 3 per cent. solution (10 to 15 volumes) in water or...
-Carbon (C;12)
This element is employed in medicine in the form of animal and vegetable charcoal. Carbo Ligni, B.P. and U.S.P. Wood Charcoal. - Wood charred by exposure to a red heat without access of air, B.P. Cha...
-B.P. Cataplasma Carbonis. Charcoal Poultice
Powdered charcoal 1; bread 4; linseed-meal 3; boiling water 20. Mix the water, bread, and linseed-meal, then add half the charcoal and sprinkle the remainder on the surface. By simply sprinkling a par...
-Carbo Animalis Purificatus, B.P. and U.S.P. Purified Animal Charcoal
Characters. - It is a black powder without taste or smell. It absorbs colouring matters, and tincture of litmus diluted with 20 times its bulk of water agitated with it and thrown upon a filter passes...
-Sulphur (S;32)
Sulphur is found native in volcanic districts, and occurs in combination with metals as sulphites in various ores, especially in iron and copper pyrites. Sulphur Sublimatum, B.P. and U.S.P. Sublimed ...
-B.P. Confectio Sulphuris. Confection of Sulphur
Sulphur 4; acid tartrate of potassium 1; syrup of orange-peel 4; tragacanth in powder 1/24 part. The acid tartrate of potassium is added for the purpose of increasing the secretion from the intestine,...
-U.S.P. Sulphur Lotum. Washed Sulphur. Characters and Impurities
Those of sulphur sublimatum. Preparation. - By digesting sulphur with dilute ammonia, thoroughly washing, drying at a gentle heat, and passing through a No. 30 sieve. In this process the ammonia not ...
-Sulphur Praecipitatum, B.P. and U.S.P. Precipitated Sulphur, Lac Sulphuris, Milk of Sulphur
Characters. - Being in a finer state of division than sublimed sulphur, it looks almost white, with only a slight tinge of yellow. Otherwise its characters are the same. Preparation. - By boiling sul...
-Halogen Elements
Fluorine (Fl; 19 or 19.1). Chlorine (Cl; 35.5 or 35.4). Bromine (Br; 80 or 79.75). Iodine (I; 127 or 126.53). These substances form a series in which the atomic weights are nearly in the relation of 1...
-Chlorine. Cl; 35.5
A greenish-yellow gas with a suffocating odour. Its preparation and general action have already been described (p. 548). Action. - When applied for a long time to the skin, as in persons who have to ...
-Bromum. Br; 80
Bromine, B. and U.S.P. A liquid non-metallic element obtained from sea-water and from some saline springs. Characters. - A dark brownish-red, very volatile liquid, with a strong, disagreeable odour. ...
-Potassii Bromidum, B. and U.S.P. Bromide of Potassium. (KBr; 118.75
Characters. - In colourless cubical crystals, with no odour, but a pungent saline taste. Preparation. - Vide p. 605. Solubility. - It is readily soluble in water, less soluble in spirit. Reactions....
-Sodii Bromidum, B. and U.S.P. Bromide of Sodium. (NaBr; 102.8
Characters. - Small, colourless, or white monoclinic crystals, or a crystalline powder permanent in dry air, odourless, having a saline, slightly bitter taste, and a neutral or faintly alkaline reacti...
-Ammonii Bromidum, B. and U.S.P. Bromide of Ammonium. (NH4Br; 97.8
Characters. - In colourless crystals which become slightly yellow by exposure to the air, and have a pungent saline taste. Preparation. - Vide p. 635. Reactions. - Its solution gives the reactions o...
-Iodum. I; 127 Or 126.6, U.S.P
Iodine. - A non-metallic element obtained from the ashes of sea-weeds and from mineral iodides and iodates. Characters. - Heavy, bluish-black, rhombic plates of a peculiar odour and metallic lustre, ...
-Sulphuris Iodidum. B.P. and U.S.P. Iodide of Sulphur
Characters. - Greyish-black, crystalline lumps. It smells like iodine and stains the skin. When boiled with water it is decomposed, iodine passing off and sulphur remaining. Preparation. - By fusing ...
-Potassi Iodidum, B. and U.S.P. Iodide of Potassium. (KI; 165.6
Characters. - In colourless, generally opaque, cubic crystals. Preparation. - By mixing iodine and solution of potassa, when iodide and iodate of potassium are formed, 6KHO + 6I = KIO3 + 5KI + 3H2O. ...
-Ungruentum Potassii lodidi, B. and U.S.P. Ointment of Iodide of Potassium
Iodide of potassium 64 grains, carbonate of potassium 4 grains, distilled water 1 fluid drachm, prepared lard 1 ounce. Dissolve the iodide of potassium and carbonate of potassium in the water, and mix...
-Sodii Iodidum, B. and U.S.P. Iodide of Sodium. NaI; 149.6
Characters. - Minute, colourless, or white monoclinic crystals, or a crystalline powder, deliquescent on exposure to air, odourless, having a saline and slightly bitter taste and a neutral or faintly ...
-U.S.P. Ammonii Iodidum. Iodide of Ammonium. NH4I; 144.6
Characters. - A white granular salt, or minute crystalline cubes, very deliquescent and soon becoming yellow or yellowish-brown on exposure to air; odourless when white, but emitting a slight odour of...
-Hydrargyri Iodidum Rubrum, B. and U.S.P.- Vide p. 696
U.S.P. Hydrargyri Iodidum Viride. - Vide p. 696. Plumbi Iodidum, B. and U.S.P. - Vide p. 705. The action of the iodides of zinc, silver, mercury, and lead is modified to such an extent by the specia...
-Chapter XXIII. Acids
General Characters. - It is somewhat difficult to get a correct definition of an acid. Most of them have a sour taste and redden blue litmus: they combine with alkalis and destroy the power which thes...
-Acids. Continued
In the mouth they cause a peculiar taste, and a feeling of roughness in the teeth. They cause an increased flow of saliva from the parotid, and of the thin saliva which the submaxillary secretes when ...
-Acidum Sulphuricum, B. and U.S.P. Sulphuric Acid
It contains 96.8 per cent. of H2SO4 (98) and corresponds to 79 per cent. of anhydrous sulphuric acid, SO3 (80). Properties. - A colourless, oily-looking, heavy liquid. Sp. gr-1.843; no smell, but int...
-Acidum Sulphurosum, B. and U.S.P. Sulphurous Acid
Sulphurous acid gas (S02; 64) dissolved in water and constituting 9.2 per cent. of the solution. Properties. - A colourless liquid with a strong sulphurous odour. Preparation. - Vide p. 567, 2H2SO4 ...
-Acidum Hydrochloricum, B. and U.S.P. Hydrochloric or Muriatic Acid
Hydrochloric acid gas (HC1; 36.4) dissolved in water, and forming 31.8 B.P., 31.9 U.S.P., per cent. by weight of the solution. Properties. - A nearly colourless liquid, sp. gr. 1.16. It emits white v...
-Acidum Hydrobromicum Dilutum, B. and U.S.P. Diluted Hydrobromic Acid
A liquid composed of 10 per cent. of real or gaseous hydrobromic acid (HBr; 80.8) and 90 of water. Characters. - A clear, colourless liquid, odourless, having a strongly acid taste and an acid reacti...
-Syrupus Acidi Hydriodici, U.S.P. Syrup of Hydriodic Acid. - A liquid containing 1 per cent. of pure hydriodic acid (Hl; 127.6), sugar, and spirit of orange
Characters. - A transparent, colourless, or not more than straw-coloured, liquid, odourless, and having a sweet acidulous taste. Sp. gr. 1.300. Tests. - If bisulphide of carbon be poured into a small...
-Acidum Nitricum, B. and U.S.P. Nitric Acid. HN03; 63
An acid prepared from nitrate of potassium or nitrate of sodium by distillation with sulphuric acid and water, and containing 70 per cent. B.P., or 69.4 U.S.P., by weight of nitric acid, HNO3, corresp...
-U.S.P. Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum. Nitrohydrochloric Acid
Characters. - A golden yellow, fuming, and very corrosive liquid, having a strong odour of chlorine and a strongly acid reaction. By heat it is wholly volatilised. It readily dissolves gold leaf, and ...
-Acidum Aceticum, B. and U.S.P. Acetic Acid. HC2H3O2; 60
An acid liquid prepared from wood by destructive distillation and subsequent purification. 100 parts by weight contain 33 B.P., 36 U.S.P., parts of acetic acid HC2H3O2; 60 corresponding to 28 parts of...
-Acidum Aceticum Dilutum, B. and U.S.P. Diluted Acetic Acid
Acetic acid, 1 part diluted with water 7 parts, B.P., or acid 17, water 83, U.S.P. Properties, Impurities. - The same as of acetic acid, except so far as they are affected by its dilution. Dose. - 1...
-B.P. Acetum. Vinegar
An acid liquid, prepared from malt and unmalted grain by the acetous fermentation. Characters. - A liquid of a brown colour and peculiar odour. Impurities. - A little sulphuric acid added to it is s...
-Phosphoricum, U.S.P. Phosphoric Acid. - Phosphoric acid, H3P04, with 33.7 per cent. of water, B.P. A liquid composed of 50 per cent. of ortho-phosphoric acid (H3PO4; 98) and 50 per cent. of water, U.S.P
Characters. - A colourless syrupy liquid, without odour, and of a strongly acid taste and reaction, sp. gr. 1.347. When heated it loses water, and when a temperature of about 200 C. (392 F.)...
-Acidum Phosphoricum Dilutum, B. and U.S.P. Diluted Phosphoric Acid
Concentrated phosphoric acid, 3 parts mixed with water up to 20 parts; forming a solution corresponding to 10 per cent. by weight of phosphoric anhydride, P2O5, B.P. Phosphoric acid 20 parts with 80 ...
-Acidum Tartaricum, B. and U.S.P. Tartaric Acid. H2C4H406; 150
A crystalline acid prepared from the acid tartrate of potassium. Characters. - In colourless crystals, the primary form of which is the oblique rhombic prism. It has a strongly acid taste, and is rea...
-Acidum Citricum, B. and U.S.P. Citric Acid. H3C6H5O7.H2O; 210
A crystalline acid prepared from lemon-juice, or from the juice of the fruit of the lime, Citrus Bergamia. Characters. - In colourless crystals, of which the right rhombic prism is the primary form; ...
-U.S.P. Syrupus Acidi Citrici. Syrup Of Cltric Acid
Citric Acid 8, Water 8, Spirit Of Lemon 4, Syrup 980. Action and Uses. - Citric acid, from the agreeable taste of its solution in water, is used for drinking in fever to allay thirst, either alone or...
-Acidum Boricum, B. and U.S.P. Boric or Boracic Acid. H3B03;62
Characters. - Transparent, colourless, six-sided plates, slightly unctuous to the touch, permanent in the air, odourless, having a cooling, bitterish taste and a feebly acid reaction; in solution turn...
-Acidum Chromicum, B. and U.S.P. Chromic Acid, Cr03; 100.4. It is an anhydride (not a true acid)
Characters. - Small, crimson, needle-shaped or columnar crystals, deliquescent, odourless, having a caustic effect upon the skin and other animal tissues, and an acid reaction. Very soluble in water, ...
-Acidum Hydrocyanicum Dilutum, B. and U.S.P. Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid. Prussic Acid
Hydrocyanic acid, HCN, dissolved in water, and constituting 2 per cent. by weight of the solution, B.P. A liquid consisting of 2 per cent. of absolute hydrocyanic acid (HCN; 27) and 98 per cent. of wa...
-Acidum Lacticum, B. and U.S.P. Lactic Acid. HC3H5O3; 90
A liquor composed of 75 per cent. of absolute lactic acid and 25 per cent. of water. Characters. - A nearly colourless syrupy liquid, odourless, having a very acid taste, and an acid reaction. Sp. gr...
-Acidum Oleicum, B. and U.S. P. Oleic Acid. - HC18H33O2;
Characters. - A yellowish, oily liquid, gradually becoming brown, rancid and acid, when exposed to the air; odourless, or nearly so, tasteless, and, when pure, of a neutral reaction. Sp. gr., 0.800 to...
-Chapter XXIV. Metals. General Classification Of The Metals
It has already been mentioned (p. 20) that Mendelejeff's classification of the elements, although it gives us the outlines of a true natural classification, is not at present perfect, inasmuch as it s...
-Class I. - Monad Metals
Group I. - Metals Of The Alkalis. Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Caesium. Group II. - Ammonium. I have omitted silver and gold from this class, because both their physiological actions and ph...
-Class I. - Monad Metals. Part 2
In the mouth they neutralise any acid present. They may thus relieve toothache due to irritation of the exposed nerve in a carious tooth or of the roots of the teeth close to the gums by acid secretio...
-Class I. - Monad Metals. Part 3
While dilute solutions of chloride of sodium are ready solvents of albuminous substances and are non-irritating, sodium chloride, in substance or in concentrated solutions, precipitates globulins, wit...
-Group I. - Metals Of The Alkalis. Potassium. K; 39
General Sources of Potassium Salts. - The chief source of potassium salts is the ash left by the combustion of plants or trees; but there are two subsidiary sources, viz. nitrate of potassium, which i...
-Potassii Carbonas, B. and U.S.P. Carbonate of Potassium, K2CO3
with about 16 per cent. of water of crystallisation, B.P. (K2CO3) 3H2O; 330, U.S.P. Characters. - A white crystalline powder, alkaline, and caustic to the taste, very deliquescent. Solubility. - It...
-Liquor Potassae, B. and U.S.P. Solution of Potash, B.P.; of Potassa, U.S.P
An aqueous solution of hydrate of potassium (KHO; 56) containing 5.84 per cent. of the hydrate, B.P.; about 5 per cent., U.S.P. Dose. - 15 to 60 minims. Uses. - Dilute liquor potassae is used extern...
-Potassa Caustica, B.P.; Potassa, U.S.P. KHO; 56
Caustic Potash. - Hydrate of potassium, KHO, containing some impurities. Characters. - In hard white pencils, very deliquescent, powerfully alkaline and corrosive. Reactions and Tests. - A watery so...
-U.S.P. Potassa cum Calce. Potassa with Lime; Vienna Paste
Characters. - It is a greyish-white, deliquescent powder with a strongly alkaline reaction. Reaction. - It gives the tests of potassium (p. 603) and calcium (p. 646). Preparation. - Equal parts of ca...
-Potassii Bicarbonas, B. and U.S.P. Bicarbonate of Potassium. KHCO3; 100
Characters. - Colourless right rhombic prisms, not deliquescent, of a saline feebly alkaline taste, not corrosive. Reactions and Tests. - It gives the reactions of a bicarbonate (p. 594 and of potass...
-Potassii Acetas, B. and U.S. P. Acetate of Potassium CH2K(CO.OH); 98
Characters. - White foliaceous satiny masses, very deliquescent. Reactions. - With a watery solution, tartaric acid causes a crystalline precipitate (potassium), sulphuric acid the disengagement of a...
-Potassii Citras, B. and U.S.P. Citrate of Potassium. K3C6H5O7. B.P. K3C6H5O7.H2O; 324. U.S.P. Liquor Potassii Citratis, U.S.P
Characters. - A white powder, of saline feebly acid taste, deliquescent, and very soluble in water. Reactions and Tests. - Heated with sulphuric acid it forms a brown fluid, gives off an inflammable ...
-Potassii Tartras Acida, B.P.; Potassii Bitartras, U.S.P. Acid Tartrate of Potassium, B.P.; Bitartrate of Potassium, U.S.P. Cream of Tartar. KHC4H4O6; 188
An acid salt obtained from the crude tartar which is deposited during the fermentation of grape-juice, B.P. Characters. - A gritty white powder, or fragments of cakes crystallised on one surface; of ...
-Potassii Tartras, B. and U.S.P. Tartrate of Potassium, K2C4H4O6.H2O (B.P.), or (K2C4H4O6)2H2O; 470 (U.S.P.)
Characters. - In small, colourless, four or six-sided prisms. Reactions. - It gives the reactions showing the presence of tartaric acid and potassium like the bitartrate, but it is readily distinguis...
-Potassii Sulphas, B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Potassium. K2SO4; 174
Characters. - Colourless hard six-sided prisms terminated by six-sided pyramids. Solubility. - Sparingly soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol. Reactions. - It decrepitates strongly when heated. It...
-Potassii Nitras, B. and U.S.P. Nitrate of Potassium. KNO3; 101
Nitrate of potassium of commerce, purified, if necessary, by crystallisation from solution in distilled water. Characters. - In white crystalline masses or fragments of striated six-sided prisms, col...
-Potassii Chloras, B. and U.S.P. Chlorate of Potassium, KC103; 122.4
Characters. - In colourless rhomboidal crystalline plates, with a cool saline taste. Preparation. - By passing chlorine through a mixture of potassium carbonate and slaked lime. If potassium carbonat...
-Potassii Permanganas, B. and U.S.P. Permanganate of Potassium. KMnO4, B.P. K2Mn2O8; 314, U.S.P
Characters. - Dark purple, slender, prismatic crystals, inodorous, with a sweet astringent taste. Preparation. - By heating caustic potash and manganese dioxide together in a crucible with chlorate o...
-Potassa Sulphurata, B. and U.S.P. Sulphurated Potash, B.P.; Sulphurated Potassa, U.S.P
Characters. - Solid, greenish fragments, liver-brown when recently broken, alkaline, and acrid to the taste. Solubility and Reactions. - It readily forms with water a yellow solution, which has the o...
-Potassii Bichromas, B. and U.S.P. Bichromate of Potassium, K2CrO4.CrO3, B.P.: K2Cr2O7; 294.8, U.S.P
Characters. - In large red, transparent, four-sided tables; anhydrous. Reactions and Solubility. - It fuses below redness; at a higher temperature is decomposed, yielding green oxide of chromium and ...
-Potassii Ferrocyanidum, B. and U.S.P. Ferrocyanide of Potassium. K4Fe(CN)6.3H2O; 421.9
Characters. - In large yellow four-sided tablets or prisms, permanent in the air. Solubility. - Soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol. Reactions. - The aqueous solution precipitates deep blue with ...
-Potassium Cyanidum, B. and U.S.P. Cyanide of Potassium. KCN; 65
Characters. - White, opaque, deliquescent, crystalline masses having the odour of hydrocyanic acid, like which it is intensely poisonous (p. 586). .B.P. Preparation for which it is used. Bismuthum Pu...
-B.P. Sodium. Sodium. Na; 23
. The metallic element sodium as met with in commerce. It should be preserved in well-stoppered bottles under mineral naphtha. Characters. - A soft metal, rapidly oxidising in the air, but showing a ...
-B.P. Liquor Sodii Ethylatis. Solution of Ethylate of Sodium
It contains 19 per cent. of the solid salt, NaC2H5O. Characters. - A colourless liquid of syrupy consistence, becoming brown by keeping. Specific gravity 0.867. Preparation. - By dissolving metallic...
-Sodii Chloridum, B. and U.S.P. Chloride of Sodium. Common Salt. NaCl; 58.4
Characters. - In small white crystalline grains, or transparent cubic crystals, free from moisture. It has a purely saline taste, and imparts a yellow colour to flame. Solubility and Reactions. - Is ...
-Sodii Carbonas, B. and U.S.P. Carbonate of Sodium. Na2CO3.10H2O; 286
Obtained from the ashes of marine plants, or produced by chemical decomposition with chloride of sodium. Characters. - In transparent, colourless, laminar crystals, of a rhombic shape, efflorescent, ...
-Soda Caustica, B.P.; Soda, U.S.P. Caustic Soda, B.P.; Soda, U.S.P
- Hydrate of sodium, NaHO, 40, with some impurities. Characters. - Hard, greyish-white pencils or fibrous pieces, deliquescent in moist air, dry and efflorescent in dry air, very alkaline and corros...
-Liquor Sodae, B. and U.S.P. Solution of Soda
An aqueous solution of hydrate of sodium (NaHO; 40) containing about 3 per cent. of the hydrate, U.S.P. (4.1 per cent. B.P.). Characters. - Like those of liquor potassae (p. 607), but it is not preci...
-Sodii Bicarbonas, B. and U.S.P. Bicarbonate of Sodium. NaHC03;84
Characters. - In powder, or small opaque irregular scales, white, of a saline and not unpleasant taste. Reactions. - It gives the reactions showing the presence of sodium, and of carbonic acid. It is...
-U.S.P. Sodii Bicarbonas Venalis. Commercial Bicarbonate of Sodium
Should contain 95 per cent. of pure bicarbonate, which it resembles in appearance and tests. U.S.P. Mistura Rhei et Sodae. Mixture of Rhubarb and Soda. - Bicarbonate of sodium 3, fluid extract of rhu...
-B.P. Sodii Citro-Tartras Effervescens. Effervescent Citro-Tartrate Of Sodium
Characters. - A granular powder which effervesces on the addition of water. Dose. - 60 grains to 1/4-ounce. Use. - If absorbed there may be some slight difference between the effect of this salt and...
-Soda Tartarata, B.P.; Potassii et Sodii Tartras, U.S.P. Tartarated Soda, B.P.; Tartrate of Potassium and Sodium, U.S.P. Rochelle Salt. NaKC4H4O6.4H2O; 282
Characters. - In colourless, transparent prisms or halves of prisms, of the right rhombic order, generally eight-sided; tasting like common salt. Impurity. - Bitartrate of potassium. Test. - Entirel...
-Borax, B.P.; Sodii Boras, U.S.P. Borax, B.P.; Borate of Sodium, U.S.P. Biborate of Sodium. Na2B4O7.10H2O; 382
A native salt. It is also made artificially by boiling together, in proper proportions, boric acid and carbonate of sodium. Characters. - In transparent, colourless crystals, sometimes slightly efflo...
-Sodii Sulphas, B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Sodium. Glauber's Salt. Na2SO4.10H2O; 322
Characters. - In transparent, oblique prisms. It has a salt and bitter taste and effloresces on exposure to the air. Solubility. - It is soluble in water, insoluble in spirit. Reactions. - It gives ...
-Sodii Sulpho-carbolas, B. and U.S.P. Sulph
Carbolate of Sodium. NaC6H5SO4.2H2O. Characters. - Colourless, transparent, rhombic prisms, inodorous, or nearly so, with a cooling, saline, and somewhat bitter taste. Solubility. - Readily soluble ...
-Sodii Phosphas, B. and U.S.P. Phosphate of Sodium. Na2HPO4.12H2O; 358
Characters. - In transparent, colourless, rhombic prisms, terminated by four converging planes, efflorescent, tasting like common salt. It imparts a yellow colour to flame. Reactions. - Its solution ...
-U.S.P. Sodii Chloras. Chlorate of Sodium. NaClO3; 106.4. Characters
Colourless, transparent tetrahedrons of the regular system; permanent in dry air, odourless, having a cooling saline taste and a neutral reaction. Solubility. - Soluble in 1.1 parts of water, and in ...
-Sodii Hypophosphis, B. and U.S.P. Hypophosphite of Sodium. NaH2PO2.H2O; 106
Characters. - Small, colourless or white rectangular plates, or a white granular powder, deliquescent on exposure to air, odourless, having a sweetish saline taste and a neutral reaction. Solubility....
-U.S.P. Liquor Sodii Silicatis
Characters. - An almost colourless, slightly yellow, viscid liquid, with a sharp saline taste and an alkaline reaction. Reactions. - It imparts an intense yellow colour to a non-luminous flame. A sma...
-U.S.P. Sodii Benzoas. Benzoate of Sodium. NaCH5O2. H2O; 162
Characters. - A white, semi-crystalline, or amorphous powder, efflorescent on exposure to air, odourless, or having a faint odour of benzoin, of a sweetly astringent taste, free from bitterness, and h...
-U.S.P. Sodii Pyrophosphas. Pyrophosphate of Sodium. Na4P2O7.10H2O; 446
Characters. - Colourless, translucent, monoclinic prisms, permanent in the air, odourless, having a cooling, saline, and feebly alkaline taste, and a slightly alkaline reaction. Solubility. - Soluble...
-Sodii Salicylas, B. and U.S.P. Salicylate of Sodium. 2NaC7H5O3.H2O; 338
Characters. - Small, white, crystalline plates, or a crystalline powder, permanent in the air, odourless, having a sweetish saline and mildly alkaline taste and a feebly acid reaction. Solubility. - ...
-U.S.P. Sodii Santoninas. Santoninate of Sodium. 2NaC15 H19O4.7H2O; 698
Characters. - Colourless, transparent, tabular, rhombic crystals, slowly coloured yellow by exposure to light, slightly efflorescent in dry air, odourless, having a mildly saline and somewhat bitter t...
-Sodii Sulphis, B. and U.S.P. Sulphite of Sodium. Na2SO8.7H2O; 252
Characters. - Colourless, transparent, monoclinic prisms, efflorescent in dry air, odourless, having a cooling saline and sulphurous taste. Reactions of Sodium Sulphite, Bisulphite, and Hyposulphite....
-U.S.P. Sodii Bisulphis. Bisulphite of Sodium. NaHSO3; 104
Characters. - Opaque, prismatic crystals, or a crystalline or granular powder, slowly oxidised, and losing sulphurous acid on exposure to air, having a faint sulphurous odour, and a disagreeable sulph...
-U.S.P. and Appendix B.P. Sodii Hyposulphis. Hyposulphite of Sodium. Na2S2O3.5H2O; 248
Characters. - Large, colourless transparent prisms or plates; no smell; cooling, rather bitter taste. Use. - It is an antiseptic and deodoriser like the sulphites. Chiefly used as a reagent to estima...
-B.P. Sodii Valerianas. Valerianate of Sodium. NaC5H9O2
Characters. - In dry white masses, without alkaline reaction, entirely soluble in rectified spirit, and giving out a powerful odour of valerian on the addition of dilute sulphuric acid. Preparation. ...
-Lithium. Li;7
Sources of Lithium. - Native silicates and phosphates of lithium and other metals. Reaction. - It is recognised by the red colour which it gives to flame. This appears to be more brilliant when the s...
-Lithii Carbonas, B. and U.S.P. Carbonate of Lithium. Li2CO3; 74
Characters. - In white powder or in minute crystalline grains, alkaline in reaction. Solubility. - It is soluble in 100 parts of cold water, insoluble in alcohol. Reactions. - It dissolves with effe...
-Lithii Citras, B. and U.S.P. Citrate of Lithium Li3C6H5O7; 210
Characters and Tests. - A white amorphous powder, deliquescent, and soluble in water without leaving any residue. Reactions. - Heated to redness it blackens, evolving inflammable gases; and leaving a...
-U.S.P. Lithii Benzoas. Benzoate of Lithium. LiC7H5O2; 128
Characters. - A white powder, or small shining scales permanent in the air, odourless or having a faint benzoin-like odour; of a cooling sweetish taste, and a faintly acid reaction. Reactions. - When...
-U.S.P. Lithii Bromidum
Vide p. 556. U.S.P. Lithii Salicylas. Salicylate of Lithium. 2LiC7H5O3.H2O; 306. Characters. - A white powder, deliquescent on exposure to air, odourless, or nearly so, having a sweetish taste and a...
-U.S.P. Lithii Bromidum. Continued
Preparation Of Ammonium Salts Is prepared From By Ammonium Chloride, B. and U.S.P. Gas liquor . . Adding hydrochloric acid and subliming in iron pots covered with l...
-Ammonii Chloridum, B. and U.S.P. Chloride of Ammonium. NH4C1; 53.4
Characters. - In colourless, inodorous, translucent, fibrous masses, tough, and difficult to powder. Solubility. - It is soluble in water and in rectified spirit. Reactions. - When heated it volatili...
-Liquor Ammonias Fortior, B.P.; Aqua Ammoniae Fortior, U.S.P. Strong Solution of Ammonia, B.P.; Stronger Water of Ammonia, U.S.P
Characters. - A colourless liquid, with a characteristic and very pungent odour, and strong alkaline reaction. Specific gravity 0.891. Preparations in which Strong Solution of Ammonia is used. B.P ...
-U.S.P. Spiritus Ammoniae. Spirit of Ammonia
An alcoholic solution of ammonia containing 10 per cent. by weight of the gas. Preparation. - By warming strong water of ammonia so as to expel the ammoniacal gas, passing this into cold alcohol, and...
-Ammonii Carbonas, B. and U.S.P. Carbonate of Ammonium, N3H11C2O5, B.P. NH4HCO3NH4NH2CO2; 157, U.S.P
A volatile and pungent ammoniacal salt, produced by submitting a mixture of sulphate or chloride of ammonium and carbonate of calcium to sublimation. It consists of a mixture of acid carbonate of ammo...
-Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, B. and U.S.P. Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia (Sal Volatile)
It consists of carbonate of ammonium, and strong solution of ammonia diluted with alcohol and water. It is flavoured with volatile oil of nutmeg and oil of lemon in the B.P., and with oil of lemon, oi...
-Tinctura Guaiaci Ammaoniata. B. and U.S.P. „ Valerianae Ammoniata. „ „
Uses. - It is very commonly taken to relieve feelings of faint-ness and depression, and is much safer than alcohol, which might otherwise be employed. It may be used also for other purposes instead of...
-Liquor Ammonii Acetatis, B. and U.S.P. Solution of Acetate of Ammonium
Acetate of Ammonium, NH4C2H3O2, dissolved in water. Dose. - 2 to 6 fluid drachms. Uses. - It is used as an eyewash, and as a lotion to inflamed parts. When given internally it acts as a diaphoretic,...
-B.P. Liquor Ammonii Citratis Fortior. Strong Solution of Citrate of Ammonium. Neutral. Sp. gr. 1.209. Dose
1/2 to 1 1/2 fl. dr. B.P. Liquor Ammonii Citratis. Solution of Citrate of Ammonium. - Citrate of Ammonium, or (NH4)3.C6H5O7, dissolved in water. Dose. - 2 to 6 fluid drachms. Uses. - Like the solut...
-Ammonii Phosphas, B. and U.S.P. Phosphate of Ammonium. (NH4)2HPO4; 132
Characters. - In transparent colourless prisms. Solubility. - Soluble in water, insoluble in rectified spirit. Reactions. - The aqueous solution gives the reactions of ammonia, and of a phosphate (p....
-Ammonii Nitras, B. and U.S.P. Nitrate of Ammonium. NH4NO3; 80
Characters. - Colourless crystals, generally in the form of long thin rhombic prisms, or in fused masses somewhat deliquescent, odourless, having a sharp bitter taste and a neutral reaction. Reaction...
-U.S. P. Ammonii Sulphas. Sulphate of Ammonium. (NH4)2SO4; 132
Characters. - Colourless transparent rhombic prisms, permanent in the air, odourless, having a sharp saline taste, and a neutral reaction. Uses. - It is not used internally, but is only employed for ...
-U.S.P. Ammonii Valerianas. Valerianate of Ammonium. NH4C5H9O2; 119
Characters. - Colourless or white quadrangular plates, deliquescent in moist air, having the odour of valerianic acid, a sharp and sweetish taste, and a neutral reaction. Solubility. - Very soluble i...
-Ammonii Benzoas, B. and U.S.P. Benzoate of Ammonium, NH4C7H5O2; 139
Characters. - Thin white four-sided laminar crystals, permanent in the air, having a slight odour of benzoic acid, a saline, bitter, afterwards slightly acrid taste, and a neutral reaction. Reactions...
-B.P. Sulphide of Ammonium. - (NH4)2S. Test Solution. Properties
Greenish-yellow transparent liquid, with a disagreeable pungent odour. S.G. 0.999. Preparation. - Saturate a solution of ammonia by sulphuretted hydrogen. Dose. - 3 minims, cautiously increased. Ac...
-Chapter XXV. Metals - (Continued). Class II. - Dyad Metals
Group I. - Metals Of The Alkaline Earths. Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Appendix. - Metals Of The Earths. Aluminium, (? triad) Beryllium (dyad), Zirconium (tetrad), Niobium (tetrad), Cerium, Lanthanum...
-Class II. Group I
General Action. - In regard to the action on the nervous system of the chlorides of calcium, strontium, barium, beryllium, didymium, erbium, and lanthanum, these substances fall into two groups (a) Co...
-Calcium. Ca; 40, Or 39.9
Sources of Calcium-salts. - The chief source is the carbonate found native as chalk or limestone. General Test of Calcium-salts. - The addition of ammonium oxalate to calcium salts causes a white pre...
-Calx, B. and U.S.P. Lime. CaO; 56
An alkaline earth, oxide of calcium, CaO, with some impurities, obtained by calcining chalk or limestone so as to expel carbonic acid. Characters. - In compact masses of a whitish colour, which readi...
-Liquor Calcis, B. and U.S.P. Solution of Lime. Lime Water
Preparation. - B.P. By shaking 2 ounces of slaked lime with 1 gallon of distilled water in a stoppered bottle well for two or three minutes. After twelve hours the excess of lime will have subsided, a...
-Creta Praeparata, B. and U.S.P. Prepared Chalk. Properties
It is a white powder, or in small lumps which break into powder readily on pressure. It has no taste or smell. Preparation. - Prepared chalk is simply chalk freed from sand and other impurities by el...
-Calcii Chloridum, B. and U.S.P. Chloride or Calcium. CaCl2; 110.8
Characters. - Colourless, slightly translucent, hard and friable masses, very deliquescent, odourless, having a hot, sharp, saline taste, and a neutral or faintly alkaline reaction. Solubility. - Sol...
-Calcii Carbonas Praecipitata, B.P.; Calcii Carbonas Praecipitatus, U.S.P. Precipitated Carbonate of Calcium. CaCO3; 100
Characters. - A very fine white impalpable powder, permanent in the air, odourless and tasteless. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water or alcohol. Reactions. - Wholly soluble in hydrochloric, nitr...
-Calcii Phosphas, B.P.; Calcii Phosphas Praecipitatus, U.S.P. Phosphate of Calcium, B.P.; Precipitated Phosphate of Calcium, U.S.P. Ca3(P04)2; 310 (Synonym, Phosphate of Lime)
Characters. - A light, white, amorphous powder, permanent in the air, odourless, tasteless. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water or alcohol. Impurities and Tests. - Wholly soluble in nitric or hyd...
-Calcii Hypophosphis, B.P. and U.S.P. Hypophosphite of Calcium, Ca(PH202)2, B.P. CaH4(P02)2<; 170, U.S.P
Characters. - Colourless or white six-sided prisms, or thin flexible scales, of a pearly lustre; permanent in dry air, odourless, having a nauseous, bitter taste and a neutral reaction. Reactions. - ...
-Calx Sulphurata, B. and U.S.P. Sulphurated Lime
A mixture (commonly misnamed sulphide of calcium) consisting chiefly of sulphide of calcium [CaS; 72] and sulphate of calcium [CaS04; 136], in varying proportions, but containing not less than 50 per ...
-Aluminium. Al; 27.5
General Sources of Alum Salts. - Aluminium is very widely distributed in nature, clays being silicates of alumina. Two kinds of clay, kaolin and fuller's earth, being inert powders, are used as demulc...
-Alumen, B. and U.S.P. Alum
A sulphate of aluminium and potassium (potassium alum or potash alum), or of aluminium and ammonium (ammonium alum or ammonia alum), crystallised from solution in water, B.P.; a sulphate of aluminium ...
-Alumen Exsiccatum, B. and U.S.P. Dried Alum. K2SO4A12(SO4)3; 516
Properties. - Dry white powder with the taste and other properties of alum. Preparation. - By heating potassium alum until the water of crystallisation is driven off. Dose. - As an astringent, 10 to...
-U.S. P. Aluminii Hydras. Hydrate of Aluminium. Al2(HO)6; 156
Characters. - A white, light, amorphous powder, permanent in dry air, odourless, and tasteless. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water or alcohol. Reactions. - Soluble without residue in hydrochlori...
-U.S.P. Aluminii Sulphas. Sulphate of Aluminium. A12(SO4)3.18H2O; 666
Characters. - A white, crystalline powder, permanent in the air, odourless, has a sweet, and afterwards an astringent taste, and an acid reaction. Solubility. - Soluble, without leaving more than a t...
-Cerium. Ce; 92
It is a rare metal. Its salts are supposed to resemble those of bismuth and silver in their action. Cerii Oxalas. Oxalate of Cerium, B. and U.S.P. CeC2O4.3H2O, B.P.; Ce(C2O4)3.9H2O, U.S.P Character...
-Class II. Group II. - Magnesium. Magnesium. Mg; 24
Sources. - The chief source is dolomite, or mountain limestone, which consists of carbonates of magnesium and calcium. Magnesium is also found native as carbonate and silicate. General Reactions of M...
-Magnesii Sulphas, B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Magnesium. Epsom Salts. MgSO4.7H2O; 246
Properties. - In minute, colourless, transparent, acicular crystals, whose form is a rhombic prism. They look exactly like sulphate of zinc. Its taste is bitter, and it is called in Germany Bittersalz...
-B.P. Enema Magnesii Sulpnatis. Enema of Sulphate of Magnesium Enema Catharticum)
Sulphate of magnesium 1, olive oil 1, starch mucilage 15. Action. - Sulphate of magnesium to saturation precipitates lobulins. In moderate doses it causes a copious secretion from the itestinal muco...
-B.P. Liquor Magnesii Carbonatis. Solution of Carbonate of Magnesium
It is a solution of carbonate of magnesium in water containing carbonic acid. It contains about 13 1/2 grains in the fluid ounce. It is a pleasant laxative for children; and laxative and antacid for w...
-Chapter XXVI. Metals - (Continued). Class II. - Dyad Metals - (continued)
General Actions of Heavy Metals. - The. heavy metals form compounds with albumen, known as albuminates. These are sparingly soluble, and in consequence of this, white of egg is a useful antidote in po...
-Metals - (Continued). Class II. - Dyad Metals - (continued). Continued
The heavy metals have all a powerful poisonous action on muscles, nerves, nerve-centres, and glands. The slightness of the action which they exert on these structures when administered by the alimenta...
-Zinc. Zn; 649
Sources of Zinc. - The chief are native carbonate or calamine (ZnC03) and zinc blende (ZnS). General Reactions of Zinc Salts. - The most characteristic test is that it forms a white sulphide, which i...
-Zincum. B. and U.S.P. Zinc. 64.9. Zinc of commerce, B.P. Metallic zinc in the form of thin sheets or irregular granulated pieces, U.S.P
Characters. - A bluish-white metal having the sp. gr. 6.9. Reactions. - When treated with warm diluted sulphuric acid it is almost completely dissolved, forming a colourless liquid which yields a whi...
-B.P. Zincum Granulatum. Granulated Zinc
(Zinc fused and poured into water). Impurities. - Very frequently it contains sulphur or arsenic. Tests. - Zinc is chiefly used for preparing hydrogen, and these impurities are tested by adding pure...
-Zinci Oxidum, B. and U.S.P. Oxide of Zinc. ZnO. 80.9
Characters. - A soft, nearly white, tasteless and inodorous powder, becoming pale-yellow when heated. Impurities. - Undecomposed carbonate, chloride, sulphates, iron and copper. Tests. - Dissolves w...
-B.P. Calamina Praeparata. Prepared Calamine
Native carbonate of zinc calcined in a covered earthen crucible at a moderate temperature, powdered and freed from gritty particles by elutriation. Characters. - A pale pinkish-brown powder, without ...
-Zinci Carbonas, B.P.; Zinci Carbonas Praecipitatus, U.S.P. Carbonate of Zinc. B.P. Precipitated Carbonate of Zinc. ZnCO3(ZnO)2.3H2O. B.P.; (ZnCO3)2.3Zn(HO)2; 546.5, U.S.P
Characters. - White, tasteless, inodorous. Solubility.- It is insoluble in water; soluble, with effervescence and without residue, in dilute nitric acid. Reactions. - The solution in nitric acid giv...
-Zinci Chloridum, B. and U.S.P. Chloride of Zinc, ZnCl2; 135.7
Characters. - Colourless opaque rods or tablets, very deliquescent and caustic. Solubility. - It is soluble almost entirely in water, alcohol, and ether. Reactions. - The watery solution gives the re...
-Zinci Sulphas, B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Zinc. ZnS04.7H20; 286.9
Characters. - In colourless transparent prismatic crystals with a strong metallic styptic taste. Reactions. - Its solution in water gives the reactions of zinc and of a sulphate (p. 595). Dose. - 1 ...
-Zinci Sulphocarbolas, B.P. Sulphocarbolate of Zinc. Zn(C6H5SO4)2.H2O
Characters. - Colourless, transparent, tabular, efflorescent crystals, with an astringent taste. Solubility. - Soluble in about twice the weight of rectified spirit and of water. Reactions. - The wa...
-Zinci Acetas, B. and U.S.P. Acetate of Zinc. Zn(C2H2)2 (CO.OH)2.2H2O; 218.9, B.P.; Zn(C2H3O2)2.3H2O; 236.9, U.S.P
Charactebs. - Thin, translucent and colourless crystalline plates, of a pearly lustre, with a sharp unpleasant taste. Solubility. - Soluble in water. Reactions. - The solution gives the reactions of...
-U.S.P. Zinci Bromidum. Bromide of Zinc ZnBr2; 224.5
Characters. - A white, or nearly white, granular powder, very deliquescent, odourless, having a sharp saline metallic taste, and a neutral reaction. Solubility. - Very soluble in water and in alcohol...
-U.S.P. Zinci Iodidum. Iodide of Zinc. ZnI2; 318.1
Characters. - A white, or nearly white, granular powder, very deliquescent, odourless, having a sharp saline and metallic taste, and an acid reaction. Solubility. - Very soluble in water and in alcoh...
-Zinci Valerianas, B. and U.S.P. Valerianate of Zinc. Zn(C5H9O2)
H2O; 284.9. Characters. - In brilliant, white, pearly, tabular crystals, with a feeble odour of valerianic acid, and a metallic taste. Solubility. - It is scarcely soluble in cold water or in ether,...
-U.S.P. Zinci Phosphidum. Phosphide of Zinc. Zn3P2; 256.7
Characters. - Minutely crystalline friable fragments, having a metallic lustre on the fractured surfaces, or a greyish black powder permanent in the air having a faint odour and taste of phosphorus. ...
-Copper. Cu; 63-4
Sources. - Its chief source is copper pyrites, which is a double sulphide of copper and iron. General Reactions. - Ammonia throws down a pale blue precipitate of hydrate, which is soluble in excess, ...
-B.P. Cupri Nitras. Nitrate of Copper, Cu(NO3)2.6H2O
Characters. - Deep blue prismatic crystals, very deliquescent, highly corrosive. With one-third of its weight of water it forms at a temperature below 70 F. (21.1 C), tabular crystals; Cu(N...
-Cupri Sulphas,1 B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Copper. CuSO4.5H2O; 249.2
Characters. - A blue crystalline salt, in oblique prisms. Preparation. - Vide p. 674. Solubility. - It is soluble in water, forming a pale blue solution which strongly reddens litmus. Reactions. - ...
-B.P. Sulphate of Copper, Anhydrous. CuS04. Sulphate of copper deprived of its water by a heat of 400° F
Characters. - A yellowish-white powder, which becomes blue when moistened with water. Action. - Sulphate of copper has little or no action on the skin covered by epidermis, but when applied to the de...
-U.S.P. Cupri Acetas. Acetate of Copper. Cu(CH2)2 (COOH)2.H2O; 199.2
Characters. - Deep green, prismatic crystals, yielding a bright green powder, efflorescent on exposure to air, odourless, having a nauseating metallic taste and an acid reaction. Tests. - If the aque...
-Argentum. Ag; 108 B.P. (1077 U.S.P.) Silver
Argentum Purificatum. B.P. Refined Silver. Pure metallic silver. Impurities. - Gold, copper, and lead. Test. - If ammonia be added in excess to a solution of the metal in nitric acid, the resulting...
-U.S.P. Argenti Nitras Fusus. Moulded Nitrate of Silver
Characters. - A white, hard solid, generally in form of pencils or cones of a fibrous fracture, becoming grey or greyish-black on exposure to light in presence of organic matter. Preparation. - Prepa...
-Argenti et Potassii Nitras, B.P.; Argenti Nitras Dilutus, U.S.P. Nitrate of Silver and Potassium, B.P.; Diluted Nitrate of Silver, U.S.P. Mitigated Caustic
Characters. - White or greyish-white cylindrical rods or cones. Preparation. - Prepared by fusing together nitrate of silver 1 part, with nitrate of potassium 2 parts, B.P.; 1 part, U.S.P. Solubilit...
-Argenti Oxidum, B. and U.S.P. Oxide of Silver. Ag20; 231.4
Characters. - An olive-brown powder, which at a low red heat gives off oxygen and is reduced to the metallic state. Solubility and Reactions. - It dissolves completely in nitric acid without the evol...
-U.S.P. Argenti Cyanidum. Cyanide of Silver. AgCN; 133.7
Characters. - A white powder permanent in dry air, but gradually turning brown on exposure to light, odourless and tasteless. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water or alcohol; insoluble in cold, but...
-U.S.P. Argenti Iodidum. Iodide of Silver. Agl; 234.3
Characters. - A heavy, amorphous, light-yellowish powder, unaltered by light if pure, but generally becoming somewhat greenish-yellow, without odour and taste. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water,...
-Class II. Group IV. Mercury. Hg;200
Mercury is a liquid metal. It forms two series of compounds, viz. mercurous, in which it is univalent, e.g. Hg2Cl2; and mercuric, in which it is bivalent, e.g. HgCl2. In constitution these salts are a...
-Class II. Group IV. Mercury. Hg;200. Continued
These symptoms appear in adults, generally with great regularity, when a similar quantity of mercury has been taken in a similar time, though the effect is modified by various conditions, as age, sex,...
-Hydrargyrum. B. and U.S.P. Mercury. Hg; 200 B.P. 199.7 U.S.P
Characters. - A metal, fluid at common temperatures, brilliantly lustrous, and easily divisible into spherical globules. Reaction. - Volatilises at a heat below that of visible redness, leaving no res...
-Hydrargyrum cum Creta, B. and U.S.P. Mercury with Chalk
Preparations. - By rubbing up chalk (2) and mercury (1) together, B.P. By rubbing up mercury (38), chalk (50), and sugar of milk (12) together, moistening them with a mixture of equal parts of ether a...
-U.S.P. Massa Hydrargyri. Blue Mass; Blue Pill
Mercury (33), powdered liquorice (5), althaea (25), glycerin (3), honey of rose (34). 3 grs. contain 1 of mercury. Uses. - Blue pill may be given either for its local action upon the intestines or to...
-Ungfuentum Hydrargyri, B. and U.S.P. Ointment of Mercury, B.P.; Mercurial Ointment, U.S.P
Contains 1 lb. each of mercury and prepared lard. As this would be too soft, 1 oz. of prepared suet is added. Preparations. Linimentum Hydrargyri (p. 516). Suppositoria Hydrargyri. Unguentum Hydrar...
-B.P. Suppositoria Hydrargyri. Mercurial Suppositories
Each contains 60 grs. of ointment of mercury, benzoated lard and white wax each 20 grs., oil of theobroma 80 grs. Uses. - They are employed where we wish to produce mercurial action without the risk ...
-Emplastrum Ammoniaci cum Hydrargyro, B. and U.S.P. Ammoni
cum and Mercury Plaster, B.P.; Ammoniac Plaster with Mercury, U.S.P. Preparation. - B.P. By rubbing mercury 3 oz. with warm olive-oil 1 fl. dr., and sulphur 8 grs. until the globules of mercury are n...
-B.P. Hydrargyri Persulphas. Persulphate of Mercury. HgSO4
Characters. - A white crystalline heavy powder. Preparation. - Heat mercury 20 oz. with sulphuric acid 12 fl. oz. in a porcelain vessel, stirring constantly until the metal disappears, then continue ...
-U.S.P. Hydrargyri Subsulphas Flavus. Yellow Subsulphate of Mercury. Hg(HgO)2SO4; 727.1
Characters. - A heavy lemon-yellow powder, permanent in the air, odourless and almost tasteless. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water or in alcohol, but soluble in nitric or hydrochloric acid. Rea...
-Hydrargyri Subchloridum, B.P.; Hydrargyri Chloridum Mite, U.S.P. Subchloride of Mercury, HgCl, B.P.; Mild Chloride of Mercury, Hg2Cl2; 470.2, U.S.P. Calomel
Characters. - A dull-white, heavy and nearly tasteless powder, rendered yellowish by trituration in a mortar. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water, spirit, or ether. Reactions. - It is very heavy,...
-Hydrargyri Perchloridum, B.P.; Hydrargyri Chloridum Corrosivum, U.S.P. Perchloride of Mercury, B.P.; Corrosive Chloride of Mercury, U.S.P. HgCl2; 270.5
Characters. - In heavy colourless masses of prismatic crystals, possessing a highly acrid metallic taste. Preparation. - By mixing mercuric sulphate with sodium chloride and subliming into a small ch...
-Hydrargyri Oxidum Flavum, B. and U.S.P. Yellow Oxide of Mercury. HgO; 215.7
Characters. - A yellow powder readily dissolved by hydrochloric acid, yielding a solution which, with solution of ammonia, gives a white precipitate. It is entirely volatilised when heated to incipien...
-Hydrargyri Oxidum Rubrum, B. and U.S.P. Red Oxide of Mercury. HgO; 215.7
Character. - An orange-red powder. Solubility and Reactions. - It is readily dissolved by hydrochloric acid, yielding a solution which, with caustic potash added in excess, gives a yellow precipitate...
-Hydrargyrum Ammoniatum, B. and U.S.P. Ammoniated Mercury. White Precipitate. NH2HgCl; 251.1. Character
An opaque white powder. Solubility. - It is insoluble in cold water, alcohol, and ether. Reactions. - Digested with caustic potash, it evolves ammonia, acquiring; a pale yellow colour, and the fluid...
-Liquor Hydrargyri Nitratis Acidus, B. and U.S.P. Acid Solution of Nitrate of Mercury. Hg(NO)3)2; 323.7
Characters and Reactions. - A colourless and strongly acid solution, which gives a yellow precipitate with solution of potash added in excess (mercuric oxide). If a crystal of sulphate of iron be drop...
-Unguentum Hydrargyri Nitratis, B. and U.S.P. Ointment of Nitrate of Mercury. Citrine Ointment
Characters. - It has a fine lemon-yellow colour and a consistence like butter. It is apt to become decolourised when mixed with metals or deoxidising powders, and hence an excess of acid is used in or...
-U.S.P. Hydrargyri Iodidum Viride. Green Iodide of Mercury. Hg2I2; 652.6
Characters. - A dull green powder, which darkens in colour upon exposure to light. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water. When it is shaken in a tube with ether nothing is dissolved. Reactions. - G...
-Hydrargyri Iodidum Rubrum, B. and U.S.P. Red Iodide of Mercury. Hgl2; 452.8
Characters. - A crystalline powder of vermilion colour, becoming yellow from an alteration in its crystalline form when gently heated over a lamp on a sheet of paper, and again becoming red when place...
-U.S.P. Hydrargyri Cyanidum. Cyanide of Mercury. Hg(CN)2; 251.7
Characters. - Colourless or white prismatic crystals, becoming dark-coloured on exposure to light; odourless, having a bitter metallic taste, and a neutral reaction. Reactions. - When slowly heated t...
-U.S.P. Hydrargyri Sulphidum Rubrum. Red Sulphide of Mercury. HgS; 231.7
Characters. - Brilliant dark-red crystalline masses, or a fine bright scarlet powder, permanent in the air, odourless and tasteless. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water, alcohol, nitric or hydroch...
-Class IV. Tetrad Metals. Lead. Titanium. Tin
General Actions. - Lead and tin resemble one another to a considerable extent in their physiological action. After absorption into the circulation lead affects the muscles, involuntary and voluntary, ...
-Lead. Pb; 207
General Source of Lead Salts. - Lead is obtained entirely from the native sulphide called galena, by roasting. General Reactions. - The chief reactions of lead salts are shown in the following table ...
-Plumbi Oxidum, B. and U.S.P. Oxide of Lead. PbO; 223
Character. - In heavy scales of a pale brick-red colour. Solubility and Reactions. - Completely soluble without effervescence in diluted nitric and acetic acids, either solution, when neutral, giving...
-Emplastrum Plumbi, B. and U.S.P. Lead Plaster
Preparation. - By heating oxide of lead with olive oil and water. The oleic acid of the oil combines with the lead, forming oleate of lead, and leaving glycerine. This plaster is a lead soap. Prepara...
-Plumbi Carbonas, B. and U.S.P. Carbonate of Lead. (PbC03)2Pb(HO)2; 773.5
Characters. - A soft, heavy, white powder, blackened by sulphuretted hydrogen. Solubility and Reactions. - Insoluble in water, soluble with effervescence in diluted acetic acid without leaving any re...
-Plumbi Acetas, B. and U.S.P. Acetate of Lead. Pb(CH2)2(CO.OH)2. 3H20; 378.5. Sugar of Lead
Characters. - In white crystalline masses, slightly efflorescent, having an acetous odour, and a sweet, astringent taste. Solubility and Reactions. - Its solution in water slightly reddens litmus, an...
-B.P. Pilula Plumbi cum Opio. Pill of Lead and Opium. Dose
3 to 5 grains. Uses. - It is a powerful astringent, used either for the purpose of obtaining the local astringent action of lead upon the bowels in diarrhoea, or for its general effect upon the syste...
-Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis, B. and U.S.P. Solution o. Subacetate Of Lead
Subacetate of lead, Pb(C2H302)2.PbO, dissolved in water, B.P. An aqueous liquid containing in solution about 24 per cent. B.P., 25 per cent. U.S.P., of subacetate of lead. Characters. - A dense clear...
-Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis Dilutus, B. and U.S.P. Diluted Solution of Subacetate of Lead
Consists of 2 fl. dr. of solution of lead and 2 fl. dr. of rectified spirit diluted with water up to a pint, B.P. Solution of acetate of lead 3, distilled water 97 parts, U.S.P. Uses. - Used as a mil...
-U.S.P. Ceratum Plumbi Subacetatis. Cerate of Subacetate of Lead
Solution of subacetate of lead (20 parts), camphor cerate (80 parts), U.S.P. Uses. - Chiefly as an application to chapped hands and ulcers. U.S.P. Linimentum Plumbi Subacetatis. Liniment of Subaceta...
-Plumbi Nitras, B. and U.S.P. Nitrate of Lead. Pb(NO3)2; 330.5
Characters. - In colourless octahedral crystals which are nearly opaque, permanent in the air, of a sweetish astringent taste. Solubility. - Soluble in water and alcohol. Reactions. - The aqueous so...
-Plumbi Iodidum, B. and U.S.P. Iodide of Lead. PbI or PbI2; 459.7
Characters. - A heavy, bright, citron-yellow powder, neutral, with no taste or smell. Solubility. - Sparingly soluble in water, readily soluble in chloride of ammonium. Reaction. - When strongly hea...
-Unguentum Plumbi lodidi, B. and U.S.P. Ointment of Iodide of Lead; with simple ointment, 1 part in 8, B.P.; with benzoated lard, 1 part in 10, U.S.P
Uses.- It has been used externally as an application to ringworm, and as a counter-irritant in scrofulous enlargement of the glands. It has been given internally in enlarged glands, and in chronic enl...
-Tin. Sn; 118
B.P. Tin, granulated. Grain tin, reduced to small fragments by fusing and pouring into cold water. Use. - Used formerly in powder as an anthelmintic in 1/2 ounce doses. Solution of Chloride of Tin....
-Chapter XXVII. Metals - (Continued). Class V. - Pentad Elements
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Vanadium, Arsenic, Niobium, Antimony, Tantalum, Bismuth. In the heading to this class I have substituted the word elements for metals, for nitrogen and phosphorus belong to it, ...
-Phosphorus. P; 31. B. And U.S.P
A non-metallic element obtained from bones. Characters. - A semi-transparent, yellowish, waxy-looking solid. When exposed to air it emits white fumes which are luminous in the dark and have a garlick...
-Arsenium (Arsenic). As; 75
Metallic arsenic is not used in medicine. It is steel-coloured, crystalline, and brittle, and when heated gives off garlicky fumes. Very light (sp. gr. 5.8), very volatile. It forms two classes of sal...
-Arsenium (Arsenic). As; 75. Part 2
A very dilute arsenical solution also conserves the irritability of the excised nerve and muscle of the frog. Considerable doses of arsenic given for a length of time produce fatty degeneration of th...
-Arsenium (Arsenic). As; 75. Part 3
Arsenic is a powerful antiperiodic, nearly rivalling quinine; it seems less serviceable than quinine in well-marked cases of ague, but is sometimes as good, or even better, than it in the irregular ma...
-Acidum Arseniosum, B. and U.S.P. Arsenious Acid. As203; 197.8
An-anhydride (not a true acid), obtained by roasting arsenical ores, and purified by sublimation. Characters. - Occurs in sublimed masses which usually present a stratified appearance caused by the e...
-Liquor Arsenicalis, B.P.; Liquor Potassii Arsenitis, U.S.P. Arsenical Solution, B.P.; Solution of Arsenite of Potassium, U.S.P. Fowler's Solution
Is a mixed solution of arsenite and carbonate of potassium flavoured with compound tincture of lavender. Contains 1 part arsenious acid in 100 of water, or about 4 1/2 grains in 1 fl. oz., B. and U.S....
-Sodii Arsenias, B. and U.S.P. Arseniate of Sodium. Na2HAsO4.7H2O; 311.9
Characters. - In colourless transparent prisms. Preparation. - By fusing arsenious acid with nitrate and carbonate of sodium. The As2O3 is oxidised by the nitrate to As2O5, which combines with the so...
-Arsenii Iodidum, B. and U.S.P. Iodide of ARsenium, B.P.; of Arsenic, U.S.P. AsI3; 454.7
Characters. - Small orange-coloured crystals. Solubility. - Readily and almost entirely soluble in water and in rectified spirit. Reactions. - Its aqueous solution has a neutral reaction, and gives ...
-Antimony. Sb; 122
Antimony forms two classes of salts, antimonious and anti-monic. In the former it is tri- and in the latter pent-atomic. General Sources. - It is chiefly found native in the form of the black antimon...
-Antimony. Sb; 122. Continued
When applied directly to the heart of a frog, it first increases, then slows, and finally arrests its pulsations in diastole. This action appears to be chiefly due to paralysis of the cardiac muscle i...
-U.S.P. Antimonii Sulphidum. Sulphide of Antimony.- Native sulphide of antimony, Sb2S3; 340; purified from siliceous matter by fusion, and as nearly free from arsenic as possible
Characters. - Steel-grey masses of a metallic lustre, and a striated crystalline fracture without taste or smell. U.S.P. Preparation. Antimonium Sulphidum Purificatum. This is the ore from which the...
-Antimonium Sulphuratum, B. and U.S.P. Sulphurated Antimony
B.P. Sulphide of antimony, Sb2S3; 336; with a small and variable amount of oxide of antimony, Sb203. U.S.P. Chiefly antimonious sulphide, Sb2S3; 340; with a very small amount of antimonious oxide. C...
-Liquor Antimonii Chloridi, B.P. Solution of Chloride of Antimony
Characters. - A heavy liquid, usually of a yellowish-red colour. Reactions. - A little of it dropped into water gives a white precipitate, and the filtered solution lets fall a copious deposit on the...
-Antimonii Oxidum, B. and U.S.P. Oxide of Antimony. Sb2O3; 288
Characters. - A greyish-white powder, fusible at a low red-heat. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water, but readily dissolved by hydrochloric acid. Reactions. - The solution, dropped into distilled...
-KSbC4H4O7.H2O, B.P.; 2KSbOC4H4O6.H2O; 664, U.S.P. - A tartrate of potassium and antimony
Characters. - In colourless transparent crystals exhibiting triangular facets. Solubility. - It is soluble in water, and less so in proof spirit. Reactions. - It decrepitates and blackens upon the a...
-Bismuth. Bi; 210
Bismuth forms three classes of compounds in which it is bi-, tri-, and quinqui-valent respectively. General Sources. - It is found native in the metallic state. General Reactions. - It is distinguis...
-B.P. Bismuthum. Bismuth
A crystalline metal. In its crude state it is impure. Preparation. Bismuthum Purificatum. B.P. Bismuthum Purificatum. Purified Bismuth. Characters. - A crystalline metal of a greyish-white colour, w...
-Bismuthi Subnitras, B. and U.S.P. Subnitrate of Bismuth. BiONO3.H2O; 306, U.S.P
Characters. - A heavy white powder in minute crystalline scales, blackened by sulphuretted hydrogen. Solubility. - Insoluble in water, but soluble in nitric acid mixed with half its volume of distill...
-Carbonate of Bismuth, B.P.; Subcarbonate of Bismuth, U.S.P. 2(Bi2CO3).H2O, B.P.; (BiO)2CO3.H2O; 530, U.S.P
Characters. - A white powder, blackened by sulphuretted hydrogen. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water, but soluble with effervescence in nitric acid. Reactions. - The solution gives the reactions...
-B.P. Liquor Bismuthi et Ammonii Citratis. Solution of Citrate of Bismuth and Ammonium
Characters. - A colourless solution with a saline and slightly metallic taste. Neutral or slightly alkaline to test-paper; mixing with water without change. One fluid drachm contains 3 grains of oxide...
-B. and U.S.P. Bismuthi et Ammonii Citras. Citrate of Bismuth and Ammonium
Characters. - Small, shining, pearly or translucent scales, becoming opaque on exposure to air, odourless, having a slightly acidulous and metallic taste, and a neutral or faintly alkaline reaction. ...
-Chapter XXVIII. Metals - (Continued). Class VIII
Group I. Iron - Nickel - Cobalt - Manganese. ...
-Ferrum; Iron. Fe; 55.9
Metallic iron in the form of fine, bright, and non-elastic wire. Iron forms ferrous salts in which it is bivalent, e.g. FeCl2 or FeS04, and ferric, in which it is either trivalent or quadrivalent. Fe...
-Ferrum; Iron. Fe; 55.9. Continued
1 Preyer, Die Blutcrystalle. Jena, 1871. but the heart is not affected. In mammals they cause congestion of the stomach and intestine, and diarrhoea. They produce paralysis both of sensation and moti...
-B.P. Vinum Ferri
This is prepared by macerating iron wire in sherry for a month. Some of it is converted into tartrate and dissolved by the bitartrate of potassium in the wine. Dose. - 1 to 2 fl. dr. or more. Use. - ...
-Ferri Sulphas, B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Iron. FeS04.7H20; 277.9
Characters. - In oblique rhombic prisms, of a pale greenish blue colour and styptic taste. Solubility. - It is insoluble in rectified spirit, soluble in water. Reactions. - The aqueous solution gives ...
-Ferri Sulphas Granulata, B.P.; Ferri Sulphas Praecipi-tatus, U.S.P. Granulated Sulphate of Iron, B.P. Precipitated Sulphate of Iron, U.S.P. FeSO4.7H2O; 277.9
Characters.and Tests. - In small granular crystals of a pale greenish-blue colour. In other respects it corresponds to the characters and tests for sulphate of iron. Dose. - 1 to 5 grains. Uses. - I...
-U.S.P. Massa Ferri Carbonatis. Mass of Carbonate of Iron
Sulphate of iron, 100 parts; carbonate of sodium, 110 parts; honey, 38 parts; sugar, 25 parts; syrup and water, q.s. Mistura Ferri Composita, B. and U.S.P. Compound Mixture of Iron. Griffith's Mixtur...
-Liquor Ferri Persulphatis, B.P.; Tersulphatis, U.S.P. Solution of Persulphate of Iron, B.P.; of Tersulphate, U.S.P. Fe2(SO4)3; 399.8
Characters. - A dense solution of a dark-red colour, inodorous and very astringent, miscible in all proportions with alcohol and water. Reactions. - Diluted with ten volumes of water, it gives the re...
-U.S.P. Liquor Ferri Subsulphatis. Solution of Sub-sulphate of Iron. Solution of Basic Ferric Sulphate. (Monsel's Solution.)
Characters. - Like the tersulphate; but on mixing two volumes of the solution with one of concentrated sulphuric acid a solid white mass separates on standing. Dose. - 3 to 10 minims (.18 - .64 c.c)....
-U.S.P. Ferri Oxidum Hydratum. Hydrated Oxide of Iron. Fe2(HO)6; 213.8
Characters. - A soft, moist, pasty mass, of a reddish-brown colour. Solubility. - Dissolves readily in diluted hydrochloric acid. Reactions. - The solution gives the reaction of a ferric salt only. ...
-U.S.P. Ferri Oxidum Hydratum cum Magnesia. Hydrated Oxide of Iron with Magnesia
Antidote to arsenious acid. Preparation. - Mix the solution of tersulphate of iron 1,000 grs. (65.00 gm.) with twice its weight of water. Rub the magnesia, 150 grains (10.00 gm.) with water to a smoo...
-B.P. Ferri Peroxidum Hydratum. Hydrated Peroxide of Iron. Fe2O3H2O or Fe2O2(HO)2
Characters. - A reddish-brown powder, destitute of taste and not magnetic. Solubility. - It dissolves completely, though slowly, with the aid of heat, in hydrochloric acid, diluted with half its volu...
-Ferrum Redactum, B. and U.S.P. Reduced Iron
Metallic iron, with a variable amount of magnetic oxide of iron. Characters. - A fine greyish-black powder, strongly attracted by the magnet, and exhibiting metallic streaks when rubbed with firm pre...
-Of Acetate Of Iron
Characters. - A deep-red fluid with a sour, styptic taste and acetous odour, miscible with water or rectified spirit in all proportions. Sp. gr. 1.127. Reactions. - Diluted with water it gives the re...
-U.S.P. Ferri Chloridum. Chloride of Iron. Fe2Cl6. 12H20; 540.2
Characters. - Orange-yellow crystalline masses, very deliquescent, odourless or having a faint odour of hydrochloric acid, a styptic taste, and an acid reaction. Solubility. - Freely and wholly solub...
-Liquor Ferri Perchloridi Fortior, B.P. Liquor Ferri Chloridi, U.S.P. Strong Solution of Perchloride of Iron, B.P. Solution of Chloride of Iron, U.S.P
Characters. - An orange-brown solution with a strong styptic taste, miscible with water and rectified spirit in all proportions. Reactions. - Diluted with water it gives the reactions of a chloride (...
-B.P. Liquor Ferri Dialysatus. Solution of Dialysed Iron
This solution of dialysed iron, so-called, is a solution of highly basic ferric oxychloride, or chloroxide of iron, from which most of the acidulous matter has been removed by dialysis. Characters. -...
-Liquor Ferri Pernitratis, B.P.; Liquor Ferri Nitratis, U.S.P. Solution of Pernitrate of Iron, B.P.; Nitrate of Iron, U.S.P. Fe2(NO3)6; 483.8
Characters. - A clear solution of a reddish-brown colour, slightly acid and astringent to the taste. Reactions. - When to a little of it placed in a test-tube half its volume of pure sulphuric acid i...
-Ferrum Tartaratum, B.P.; Ferri et Potassii Tartras, U.S.P. Tartarated Iron, B.P.; Tartrate of Iron and Potassium, U.S.P
Characters. - Thin, transparent scales of a deep garnet colour, Slightly sweetish and astringent in taste. Solubility. - It is soluble in water and sparingly soluble in spirit. Reactions. - The aque...
-U.S.P. Ferri et Ammonii Tartras. Tartrate of Iron and Ammonium
Characters. - Transparent scales, varying in colour from garnet-red to yellowish-brown, only slightly deliquescent, without odour, having a sweetish and slightly ferruginous taste and a neutral reacti...
-Ferri et Ammonii Citras, B. and U.S.P. Citrate of Iron and Ammonium
Characters. - In thin, transparent scales of a deep red colour, slightly sweetish and astringent in taste. It feebly reddens litmus paper. Solubility. - It is soluble in water, but almost insoluble i...
-U.S.P. Liquor Ferri Citratis. An Aqueous Solution of Ferric Citrate, Fe2(C6H5O7)2; 489.8, containing about 35 per cent. of the anhydrous salt
Characters. - A dark brown liquid, odourless, having a slightly ferruginous taste and acid reaction. Reactions. - It gives the reactions of a citrate (p. 594) and a bluish green precipitate with ferr...
-U.S.P. Ferri Citras. Citrate of Iron. Fe2(C6H5O7)2.6H2O; 597.8
Characters. - Transparent garnet-red scales, permanent in the air, odourless, having a very faint ferruginous taste and an acid reaction. Solubility. - Slowly but completely soluble in cold water and...
-Ferri et Quininae Citras, B. and U.S.P. Citrate of Iron and Quinine
Characters. - Thin scales of a greenish golden-yellow colour, somewhat deliquescent. Solubility. - It is entirely soluble in cold water. Reactions. - The solution is very slightly acid, and is preci...
-U.S.P. Ferri et Strychninae Citras. Citrate of Iron and Strychnine
Characters. - Transparent garnet-red scales, deliquescent on exposure to air; odourless, having a bitter and slightly ferruginous taste and a slightly acid reaction. Solubility. - Soluble in water. ...
-U.S.P. FerriLactas. Lactate of Ikon. Fe(C3H503)2.3H20; 287.9
Characters.- Pale greenish-white, crystalline crusts or grains, permanent in the air; odourless, having a mild sweetish ferruginous taste and a slightly acid reaction. Solubility. - Soluble in water....
-U.S.P. Ferri Oxalas. Oxalate of Iron. FeC2O4.H20; 161.9
Characters. - A pale yellow, or lemon-yellow crystalline powder, permanent in the air, odourless and nearly tasteless. Solubility. - It is very slightly soluble in cold or hot water, but soluble in c...
-U.S.P. Ferri Iodidum Saccharatum. Saccharated Iodide of Iron
Characters. - A yellowish-white or greyish powder very hygroscopic, odourless, having a sweetish ferruginous taste, and a slightly acid reaction. Dose. - 2 to 5 grains (0.13-0.33 gm.). Uses. - Iodid...
-B.P. Ferri Arsenias. Arseniate of Iron
Arseniate of iron, Fe3As2O8, partially oxidised. Characters. - A tasteless amorphous powder of a green colour. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water, but readily dissolved by hydrochloric acid. Re...
-Ferri Phosphas, B. and U.S.P. Phosphate of Iron.-Phosphate of iron, Fe3P2O8, partially oxidated. Characters
A slate-blue amorphous powder. Solubility. - It is insoluble in water, soluble in hydrochloric acid. Reactions. - The solution yields a precipitate with both the yellow (ferric) and red prussiates o...
-U.S.P. Ferri Pyrophosphas. Pyrophosphate of Iron
Characters. - Thin, apple-green, transparent scales, permanent in dry air when excluded from light, but turning dark on exposure to light. Odourless, having an acidulous, slightly saline taste, and a ...
-U.S.P. Ferri Hypophosphis. Hypophosphite of Iron.- Fe2(H2PO2)6; 501.8
Characters. - A white or greyish-white powder, permanent in the air, odourless and nearly tasteless. Solubility. - It is only slightly soluble in water, more readily so in presence of hypophosphorous...
-U.S.P. Ferri Valerianas. Valerianate of Iron. - Fe2(C5H9O2)3 717.8
Characters. - A dark tile-red amorphous powder, permanent in dry air, having a faint odour of valerianic acid, and a mildly styptic taste. Solubility. - Insoluble in cold water, but readily soluble i...
-Manganese. Mn; 55
Manganesii Oxidum Nigrum, B.P.; Mangani Oxidum Nigrum, U.S.P. Black Oxide of Manganese. - Native crude peroxide of manganese containing at least 66 of the pure oxide. Mn02; 86, U.S.P. Characters. - A...
-Class VIII. Group II. - Gold, Platinum. Aurum; Gold. Au; 1962
B.P. Gold, Fine. Gold, free from Metallic Impurities. Gold foil is used for stopping teeth and to make the test lolution. B.P. Solution of Chloride of Gold. Preparation. - By dissolving gold foil in...
-Platinum. Pt; 197
B.P. Platinum Foil. A heavy whitish metal Sp. gr. 8.921. Withstands considerable heat. The foil is convenient for holding salts of organic acids which it is wished to char. B.P. Solution of Perchlor...
-Section IV. Organic Materia Medica
This Section contains Organic Compounds artificially prepared, and not merely extracted from Vegetable Substances containing them. Although it is small, it contains some of the most important remedies...
-Chapter XXIX. Carbon Compounds - Fatty Series
Carbon is a tetrad element. It is sometimes represented graphically thus: It combines with four atoms of a monad, or two of a dyad element, e.g. or or it combines with one atom of a triad an...
-U.S.P. Carbonei Bisulphidum. - Bisulphide of Carbon. CS2; 76
Bisulphide of carbon should be kept in well-stopped bottles, in a cool place, remote from lights or fire. Characters. - A clear, colourless, highly refractive liquid, very diffusive, having a strong,...
-Fatty Series Hydrocarbons
The chemical nature of a carbon compound depends on the arrangement of its constituent atoms, but in its physical characters on the number of the atoms. The physical character of a compound greatly i...
-U.S.P. Benzinum. Benzin. Petroleum Benzin. Petroleum Ether
A purified distillate from American petroleum, consisting of hydrocarbons, chiefly of the marsh-gas series [C5H12; C6H14, and homologous compounds], having a specific gravity from 0.670 to 0.675, and ...
-U.S.P. Petrolatum. Petrolatum. [Petroleum Ointment, Vaseline.]
A semi-solid substance, consisting of hydrocarbons, chiefly of the marsh-gas series, C16H34, etc, obtained by distilling off the lighter and more volatile portions from American petroleum, and purifyi...
-Alcohols
Alcohols of the Series C2H2n+1OH. - These may be regarded as hydrates of the radicals. They differ from the hydrides by the radical being united in them to hydroxyl, HO, instead of to hydrogen. The mo...
-Alcohols. Part 2
General Impurities. - Water, fusel oil, and aldehyde. The water may have come to be present either as an accidental impurity or as an intentional adulteration. One of the most important impurities of ...
-Alcohols. Part 3
In considering the action of alcohol upon the nervous system, one must distinguish between the effect it produces upon the various nerve-centres by increasing the circulation through them, and the eff...
-Alcohols. Part 4
When those accustomed to indulge freely in stimulants are attacked by acute disease, or when they receive injuries, or when, in consequence of a drinking bout, their stomachs are so deranged as to bri...
-Alcohols. Part 5
In the intestine alcohol is used as a carminative to relieve flatulent distension, as an antispasmodic in colic, and as an astringent in diarrhoea. Alcohol as a Stimulant. - As a stimulant alcohol se...
-U.S.P. Alcohol. Alcohol
A liquid composed of 91 per cent. by weight (94 per cent. by volume) of ethyl alcohol (C2H5HO; 46), and 9 per cent. by weight (6 per cent. by volume) of water. Characters. - A transparent, colourless...
-Spiritus Vini Gallici, B. and U.S.P. Spirit of French Wine. Brandy
Spirit distilled from French wine. It has a peculiar flavour, and a light sherry colour derived from the cask in which it has been kept, B.P. An alcoholic liquid obtained by the distillation of fermen...
-U.S.P. Vinum Album Fortius. Stronger White Wine. Composition
White wine 7 parts, alcohol 1 part. When tested for alcohol it should not contain less than 20 nor more than 25 per cent. of absolute alcohol by weight. Use. - In preparing all the medicated wines in...
-Aldehydes
These substances in their chemical constitution lie between alcohols and acids. They are obtained from alcohols by the removal of two atoms of hydrogen, hence the name aldehyde (alcohol dehydrogenatum...
-Ketones
These are aldehydes in which the distinctively aldehyde hydrogen has been replaced by a radical. They thus bear a relation to aldehydes similar to that of ethers to alcohols. Alcohol, R - O - H Alde...
-Simple Ethers
These correspond in structure to oxides in which the place of a metal is taken by an alcohol radical, thus potash, 0 or ...
-aether, B. and U.S.P. (C2H5)2O; 74. Ether
A volatile liquid prepared from alcohol, and containing not less than 92 per cent. by volume of pure ether (C2H5)2O, B.P. A liquid composed of about 74 per cent. of ethyl oxide (C2H5)2O; and about 26 ...
-Spiritus aetheris, B. and U.S.P. Spirit of Ether
It is a mixture of ether (1), rectified spirit (2). Test. - Specific gravity, 0.809. Dose. - 30 to 90 min. Preparation. b.p. Tinctura Lobelia aetherea. Uses Spirit of ether is used as a carminative a...
-Saline Ethers
These correspond to metallic salts, in which the metal is replaced by an organic radical, e.g.: Potassium Sulphate. K SO4 or K2SO4 K Ethyl Sulphate. ...
-U.S.P. Oleum aethereum. Ethereal Oil
A volatile liquid, consisting of equal volumes of heavy oil of wine and of stronger ether. The heavy oil of wine is either a mixture of ethyl sulphate (C2H5)2SO4, and a polymeric form of ethylene (C2...
-aether Aceticus, B. and U.S.P. Acetic aether. C2H5C2H3O2
88. Acetate of Ethyl. Characters. - A transparent and colourless liquid, of a strong fragrant ethereal and somewhat acetous odour, a refreshing taste and a neutral reaction. Preparation. - By distil...
-Spiritus aetheris Nitrosi, B. and U.S.P. Spirit of Nitrous Ether
A spirituous solution containing nitrous compounds, aldehyde and other substances, B.P. An alcoholic solution of ethyl nitrite (C2H5NO2; 75), containing 5 per cent. of the crude ether, U.S.P. Charact...
-Amyl Nitris, B. and U.S.P. Nitrite of Amyl, C5H11NO2
Characters. - A yellowish liquid with a strong ethereal, fruity smell. When freely exposed to air it decomposes, leaving a large residue of amyl alcohol. Solubility. - Insoluble in water, but soluble...
-Amyl Nitris, B. and U.S.P. Nitrite of Amyl, C5H11NO2. Continued
Fig. 173. - Normal pulse-tracing of a patient suffering from aortic regurgitation and angina pectoris. 1 These experiments were made with Rana temporaria. I knew from unpublished experiments by Dr...
-Haloid Compounds
These correspond to haloid salts of metals, e.g.: Potassium Bromide. KBr. Ethyl Bromide. (C2H5)Br. aethyl Bromidum. Bromide of Ethyl. C2H5Br. Hydro-bromic Ether. Not officinal. Characters. - A c...
-Haloid Compounds. Continued
Action on the Circulation. - It diminishes the blood-pressure in two ways - first by weakening and finally paralysing the vasomotor centre, and thus dilating the vessels; and secondly by weakening the...
-B.P. Butyl-Chloral Hydras. Hydrate of Butyl-Chloral. C4H5C13O.H2O
(Synonym: Croton-chloral hydrate, wrongly so called.) Characters. - It forms white pearly crystalline scales, with a pungent smell, and acrid, disagreeable taste. Solubility. - It is sparingly solub...
-Spiritus Chloroformi, B. and U.S.P. Spirit of Chloroform
Chloroform 1 fl. oz., rectified spirit 19 fl. oz., B.P.; purified chloroform 10, alcohol 90, U.S.P. Dose. - 20 to 60 min. B.P. Tinctura Chloroformi Composita. Compound Tincture of Chloroform. Chlor...
-Spiritus Chloroformi, B. and U.S.P. Spirit of Chloroform. Part 2
The tension of the intercellular fluid and the lymph in the eye appear to be diminished, so that the mammae become flaccid, the intra-ocular tension is diminished, and irregular astigmatism may occur....
-Spiritus Chloroformi, B. and U.S.P. Spirit of Chloroform. Part 3
Stoppage of the heart may occur suddenly, and may take place while respiration is still going on. It is usually ascribed to the chloroform, and no doubt concentrated chloroform vapour inhaled into the...
-Iodoformum, B. and U.S.P. Iodoform, CHI3; 392.8.- Iodoform should be kept in wel
stoppered bottles, in a cool place. Characters. - Shining, lemon-yellow, crystalline scales, somewhat greasy to the touch; having a persistent and disagreeable odour and flavour. Solubility. - Very ...
-Chapter XXX. Carbon Compounds - Aromatic Series
Carbon Nucleus. - In this series the carbon atoms are supposed to be linked so as to form a closed chain or chains. The lowest member of the series contains six atoms of carbon, which are so linked th...
-Carbon Compounds - Aromatic Series. Continued
Resorcin. Meta-di-hydroxy-benzene. C6H4.(OH)2(1:3) Hydroquinone. Para-di-hydroxy-benzene. C6H4.(OH)2(l : 4) When three atoms of hydrogen in benzene are replaced by hy-droxyl we get tri-hydroxy...
-Acidum Carbolicum. B. and U.S.P. Carbolic Acid. Phenol. Pheny Alcohol. C6H5HO; 94
A substance obtained from coal-tar oil by fractional distillation and subsequent purification. Characters. - In colourless acicular crystals, which at a temperature of 95 F. become an oily liqui...
-B.P. Acidum Carbolicum Liquefactum. Liquefied Carbolic Acid
Carbolic acid liquefied by the addition of 10 per cent. of water. Characters. - A colourless or very slightly reddish or brownish liquid having the taste, odour, etc, of carbolic acid. Solubility. -...
-Creasotum, B. and U.S.P. Creasote. A product of the distillation of wood-tar. Characters
A liquid, colourless or with a yellowish tinge, and a strong empyreumatic odour. Specific gravity, 1.071. Solubility. - It is sparingly dissolved by water, but freely by alcohol ether, and glacial ac...
-Acidum Salicylicum, B. and U.S.P. Salicylic Acid. HC7H5O3; 138 (p. 810)
1 Bull, de Therap., Jan. 30, 1883; Centralblt. f. d. med. Wissenschaft, No. 42, 1883. A crystalline acid obtained by the combination of the elements of carbolic acid with those of carbonic acid gas a...
-Acidum Salicylicum, B. and U.S.P. Salicylic Acid. HC7H5O3; 138 (p. 810). Continued
Uses. - It may be used wherever it is desirable to destroy germs and stop processes of putrefaction or fermentation in the intestine. It has proved useful in typhoid fever, diarrhoea, acute and chroni...
-Section V. Vegetable Materia Medica. Vegetable Kingdom. Introduction
Although it is probable that, at some future time, we may be able to make artificially drugs which will be able to produce on the organism any effect which we desire, yet many years must elapse before...
-Chapter XXXI. Phanerogamae. Division I. - Angiospermae. Class I. - Dicotyledones Polypetalae. Sub-Class I. - Thalamiflorae. Ranunculaceae. B.P. Aconiti Folia. Aconite Leaves
The fresh leaves and flowering tops of Aconitum Napellus, gathered when about one-third of the flowers are expanded, from plants cultivated in Britain. Characters. - Leaves have deeply-cut, wedge-sha...
-B.P. Aconiti Radix. Aconite Root
The dried root of Aconitum Napellus, collected in winter or early spring before the leaves have appeared. From Britain or Germany. U.S.P. Aconitum. The tuberous root of Aconitum Napellus. Characters...
-U.S.P. Abstractum Aconiti
Exhaust powdered aconite, 200 parts, with alcohol containing 2 parts of tartaric acid. Retain the first 170 parts of the percolate, evaporate the remainder to 30, at a temperature not exceeding 50į...
-B.P. Aconitina. Aconitine
A white, usually amorphous, solid alkaloid. When rubbed on the skin it causes a tingling sensation, followed by prolonged numbness. It is a very active poison. Preparation. - The aconitate of aconit...
-B.P. Unguentum Aconitinee
Aconitine, 8 gr., dissolved in rectified spirit, 1/2 fl. dr., and mixed with prepared lard, 1 oz. For external application only. Physiological Action. - General Action. - The action of aconite is exe...
-Staphisagriae Semina, B.P.; Staphisagria, U.S.P. Stavesacre Seeds, B.P. Staphisagria. Stavesacre, U.S.P
The seeds dried ripe of Delphinium staphisagria. Characters. - Irregularly triangular or obscurely quadrangular, arched, blackish-brown when fresh, but becoming dull greyish-brown by keeping. Testa w...
-U.S.P. Pulsatilla. Pulsatilla
The herb of Anemone 'Pulsatilla and Anemone pratensist and of Anemone patens, var. Nuttalliana, collected soon after flowering. It should be carefully preserved and not be kept longer than one year. ...
-Cimicifugae Rhizoma, B.P.; Cimicifuga, U.S.P. Cimicifuga. Black Snakeroot
The dried rhizome and rootlets of Cimicifuga racemosa. Synonym: Actaea racemosa. Characters. - The rhizome is hard, 2-6 inches long, about 1/2 to 1 inch thick, somewhat flattened-cylindrical in form,...
-Podophylli Rhizoma, B.P.; Podophyllum, U.S.P. Podophyllum Root
The dried rhizome and rootlets of Podophyllum peltatum, North America. Fig. 177. - Podophyllum, half the natural size. Characters. - In pieces of variable length, about 1/5 of an inch thick, dark ...
-Podophylli Resina, B.P.; Resina Podophylli, U.S.P. Resin of Podophyllum. Synonym: Podophyllum
Preparation. - The resin is dissolved out of the powdered root by exhausting with spirit, the greater part of which is recovered by distillation, and the remainder holding the resin in solution is pou...
-U.S.P. Hydrastis. Hydrastis. Golden Seal
The rhizome and rootlets of Hydrastis canadensis. Characters. - Rhizome about 1 1/2 inch long and 1/4 inch thick; oblique, with short branches, somewhat annulate and longitudinally wrinkled; external...
-Magnoliaceae. B.P. Anisi Stellati Fructus; U.S.P. Illicium. Star-Anise
Fruit. - The dried fruit of Illicium anisatum. China. Characters. - The fruit consists of 8 brown, boat-shaped carpels, joined at their inner ends so as to form a star. Each contains one seed with an...
-Menispermaceae. U.S.P. Menispermum. Menispermum. Canadian Moonseed
The rhizome and rootlets of Menispermum canadense. Characters. - Rhizome several feet long, about a quarter of an inch (6 millimetres) thick, yellowish-brown or brown, finely wrinkled longitudinally ...
-Calumbae Radix, B.P.; Calumba, U.S.P. Calumba Root
The root, cut transversely and dried, of Jateorrhiza Calumba (Cocculus palmatus, DC.) From the forests of Eastern Africa, between Ibo and Zambezi. Fig. 178. - Calumba, half the natural size. Chara...
-Pareirae Radix, B.P.; Pareira, U.S.P. Pareira Root
. The dried root of Chondrodendron tomentosum, Brazil. Characters. - Generally seen in more or less cylindrical pieces, about 3/4 inch to 2 inches in diameter and 4 inches or more in length. The bark...
-U.S.P. Picrotoxinum. Picrotoxin. C9H10O4; 182
A neutral principle prepared from the seeds of Anamirta paniculata. Characters. - Colourless, flexible, shining, prismatic crystals, permanent in the air, odourless, having a very bitter taste, and a...
-Berberidaceae. U.S.P. Caulophyllum. Caulophyllum. Blue Cohosh
. The rhizome and rootlets of Caulophyllum thalictroides. Characters. - Rhizome about four inches (10 centimetres) long, and about one-fourth to two-fifths of an inch (6 to 10 millimetres) thick, ben...
-Papaveraceae. B.P. Papaveris Capsular. Poppy Capsules
The nearly ripe dried capsules of the white poppy, Papaver somniferum. Cultivated in Britain. Fig. 179. - Poppy capsule, half the natural size. Characters. - Globular, two or three inches in diame...
-Opium, B. and U.S.P. Opium
The inspissated juice obtained from the poppy, Papaver somniferum. Grown in Asia Minor. Preparation. - The unripe capsules are incised, or rather deeply scratched. The milky juice which exudes become...
-U.S.P. Opii Pulvis. Powdered Opium
Opium dried at a temperature not exceeding 85 C. (185 F.), and reduced to a moderately fine powder. It ought not to contain less than 12 nor more than 16 per cent. of morphine. Preparations...
-U.S.P. Acetum Opii. Vingegar of Opium
Opium, 10; nutmeg, 3; extracted with diluted acetic acid by maceration and percolation up to 80 parts of liquid; then sugar, 20, is added. U.S.P. Opium Denarcotisatum. Denarcotised Opium. - Prepared ...
-B.P. Acidum Meconicum. Meconic Acid
. H3C7HO7. An acid obtained from opium. Characters. - In micaceous crystals, nearly colourless, the solution in water having a strongly acid taste and reaction. Solubility. - It is sparingly soluble...
-U.S.P. Morphina. Morphine. C17Hl9NO3.H2O; 303
An alkaloid prepared from opium. Characters. - Colourless or white shining prismatic crystals, or a crystalline powder. Permanent in air, having a bitter taste and alkaline reaction. Heated on platin...
-Morphinae Hydrochloras, B. and U.S.P. Hydrochlorate of Morphine, U.S.P. C17H19NO3HC1.3H2O
Characters. - White, feathery, acicular prisms of a silky lustre, permanent in air. Solubility. - It is soluble in water (24 parts at 15 C.) and spirit. Reactions. - The aqueous solution gives...
-Morphinae Acetas, B. and U.S.P. Acetate of Morphine. C17H19NO3.C2H4O2
Characters. - A white powder, with a faintly acetous odour. Solubility. - Soluble in water and in spirit. Keactions. - Potash or soda gives a precipitate soluble in excess, and exhibiting the reacti...
-Morphinae Sulphas, B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Morphine. (C17H19NO3)2.H2SO4.5H2O; 758
Characters. - White feathery silk crystals, permanent in air,. with no smell, but a bitter taste. Solubility. - Soluble in 24 parts of water at 15 C. Reactions. - In its reactions it correspond...
-U.S.P. Pulvis Morphinae Compositus. Compound Powder of Morphine (Tully's Powder)
Sulphate of morphine, 1; camphor, 20; glycyrrhiza, 20; precipitated carbonate of calcium, 20; alcohol, q.s. to mix the camphor intimately with the other ingredients. It is intended as a substitute for...
-Codeina, B. and U.S.P. Codeine. C18H2lNO3.H2O; 317
An alkaloid contained in opium. It is probably methyl-morphine. Morphine = C17H18NO2(OH); codeine = C17H18NO2 (OCH3). Characters. - In colourless or nearly colourless octahedral crystals. The aqueous...
-Codeina, B. and U.S.P. Codeine. C18H2lNO3.H2O; 317. Part 2
1 Brunton and Cash, Central.f, die med. Wissensch., 1886, p. 241. Action on Mammals. - Opium causes partial abolition of voluntary movement, sometimes preceded by. a certain amount of increased excit...
-Codeina, B. and U.S.P. Codeine. C18H2lNO3.H2O; 317. Part 3
Action on Special Organs. - Opium has little action on muscular contractility. The action of opium on the motor nerves is doubtful. According to some observers, it first increases and then diminishes ...
-Codeina, B. and U.S.P. Codeine. C18H2lNO3.H2O; 317. Part 4
Elimination. - Morphine is eliminated by the gastric mucous membrane (p. 39), and may be found in the stomach after subcutaneous injection. It is excreted also in the bile, but may remain a long time ...
-Codeina, B. and U.S.P. Codeine. C18H2lNO3.H2O; 317. Part 5
Morphine. Oxydimorphine. Codeine Group. Papaverine. Codeine. Narcotine. Thebaine. the appearance of the first edition of this book by the following annotation in the Lancet, which seems to show tha...
-Codeina, B. and U.S.P. Codeine. C18H2lNO3.H2O; 317. Part 6
It relieves cough, and is best given in the form of linctus, so as to act locally as well as generally (p. 249 et seq.). Applied locally it is used to relieve cough and pain on swallowing in tubercula...
-B.P. Rhoeados Petala. Red Poppy Petals
The fresh petals of Papaver Rhoeas. From indigenous plants. Characters. - Of a scarlet colour and heavy poppy odour. On drying, they become dull in colour and lose their odour. Composition. - They c...
-U.S.P. Sanguinaria. Sanguinaria. Bloodroot
The rhizome of Sanguinaria canadensis, collected in autumn. Characters. - About two inches (5 centimetres) long, and two-fifths of an inch (10 millimetres) thick, horizontal, cylindrical, somewhat br...
-U.S.P. Chelidonium. Chelidonium. Celandine
Chelidonium majus. Characters. - Root several-headed, branching, red-brown; stem about twenty inches (50 centimetres) long, light green, hairy; leaves about six inches (15 centimetres) long, petiolat...
-Cruciferae. B.P. Sinapis. Mustard
Black mustard seeds and white mustard seeds powdered and mixed. Sinapis Albae Semina, B.P.; Sinapis Alba, U.S.P. White Mustard Seeds. - The dried ripe seeds of Brassica alba (Sinapis alba, U.S.P.) Br...
-Charta Sinapis, B. and U.S.P. Mustard Paper
Consists in the B.P. of mustard in powder, mixed with solution of gutta-percha, so as to make it stick to the paper upon which it is spread, and then dried. In the U.S.P. the fixed oil is removed from...
-B.P. Cataplasma Sinapis. Mustard Poultice
Mix mustard (2 1/2 ounces) with 2 or 3 ounces of lukewarm water; mix the linseed meal with 6 to 8 ounces of boiling water; add the former to the latter and stir them together. Oleum Sinapis, B.P.; Ol...
-B.P. Armoraciae Radix. Not in U.S.P. Horse-radish Root
The fresh root of Cochlearia Armoracia, cultivated in Britain, and most active in the autumn or early spring before the leaves have appeared. Fig. 180. - Horse-radish, root, reduced to 1/4 the size...
-B.P. Spirltus Armoraciae Compositus. Compound Spirit of Horseradish
Sliced horse-radish, dried orange-peel, and bruised nutmeg are mixed with diluted proof-spirit and distilled. Action and Uses. - Horse-radish is chiefly used as a condiment in cases of deficient dige...
-Violarieae. U.S.P. Viola Tricolor. Viola Tricolor. Pansy
The wild-grown, flowering herb of Viola tricolor. Characters. - Stem angular and nearly smooth; leaves alternate, petio-late, ovate or oblong, crenate, with leaf-like, pinnatifid stipules; flowers wi...
-Canellaceae. B.P. Canellae Albae Cortex. Canella Alba Bark
The bark of the Canella alba deprived of its corky layer and dried. South Florida and the West Indies. Characters. - Large quills or flattish pieces about 1 inch broad; buff-coloured externally; whi...
-Polygalaceae. Senegae Radix, B.P.; Senega, U.S.P. Senega Root
The dried root of Polygala Senega. North America. Fig. 181. - Senega, half the natural size. Characters. - A knobby rootstock with spreading, tortuous rootlets, twisted and keeled. Adulterations....
-Krameriae Radix, B.P.; Krameria, U.S.P. Rhatany Root
The dried root of (1) Peruvian Rhatany, Krameria triandra, or of (2) Savanilla Rhatany, Krameria Ixina (Krameria tomentosa). Characters. - Peruvian rhatany is about an inch thick, knotty above, un-br...
-Guttiferae. Cambogia, B. and U.S.P. Gamboge
A gum resin obtained from Garcinia Hanburii (Garcinia Morella, var. pedicellata). Imported from Siam. Characters. - In cylindrical pieces, sometimes hollow in the centre, 1 or 2 inches in diameter, b...
-Caffeina, B. and U.S.P. Caffeine (Theine (?),Guaranine). C8H10N4O2.H2O; 112
An alkaloid (B.P.), or proximate principle of feeble alkaloidal power (U.S.P.), generally prepared from the dried leaves of Camellia Thea, or from the dried seeds of Coffea arabica (Nat. Ord., Rubiace...
-B.P. Caffeinae Citras. Citrate of Caffeine
C8H10N4O2, H3C6H5O7. A weak compound of caffeine and citric acid. Characters. - A white inodorous powder with an acid and faintly bitter taste and an acid reaction on litmus. Preparation. - Dissolve...
-Malvaceae. U.S.P. Gossypii Radicis Cortex. Cotton Root Bark
The bark of the root Gossypium herbaceum and of other species of gossypium. Characters. - Thin flexible bands or quills, brownish-yellow outside, whitish and silky inside, no smell, taste faintly acr...
-U.S.P. Oleum Gossypii Seminis. Cotton Seed Oil
A fixed oil, expressed from the seed of Gossypium herbaceum and of other species of gossypium, and subsequently purified. Characters. - A bright, pale yellow, oily liquid, odourless, having a bland n...
-Gossypium, B. and U.S.P. Cotton. Cotton-Wool. (Purified Cotton. Absorbent Cotton.)
The hairs of the seed of Gossypium barbadense (G. herbaceum, U.S.P.) and other species, freed from adhering impurities and deprived of fatty matter, Preparation. - It is made by boiling the raw cotto...
-Collodium. B. and U.S.P. Collodion
. A solution of pyroxylin in ether and alcohol. Characters. - A colourless, highly inflammable liquid with ethereal odour, which dries rapidly on exposure to the air, and leaves a thin transparent fi...
-U.S.P. Althaea. Althaea. [Marshmallow.]
The root of Althaea officinalis. Characters. - In cylindrical or somewhat conical pieces, from three to six inches (7 to 15 centimetres) long, about half an inch (12 millimetres) in diameter, deeply ...
-Oil of Theobroma; Cacao Butter
A concrete oil obtained by expression and heat from the ground seeds of Theobroma Cacao. Composition. - Consists chiefly of stearin and olein. Characters. - Of the consistency of tallow; colour yell...
-Chapter XXXII. Phanerogams - (Continued). Class I. - Dicotyledones Polypetalae. Sub-Class II. - Disciflorae. Lineae. Linseed. Flax Seed. Lini Semina, B.P.; Linum, U.S.P. Linseed, B. and U.S.P. Flax Seed, U.S.P
The dried ripe seeds of Linum usitatissimum. It is grown in Britain. Characters. - About one-sixth of an inch long, oval, pointed, flattened, smooth, shining, brown externally, yellowish-white within...
-B.P. Infusum Iiini. Linseed Tea
Infuse 150 grains of linseed, with 50 grains of dried liquorice-root in No. 20 powder, in 10 ounces of boiling water in a covered vessel for 2 hours and strain. Action and Uses. - Linseed tea is a ...
-Oleum Lini, B. and U.S.P. Linseed Oil. Oil of Flax Seed, U.S.P
A fixed oil expressed without heat from linseed. Characters. - Viscid, yellow, with a faint odour, and oleaginous taste. It thickens, and finally solidifies on exposure to air. Uses. - It is sometim...
-Sub-Order. - Erythroxyleae. Coca, B.P.; Erythroxylon, U.S.P. Coca Erythroxylon. [Cuca.]
The dried leaves of Erythroxylon Coca. Characters. - Shortly stalked, oval or lanceolate, of varying thickness, one to two inches or more in length, entire, usually blunt and emarginate, quite smooth...
-B.P. Cocainae Hydrochloras. Hydrochlorate of Cocaine. C17H21NO4.HC1
The hydrochlorate of an alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Erythroxylon Coca. 1 United States Dispensatory, p. 1017. Preparation. - It may be obtained by agitating with ether an aqueous solution o...
-Zygophylleae. Guaiaci Lignum, B. and U.S.P. Guaiacum Wood
The heart-wood of Guaiacum officinale and G. sanctum. St. Domingo and Jamaica. It should be deprived of the sapwood and reduced to chips, raspings, or shavings. Characters. - The wood is known as Lig...
-Guaiaci Resina, B. and U.S.P. Guaiacum Resin
The resin of Guaiacum officinale or G. sanctum. Preparation. - Obtained from the stem by natural exudation, by incisions, or by heat. Characters. - In masses of a greenish-brown or reddish-brown col...
-B.P. Mistura Guaiaci. Guaiacum Mixture
Guaiacum, 1/2 oz.; refined sugar, 1/2 oz.; gum acacia, 1/4 oz.; cinnamon water, 1 pint. ...
-Tinctura Guaiaci Ammoniata, B. and U.S.P. Ammoniated Tincture of Guaiacum
Guaiacum resin, 4 oz.; aromatic spirit of ammonia, to 1 pint (B.P.). Guaiacum, 20; aromatic spirit of ammonia, 100 (U.S.P.). Action. - It causes a burning sensation in the mouth and throat when given...
-Geraniaceae. U.S.P. Geranium. Geranium [Cranesbill]
The rhizome of Geranium maculatum. Characters. - Horizontal, cylindrical, two to three inches (5 to 7 centimetres) long; half an inch (12 millimetres) or less thick; tuberculated, longitudinally wrin...
-Rutaceae. Sub-Order I - Ruteae. Oleum Rutae, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Rue
A volatile oil distilled from the fresh herb of Ruta graveolens. Characters. - Pale yellow when recent; odour strong and disagreeable; taste, bitter, acrid. Composition. - Consists of a hydrocarbon ...
-B.P. Cuspariae Cortex. Cusparia, or Angostura Bark
The dried bark of Galipea Cusparia, the Angostura bark tree. Tropical America. Characters. - Consists of flattish pieces or quills, grey outside, light brown inside; several inches long, about an in...
-Sub-Order II. - Diosmeae. Buchu Folia, B.P.; Buchu, U.S.P. Buchu Leaves, B.P.; Buchu, U.S.P
The dried leaves of (1) Barosma betulina, (2) Barosma crenulata, (3) Barosma serratifolia. Cape of Good Hope. fig. 183. - Barosma betulina. Fig. 184. - Barosma crenulata. Fig. 185. Barosma se...
-Sub-Order III. - Xanthoxylinae. U.S.P. Xanthoxylum. Xanthoxylum. Prickly Ash
The bark of Xanthoxylum fraxineum, and of Xanthoxylum caro-linianum. Characters. - Xanthoxylum fraxineum is in curved or quilled fragments, about - 1/25th inch thick; outer surface brownish-grey, wit...
-Jaborandi, B.P.; Pilocarpus, U.S.P. Pilocarpus. Jaborandi
The dried leaflets of Pilocarpus pemiatifolius. Characters. - About four inches (ten centimetres) long, short-stalkad, oval or ovate-oblong, entire and slightly revolute at the margin, obtuse and ema...
-B.P. Pilocarpinae Nitras. Nitrate of Pilocarpine. C11H16N2O2.HNO3
The nitrate of an alkaloid obtained from extract of jaborandi. Preparation. - By shaking the extract with chloroform and a little alkali, evaporating the chloroformic solution, neutralising the produ...
-Aurantiae. U.S.P. Aurantii Flores. Orange Flowers
The partially expanded fresh flowers of Citrus vulgaris and Citrus Aurantium. They may be preserved by mixing them well with half their weight of chloride of sodium, pressing them into a jar, and keep...
-U. S. P. Oleum Aurantii Florum. Oil of Orange Flowers, Oil of Neroli
A volatile oil distilled from fresh orange flowers. Characters. - Yellowish or brownish; it has a fragrant odour of orange flowers, and an aromatic, somewhat bitter taste. Composition. - It consists...
-Aqua Aurantii Floris, B.P.; Aqua Aurantii Florum, U.S.P. Orange Flower Water
The distilled water of the flowers of the bitter orange tree, Citrus vulgaris (Citrus bigaradia), and of the sweet orange tree, Citrus aurantium. Prepared mostly in France. The orange flower water of...
-B.P. Aurantii Fructus. Bitter Orange
The ripe fruit of the Citrus vulgaris (Citrus Bigaradia). Imported from the South of Europe. Characters. - It is like the sweet orange, but darker in colour and very bitter. Aurantii Cortex, B.P.; A...
-B.P. Infusum Aurantii Compositum. Compound Infusion of Orange Peel
Bitter orange peel, 1/4 oz.; fresh lemon peel, 56 gr.; cloves, bruised, 28 gr. boiling distilled water, 10 fl. oz. U.S.P. Aurantii Dulcis Cortex. Sweet Orange Peel.The rind of the fruit of Citrus Aur...
-U.S.P. Oleum Aurantii Corticis. Oil of Orange Peel
-A volatile oil extracted by mechanical means from fresh orange peel. Preparation. - It is prepared from the outer part of the rind by expression; by putting it in hot water and skimming off the oil;...
-U.S.P. Elixir Aurantii. Elixir of Orange (Simple Elixir)
Oil of orange, 1; cotton, 2; sugar, in coarse powder, 100; alcohol and water, of each a sufficient quantity to make 300 parts. Mix alcohol and water in the proportion of 1 part of alcohol to 3 parts o...
-U.S.P. Oleum Bergamii. Oil of Bergamot
A volatile oil extracted by mechanical means from the rind of the fresh fruit of Citrus Bergamia, var. vulgaris. Characters. - A greenish or greenish-yellow, thin liquid, of a peculiar, very fragrant...
-Limonis Cortex, B. and U.S.P. Lemon Peel
The outer part of the rind of the fresh fruit of Citrus Limonum. Southern Europe and West Indies. Characters. - Like those of orange peel, but the colour; is a deep lemon yellow. Composition. - Simi...
-Oleum Limonis, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Lemons
A volatile oil expressed or distilled (B.P.) or extracted by mechanical means (U.S.P.) from fresh lemons. Characters. - A pale yellow liquid, having the fragrant odour of lemon; an aromatic, somewhat...
-Spiritus Limonis. Spiritus Odoratus. Limonis Succus, B. and U.S.P. Lemon Juice
The freshly expressed juice of the ripe fruit of Citrus Limonum. Characters. - Slightly turbid, yellowish liquor, with an acid taste, and usually a slight odour of lemon from a little of the oil cont...
-U.S.P. Mistura Potassae Citratis. Mixture of Citrate of Potassium (Neutral Mixture)
Fresh lemon juice strained, 100; bicarbonate of potassium about 10 parts, or enough to neutralise. Syrupus limonis. Syrup of Lemons, B. and U.S.P. - Boiling lemon juice, strained, 1 pint, with fresh ...
-B.P. Belae Fructus. Bael Fruit
The dried half-ripe fruit of aegle Marmelos, from Malabar and Coromandel. Characters. - Fruit roundish, about the size of a large orange, with a hard woody rind. Usually seen in fragments consisting ...
-Simarubaceae. Quassiae Lignum, B.P.; Quassia, U.S.P. Quassia Wood, B.P.; Quassia, U.S.P
The wood of Picraena excelsa. Jamaica. Characters. - Billets varying in size, seldom thicker than the thigh. Wood dense, tough, yellowish-white, intensely and purely bitter. Also chips and raspings o...
-Burseraceae (Amyridaceae). Myrrha, B. and U.S.P. Myrrh
A gum-resinous exudation from the stem of Balsamodendron Myrrha. Arabia Felix and Abyssinia. Characters. - In irregular-shaped tears or masses varying much in size, somewhat translucent, of a brownis...
-B.P. Elemi. Elemi
A concrete resinous exudation, the botanical source of which is undetermined, but is sometimes referred to Canarium commune (or to Icica Abilo). Manilla. Characters. - A soft sticky mass, yellowish-w...
-Meliaceae. U.S.P. Azedarach. Azedarach
The bark of the root of Melia Azedarach. Characters. - In curved pieces or quills varying in size and thickness; outer surface red-brown, with irregular, blackish, longitudinal ridges; inner surface ...
-Ilicineae. (Aquifoliaceae). U.S.P. Prinos. Prinos. Black Alder
The bark of Prinos verticillatus, Linne (Ilex verticillata, Gray). Characters. - Thin, slender fragments, about one-twenty-fifth of an inch (1 millimetre) thick, fragile; outer surface brownish ash-c...
-Celastrinae. U.S.P. Euonymus. Euonymus. Wahoo
The bark of Euonymus atropurpureus. Characters. - In quilled or curved pieces, about one-twelfth of an inch (2 millimetres) thick; outer surface ash-grey, with blackish patches, detached in thin and ...
-Rhamneae. B.P. Rhamni Purshiani Cortex. Sacred Bark. (Synonym: Cascara Sagrada.)
The dried bark of Rhamnus Purshianus. North Pacific Coast. Characters. - In quills or incurved pieces of varying lengths and sizes, the bark itself being from about 1/25 to 1/8 of an inch thick, smoo...
-Rhamni Frangulae Cortex, B.P.; Frangula, U.S.P. Frangula Bark, B.P.; Buckthorn, U.S.P
The dried bark of Rhamnus Frangula, collected from the young trunk and moderate-sized branches and kept at least one year before being used. Holland. Characters. - In quills about - 1/25 of an inch t...
-Ampelidae. (Vitaceae). B.P. Uvae. Raisins
The ripe fruit of the Vitis vinifera, dried either wholly or partly by the sun. Spain. Composition. - They contain grape-sugar and acid tartrate of potassium. Preparations. Tinctura Cardamomi Compo...
-U.S.P. Vinum Rubrum. Red Wine
A deep red alcoholic liquid made by fermenting the juice of coloured grapes in presence of their skins. It should not contain less than 10 per cent. nor more than 12 per cent. by weight of absolute a...
-Sapindaceae. U.S.P. Guarana. Guarana
A dried paste prepared from the crushed or ground seeds of Paullinia sorbilis. Characters. - Sub-globular, or elliptic cakes, or cylindrical sticks, hard, dark reddish-brown; fracture uneven, somewha...
-Anacardiaceae (Terebinthaceae.). Mastiche, B. and U.S.P. - Mastich
A concrete resinous exudation obtained by making incisions in the bark of the stem and large branches of Pistacia Lentiscus. Scio. Characters. - Globular or elongated tears about the size of a pea, p...
-U.S.P. Rhus Glabra. Rhus Glabra. Sumach
The fruit of Rhus glabra. Characters. - Sub-globular, about one-eighth of an inch (3 millimetres) in diameter, drupaceous, crimson, densely hairy, containing a roundish-oblong, smooth putamen. It is ...
-U.S.P. Rhus Toxicodendron. Rhus Toxicodendron. Poison Ivy
The fresh leaves of Rhus Toxicodendron, Michaux; Rhus Toxicodendron and Rhus radicans, Linne. Characters. - Long-petiolate, trifoliate; the lateral leaflets sessile, about four inches (10 centimetres...
-Chapter XXXIII. Class I. - Dicotyledones Polypetalae. Sub-Class III. - Calyciflorae. Leguminosae. Sub-Order I. - Papilionaceae. Glycyrrhizae Radix, B.P.; Glycyrrhiza, U.S.P. Liquorice Root
The root or underground stem, fresh and dried, of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Characters. - In long cylindrical branched pieces, tough and pliable; yellowish-brown outside, yellow inside; taste sweet and sl...
-U.S.P. Glyeyrrhizinum Ammoniatum. Ammoniated Glycybbhizin
Prepared by exhausting powdered liquorice with ammonia, precipitating by sulphuric acid, redissolving in ammonia, and drying. It forms dark brown or reddish scales, very sweet. It is used for flavouri...
-Scopari Cacumina, B.P.; Scoparius, U.S.P. Broom-tops, B.P.; Broom, U.S.P
The fresh and dried tops of Cytisus Scoparius (Saroihamnus Scoparius). From indigenous plants. Characters. - Thin flexible tough twigs, dark green, angular, of a bitter nauseous taste, and of a pecul...
-Tragacantha, B. and U.S.P. Tragacanth
A gummy exudation obtained by making incisions in the stems of Astragalus gummifer and some other species of Astragalus. Asia Minor. Characters. - Shell-like bands, slightly curved, white or yellowis...
-B.P. Pulvis Tragacanthae Compositus. Compound Powder of Tragacanth
Tragacanth, 1; gum acacia, 1; starch, 1; refined sugar, 3. Uses. - It is used to suspend heavy powders, such as sub-nitrate of bismuth, and is more efficacious than gum-arabic owing to the insoluble ...
-Pterocarpi Lignum, B.P. Red Sandal-Wood
The sliced or rasped heart-wood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Ceylon. Santalum Rubrum, U.S.P. Red Saunders. - The wood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Characters. - The wood is in billets, chips, or powder....
-Kino, B. and U.S.P. Kino
The juice obtained from incisions made in the trunk of Pterocarpus marsupium inspissated without artificial heat. Malabar. Characters. - Small angular, brittle, glistening, reddish-black fragments, t...
-Balsamum Peruvianum, B. and U.S.P. Balsam of Peru
A balsam obtained from Myroxylon Pereirae. It exudes from the trunk of the tree after the bark has been beaten and scorched and removed. Salvador in Central America. Characters. - A treacle-like liqu...
-Balsamum Tolutanum, B. and U.S.P. Balsam of Tolu
A balsam obtained from Myroxylon toluifera. It exudes from the trunk of the tree after incisions have been made into the bark. New Granada. Characters. - A soft and tenacious solid when fresh, but ha...
-Abrus. Jequirity Seeds, Prayer Beads, Jumble Beads,Gumcht, Indian Liquorice
The seeds of Abrus precatorius. Not officinal. Characters. - Small hard seeds of a brilliant scarlet colour, with a black spot round the hilum. Composition. - They contain a ferment closely associa...
-Physostigmatis Semen, B.P.; Physostigma, U.S.P. Calabar Bean
The dried seed of Physostigma venenosum. Western Africa. Fig. 188. - Calabar Bean, half the natural size. Characters. - A kidney-shaped bean about an inch long, chocolate-coloured, shining, and wi...
-B.P. Physostigmina. Physostigmine. - Synonym: Eserine, C15H21N3O2
An alkaloid obtained from the alcoholic extract of Calabar bean, by dissolving the extract in water, adding bicarbonate of sodium, shaking the mixture with ether, and evaporating the ethereal liquid. ...
-U.S.P. Physostigminae Salicylas. Salicylate of Physostigmine. C15H21N3O2C7H6O3; 413
The salicylate of an alkaloid prepared from physostigma. Characters. - Colourless, shining, acicular, or short, columnar crystals, gradually turning reddish when long exposed to air and light, odourl...
-Haematoxyli Lignum, B.P.; Haematoxylon, U.S.P. Logwood
The heart-wood of Haematoxylum campechianum. Imported from Campeachy, Honduras, and Jamaica. Characters. - The logs are heavy, hard, purplish-black externally, reddish-brown internally. The chips (w...
-B.P. Decoctum Haematoxyli. Decoction of Logwood
Logwood, in chips, 1 oz.; cinnamon bark, bruised, 55 gr.; distilled water, 1 pint. Boil the logwood in the water for ten minutes in a covered vessel, adding the cinnamon towards the end. Strain the d...
-Chrysarobinum, Chrysarobin, B. and U.S.P. - Synonyms
Araroba Powder; Goa Powder. - The medullary matter of the stem and branches of Andira Araroba, dried and powdered. Characters. - A light brownish-yellow, minutely crystalline powder, tasteless and in...
-Sub-Order II. - Caesalpinae. Senna, U.S.P. Senna
The leaflets of Cassia acutifolia (Alexandrian senna), and of Cassia elongata (Indian senna). Senna Alexandrina, B.P. Alexandrian Senna. - The dried leaflets of Cassia acutifolia (Cassia lanceolata)....
-B.P. Infusum Sennae. Infusion of Senna
Senna, 2; ginger, sliced, 1; boiled distilled water, 20. U.S.P. Infusum Sennae Compositum. Compound Infusion of Senna. Black Draught. - Senna, 6; manna, 12; sulphate of magnesium, 12; fennel, 2; boil...
-Syrupus Sennae, B. and U.S.P. Syrup of Senna
Senna, 16 oz.; oil of coriander, 3 min.; refined sugar, 24 oz.; distilled water, 5 pints, or a sufficiency; rectified spirit, 3 fl. oz.; distilled water, up to 2 lb. 10 oz. (B.P.). Senna, 33; sugar, 6...
-Cassia Fistula. Purging Cassia, U.S.P
The fruit of Cassia fistula. Cassiae Pulpa, B.P. Cassia Pulp. - The pulp obtained from the recently imported pods of Cassia fistula (the purging cassia). Characters. - Blackish-brown, viscid, sweet ...
-Tamarindus, B. and U.S.P. Tamarind
The preserved pulp of the fruit of Tamarindus indica. West Indies. Characters. - A reddish-brown, sweetish, subacid pulp, preserved in sugar, containing strong fibres, and brown shining seeds, each e...
-Copaiba, B. and U.S.P. Copaiva, or Copaiba, B.P.; Balsam of Copaiba, U.S.P
The oleo-resin obtained by cutting deeply or boring into the trunk of Copaifera Langsdorfti, and other species of Copaifera. Valley of the Amazon. Characters. - A more or less viscid liquid, about th...
-U.S.P. Massa Copaibas. Mass of Copaiba
Copaiba, 94; magnesia recently prepared, 6; mix and set aside till it concretes into a pilular mass. If it does not concrete in eight or ten hours, there is deficiency of water in the copaiba. This ma...
-Oleum Copaibae, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Copaiva
A volatile oil distilled from copaiva. Characters. - Colourless or pale yellow, with the odour and taste of copaiva. Dose. - Of copaiva, 15 min. to 1 fl. dr.; of oil of copaiva, 5 min. to 20 min.; o...
-Sub-Order III. - Mimoseie. Acaciae Gummi, B.P.; Acacia, U.S. P. Gum Acacia, B.P.; Gum Arabic, U.S.P
A gummy exudation from the stem and branches of Acacia Senegal (Acacia Verek), and from other species of Acacia. Characters. - In roundish tears usually from half an inch to an inch in length, nearly...
-U.S.P. Catechu. Catechu
An extract prepared from the wood of Acacia Catechu. Pegu. Characters. - In dark brown, irregular masses, containing fragments of leaves, brittle, somewhat porous and glossy when freshly broken; solu...
-Rosaceae. Sub-Order I. - Pruneae. Amygdala Dulcis, B. and U.S.P. Sweet Almond
The ripe seed of the sweet almond tree, Prunus Amygdalus (Amygdalus communis), var. dulcis. Imported from Malaga, and known as the Jordan almond. Characters. - Above an inch in length, lanceolate, ac...
-Amygdala Amara, B. and U.S.P. Bitter Almond
The ripe seed of the bitter almond tree, Prunus Amygdalus (Amygdalus communis), var. amara. Mogadore. Characters. - Resembles the sweet almond in appearance, but is rather broader and shorter; has a ...
-Oleum Amygdalae, B.P.; Oleum Amygdalae Expressum, U.S.P. Almond Oil, B.P.; Expressed Oil of Almond, U.S.P
A fixed oil expressed from bitter and sweet almonds. Characters. - Pale yellow, nearly inodorous or having a nutty odour, with a bland oleaginous taste. Preparation. B.P Oleum Phosphoratum. Unguen...
-Prunum, B. and U.S.P. Prune. - The dried drupe of the plum, Prumus domestica. Southern Europe. Characters
Oblong, shrivelled, blackish-blue. Composition. - Malic acid, with saccharine and albuminoid matter. Dose. - 2 oz. or more. Preparations B.P. Dose. Confectio Sennae ..............
-U.S.P. Prunus Virginiana. Wild Cherry
The bark of Prunus serotina (Cerasus serotina) collected in autumn. Characters. - In curved pieces or irregular fragments, one twelfth of an inch (two millimetres) or more thick, outer surface greeni...
-B.P. Laurocerasi Folia. Cherry-Laurel Leaves
The fresh leaves of Prunus Laurocerasus. Characters. - Ovate-lanceolate or elliptical, distinctly toothed, furnished with glands at the base, smooth and shining, deep green, on strong short footstalk...
-Sub-Order II. - Quillajeae. U.S.P. Quillaia. Quillaia. Soap Bark
The bark of Quillaia Saponaria. Chili. Characters. - Flat, large pieces, about one-fifth of an inch (5 millimetres) thick; outer surface brownish-white, often with small patches of brown cork attache...
-Sub-Order III. - Rubeae. U.S.P. Rubus. Rubus. Blackberry
The bark of the root of Rubus villosus, Rubus canadensis, and Rubus trivialis. Characters. - In thin, tough, flexible bands, outer surface blackish or blackish-grey, inner surface pale brownish, some...
-U.S.P. Rubus Idaeus. Raspberry
The fruit of Rubus idaeus. Characters. - Deprived of the conical receptacle and therefore hollow at the base; hemispherical, red, finely hairy, composed of from twenty to thirty coalesced small drupe...
-Sub-Order IV. - Roseae. Oleum Rosae, U.S.P. Oil of Rose
A volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowers of Rosa damascena. Characters. - Pale yellowish, with a strong odour of rose, and a sweetish taste. Adulterations. - Sandal-wood oil, geranium oil, an...
-Rosae Centifoliae Petala, B.P.; Rosa Centifolia, U.S.P. Cabbage-Rose Petals, B.P.; Pale Rose, U.S.P
The fresh petals, fully expanded, of Rosa centifolia. Britain. Characters. - Pink, fragrant roseate odour; taste sweetish-bitter, and faintly astringent; both readily imparted to water. Composition....
-Rosae Gallicae Petala, B.P.; Rosa Gallica, U.S.P. RedRose Petals, B.P.; Red Rose, U.S.P. -
The fresh and dried petals of Rosa gallica, collected before expanding. Britain. Characters. - Small cones consisting of numerous imbricated deep purple petals, with a roseate odour, and a bitterish,...
-B.P. Infusum Rosae Acidum. Acid Infusion of Roses
Dried red-rose petals, broken up, 1/4 oz.; diluted sulphuric acid, 1 fl. dr.; boiling distilled water, 10 fl. oz. B.P. Rosae Canninae Fructus. Fruit of the Dog-Rose. Hips. - The ripe fruit of the dog...
-Cusso, B.P.; Brayera, U.S.P. Kousso, B.P.; Kooso, U.S.P
The dried panicles (chiefly of the female flowers) of Hagenia abyssinica (Brayera anthelmintica). Abyssinia. Characters. - In bundles, rolls, or compressed clusters consisting of panicles about 10 i...
-B.P. Infusum Cusso. Infusion of Kousso
Kousso, in coarse powder, 1/4 oz.; boiling distilled water, 4 fl. oz. Infuse in a covered vessel for fifteen minutes without straining. U.S.P. Infusum Brayerae. Infusion of Brayera. - Brayera in No. ...
-Sub-Order V. - Pomeae. U.S.P. Cydonium. Cydonium. Quince Seed
The seed of Cydonia vulgaris. Characters. - About a quarter of an inch (6 millimetres) long, oval, or oblong, triangularly compressed, brown, covered with a whitish mucilaginous epithelium, causing t...
-Myrtaceae. Caryophyllum, B.P.; Caryophyllus, U.S.P. Cloves
The dried unexpanded flower-buds of Eugenia caryophyllata (Caryophyllus aromaticus). East Indies. Characters. - About 1/2 an inch long, dark reddish-brown, plump and heavy, consisting of a nearly cyl...
-Oleum Caryophylli, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Cloves
A volatile oil distilled from cloves. Characters. - Colourless when recent, but gradually becoming red-brown, having the odour of cloves and a pungent spicy taste. Composition. - It consists chiefly...
-Pimenta, B. and U.S.P. Pimenta, B.P.; Pimenta, U.S.P. Allspice
The dried unripe full-grown fruit of the allspice tree, Pimenta officinalis (Eugenia Pimenta). West Indies. Fig. 191. - Pimenta. Characters. - Of the size of a small pea, brown, rough-looking, som...
-Oleum Pimentae, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Pimenta, B.P.; Oil of Pimenta, Oil of Allspice, U.S.P
A volatile oil distilled from pimenta. Characters. - Colourless or slightly reddish when recent, but becoming brown by age, having the odour and taste of pimenta. Composition. - Nearly the same as o...
-Spiritus Myrciae. Chekan. Cheken
Not officinal. - The leaves and shoots of Myrtus Chekan (Eugenia Chekan). Chili. Characters. - They resemble some buchu leaves (Barosma betulina), but have the margin entire and a different smell. C...
-Oleum Cajuputi, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Cajuput
A volatile oil distilled from the leaves of Melaleuca minor, B.P. (M. Cajuputi, U.S.P.; M. Leucodendron). East Indies. Characters. - Pale bluish-green, transparent. Odour strong and agreeable; taste,...
-U.S.P. Eucalyptus. Eucalyptus
The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, collected from rather old trees. Characters. - Petiolate, lanceolately scythe-shaped, from six to twelve inches (fifteen to thirty centimetres) long, rounded below,...
-Oleum Eucalypti, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Eucalyptus
A volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, or Eucalyptus amygdalina, and some other species of Eucalyptus. Characters. - A colourless or very pale yellowish liquid, having...
-Granati Radicis Cortex, B.P.; Granatum, U.S.P. Pomegranate Root Bark, B.P.; Pomegranate, U.S.P
The dried bark of the root of Punica Granatum. South of Europe. Fig. 192. - Pomegranate, half the natural size. Characters. - In quills or fragments of a greyish-yellow colour externally, yellow i...
-Cucurbitaceae. Colocynthidis Pulpa, B.P.; Colocynthis, U.S.P. Colo-cynth Pulp, B.P. Colocynth, U.S.P
The dried peeled fruit, freed from seeds, of Citrullus Colocynthis. Imported chiefly from Fig. 193 - Colocynth (peeled), half the natural size Smyrna, Trieste, France, and Spain. Characters. - Li...
-B.P. Ecballii Fructus. Squirting Cucumber Fruit
The fruit, very nearly ripe, of the squirting cucumber, Ecballium Ela-terium. Britain. Preparation. B.P. Dose. Elaterium ....................................................
-B.P. Elaterium. Elaterium. (Synonym: Extractum Elaterii)
A sediment from the juice of the squirting cucumber fruit. Preparation. - Expressing the juice, separating the deposit by straining, and drying by a gentle heat on porous tiles. Fig. 194. - Elater...
-Elaterinum, B. and U.S.P. Elaterin. C20H28O5
The active principle of elaterium. It may be obtained by exhausting elaterium with chloroform, adding ether to the chloroform solution, collecting the precipitate, washing the latter with ether, and p...
-U.S.P. Pepo. Pumpkin Seed
The seed of Cucurbita Pepo. Characters. - About 3/4 inch long, broadly ovate, flat, whitish, nearly smooth, with a shallow groove parallel to the edge; inodorous, bland, and oily. Composition. - It ...
-U.S.P. Bryonia. Bryonia. Bryony
The root of Bryonia alba, and of Bryonia dioica. Characters. - In transverse sections about two inches (5 centimetres) in diameter, the bark grey-brown, rough, thin, the central portion whitish or gr...
-Umbelliferae. Sub-Order I. - Campylospermae. B.P. Conii Folia. Hemlock Leaves
The fresh leaves and young branches of Conium maculatum; gathered from wild British plants when the fruit begins to form. Characters. - Fresh leaves, smooth, arising from a smooth stem with dark purp...
-B.P. Cataplasma Conii. Hemlock Poultice
Juice of hemlock, 1; linseed meal, 4; boiling water, 10. B.P. Vapor Coninae. Inhalation of Conine. - Juice of hemlock, 1/2 fl. oz.; solution of potash, 1 fl. dr.; distilled water, 1 fl. oz. Put 20 mi...
-Sub-Order II. - Orthospermae. Asafoetida, B. and U.S.P. Asafoetida, B.P.; Asafetida, U.S.P
A gum-resin obtained from the root of Ferula Narthex (Narthex Asafoetida) and F. Scorodosma and probably other species. Afghanistan and the Punjaub. Characters. - In irregular masses, composed of whi...
-B.P. Enema Asafoetidae. Enema of Asafoetida (Enema Foetidum)
Asafoetida, 30 gr.; distilled water, 4 fl. oz. Bub the asafoetida in a mortar with the water added gradually, so as to form an emulsion. U.S.P. Mistura Asafoetidae. Asafoetida Mixture. - Rub asafoeti...
-Galbanum, B. and U.S.P. Galbanum
A gum-resin, derived from Ferula galbaniflda, Ferula rubricaulis, and probably other species. India and the Levant. Characters. - In tears about the size of a pea, or more commonly in masses formed b...
-Ammoniacum, B. and U.S.P. Ammoniacum, B.P.; Ammoniac, U.S.P
A gum-resinous exudation from the stem, after being punctured by beetles, of Dorema Ammoniacum. Persia and the Punjaub. Characters. - In roundish tears or irregular masses formed by their agglomerati...
-Foeniculi Fructus, B.P.; Foeniculum, U.S.P. Fennel Fruit, B.P.; Fennel, U.S.P
The fruit of Foeniculum capilla-ceum, B.P. (F. vulgare,U.S.P.) Malta. Fig. 196. - Fennel. Characters. - Longer than conium fruit, being about one-quarter of an inch long. Slightly curved, elliptic...
-Oleum Foeniculi, U.S.P. Oil of Fennel
A volatile oil, distilled from fennel. Characters. - Colourless or yellowish, with the odour of fennel, and a sweetish, warm taste. Sp. gr. not less than 0.960. Concretes between 5 and 10 C...
-Anisi Fructus, B.P.; Anisum, U.S.P. Anise Fruit, B.P.; Anise, U.S.P
The fruit of Pimpinella Anisum. Characters. - About 1/6 of an inch (4 millimetres) long, ovate. It has an agreeable aromatic odour, and a sweet, spicy ta,ste. It may be distinguished from conium frui...
-Oleum Anisi, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Anise
A volatile Oil distilled in Europe from anise fruit or in China from the star anise fruit (p. 840). Characters. - Colourless or pale yellow; with the odour of anise, and a warm, sweetish taste. Concr...
-B.P. Anethi Fructus. Dill Fruit
The dried fruit of Peucedanum graveolens (Anethum graveolens). England, or middle and Southern Europe. Fig. 197. - Dill. Characters. - Oval, flat, about a line and a half in length, and easily dis...
-B.P. Oleum Anethi. Oil of Dill
A volatile oil distilled from the fruit. Characters. - Pale yellow colour, aromatic odour, sweetish taste. Use. - The chief use of dill water is in the flatulence of children in one-drachm doses. It...
-Carui Fructus, B.P.; Carum, U.S.P. Caraway Fruit, B.P.; Caraway, U.S.P
The dried fruit of Carum Carui, B.P. (Carum Carvi, U.S.P.). Fig. 198. - Caraway. Characters. - Fruit usually separating into two mericarps about one-sixth inch long, curved, tapering at each end, ...
-Oleum Carui, B.P.; Oleum Cari, U.S.P. Oil of Caraway
. The oil distilled in Britain from caraway fruit, B.P. A volatile oil distilled from caraway, U.S.P. Characters. - Colourless or pale yellow, odour aromatic, taste spicy, and neutral reaction. It is...
-Sumbul Radix, B.P.; Sumbul, U.S.P. Sumbul root, B.P.; Sumbul, U.S.P
The dried transverse sections of the root of Ferula Sumbul. Imported from Russia and India. Characters. - Cylindrical pieces, varying considerably in diameter and thickness. They are covered on the o...
-Sub-Order III. - Coelospermae. Coriandri Fructus, B.P.; Coriandrum, U.S.P. Coriander Fruit, B.P.; Coriander, U.S.P
The dried ripe fruit of Coriandrum sativum. Fig. 199. - Coriander. Characters. - Globular, nearly as large as white pepper, beaked, finely ribbed, yellowish-brown; has an agreeable aromatic odour ...
-Oleum Coriandri, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Coriander
A volatile oil distilled from coriander. Characters. - A colourless or yellowish liquid, having the characteristic aromatic odour of coriander, a warm spicy taste, and a neutral reaction. Dose. - 2 ...
-Cornaceae. U.S.P. Cornus. Cornus. Dogwood
The bark of the root of Cornus florida. Characters. - In curved pieces of various sizes, about one-eighth of an inch (3 millimetres) thick; deprived of the furrowed, brown-grey, corky layer; outer an...
-Chapter XXXIV. Class II. - Dicotyledones Gamopetalae. (Corolliflorae). Caprifoliaceae. B.P. Sambuci Flores. Elder Flowers
The fresh flowers of Sambucus nigra. From indigenous plants. Characters. - Flowers small, white, fragrant, crowded in large cymes. U.S.P. Sambucus. Elder. - The flowers of Sambucus canadensis. Char...
-U.S.P. Viburnum. Viburnum. Black Haw
The bark of Viburnum prunifolium. Characters. - In thin pieces or quills, glossy purplish-brown, with scattered warts, and minute black dots; when collected from old wood, greyish-brown; the thin, c...
-Sub-Order I. - Cinchoneae. B.P. Cinchona Cortex. Cinchona Bark
The dried bark of Cinchona Calisaya, Cinchona officinalis, Cinchona succirubra, Cinchona lancifolia, and other species of cinchona from which the peculiar alkaloids of the bark may be obtained. ...
-U.S.P. Cinchona. Cinchona
The bark of any species of cinchona containing at least 3 per cent. of its peculiar alkaloids. Preparation. U.S.P. Dose. Infusum Cinchona (cinchona in powder 6, aromatic ...
-U.S.P. Cinchona Flava. Yellow Cinchona (Calisaya Bark), U.S.P
The bark of the trunk of Cinchona Calisaya. containing at least 2 per cent. of quinine. Collected in Bolivia Fig. 201. - Cinchona Calisaya Bark, half the natural size. and Southern Peru. Charact...
-Cinchonae Rubrae Cortex, B.P.; Cinchona Rubra, U.S.P. Bed Cinchona Bark. Bed Cinchona
The dried bark of the stem and branches of cultivated plants of Cinchona succirubra. Fig. 202. - Red Cinchona, half the natural size. Characters. - In quills or incurved pieces, coated with the pe...
-U.S.P. Tinctura Cinchonae Composita. Compound Tincture of Cinchona
Red cinchona, 10; bitter orange peel, 8; serpentaria, 2; glycerin, 10; alcohol and water (in the proportion of 8 of the former to 1 of the latter), q.s. to make 100. Properties and Composition of the...
-Quininae Sulphas, B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Quinine. (C20H24N2O2)2H2SO4.7H2O; 872
The sulphate of an alkaloid, prepared from the powder of various kinds of Cinchona and Remijia bark. Preparation. - By extraction with spirit after the addition of lime, or by the action of alkali on...
-U.S.P. Quininae Bisulphas. Bisulphate of Quinine. C20H24N2O2H2SO4.7H2O; 548
Characters. - Colourless, clear, orthorhombic crystals or small needles, efflorescing and becoming opaque on exposure to air, no smell, very bitter taste, strongly acid reaction. Solubility and React...
-Quininae Hydrochloras, B. and U.S.P. Hydrochlorate of Quinine. C20H24N2O2HC1.2H2O; 396.4
Characters. - In crystals like those of the sulphate, but generally somewhat larger. Reactions. - It gives the reactions of quinine, and with test solution of nitrate of silver produces a white preci...
-U.S.P. Quinidinae Sulphas. Sulphate of Quinidine. (C20H24N2O2)2H2SO4.2H2O; 782
It is chiefly obtained from Cinchona pitayensis. Characters. - White silky needles, no smell, very bitter taste, with a neutral or faintly alkaline reaction. Solubility and Reactions. - It is solubl...
-Cinchoninae Sulphas. B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Cinchonine. (C20H24N2O2H2SO4)2H2O; 750
Preparation. - From the mother-liquors of the crystallisation of the sulphates of quinine, cinchonidine, and quinidine, by precipitating with caustic soda, washing with spirit until free from other al...
-Cinchonidinae Sulphas. B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Cinchonidine. (C20H24N2O)2H2SO4.3HO; 768
Preparation. - By concentrating the mother-liquors after the crystallisation of sulphate of quinine, purifying by crystallisation from alcohol and finally from hot water. Characters. - In colourless ...
-U.S.P. Chinoidinum. Chinoidin. (Quinoidin)
A mixture of alkaloids, mostly amorphous, obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of the crystallisable alkaloids from cinchona. Characters. - A brownish-black or almost black solid, breaking whe...
-U.S.P. Chinoidinum. Chinoidin. (Quinoidin). Continued
On the Nervous System. - In man small doses give tone to the system generally. Large doses cause symptoms to which the term cinchonism (or quinism) has been applied; these consist in a feeling of tig...
-Sub-Order II. - Ixoreae. (Coffeae.). Ipecacuanha. Ipecacuanha, B.P.; Ipecac, U.S.P
The dried root of CephaŽlis Ipecacuanha. Brazil. Fig. 203. - Ipecacuanha, two-thirds the natural size. Characters. - In pieces about the size of a small quill, contorted and irregularly annulated....
-B.P. Catechu. Catechu. Synonym: Catechu Pallidum
An extract of the leaves and young shoots of Uncaria Gambler, Eastern Archipelago. Characters. - In cubes about an inch square, or masses formed of coherent cubes, externally brown, internally ochrey...
-Valerianaceae. B.P. Valerianae Rhizoma. Valerian Rhizome
The dried rhizome and rootlets of Valeriana officinalis. Collected in autumn from plants growing wild or cultivated in Britain. Fig. 204. - Valerian, half the natural size. ...
-U.S.P. Valeriana. Valerian
The rhizome and rootlets of Valeriana officinalis. Characters. - A short, yellowish-white rhizome, with numerous fibrous roots about two or three inches long; of a bitter taste and penetrating odour,...
-U.S.P. Oleum Valerianae. Oil of Valerian
A volatile oil distilled from Valerian. Characters. - A greenish or yellowish, thin liquid, becoming darker and thicker by age and exposure to air, having the characteristic odour of valerian, an aro...
-Compositae. Pyrethri Radix, B.P.; Pyrethrum, U.S.P. Pellitory Root, B.P.; Pyrethrum, U.S.P
The dried root of Anacyclus Pyrethrum. The Levant. Characters. - In pieces about the length and thickness of the little finger, covered with a thick brown bark studded with black shining points. It b...
-U.S.P. Absinthium. Wormwood
The leaves and tops of Artemisia Absinthium. Characters. - Leaves about two inches (5 centimetres) long, hoary, silky-pubescent, petiolate, roundish-triangular in outline, pinnately two or three-clef...
-U.S.P. Tanacetum. Tansy
The leaves and tops of Tanacetum vulgare. Characters. - Leaves about six inches (15 centimetres) long; bipinna-tifid, the segments oblong, obtuse, serrate or incised, smooth, dark green, and glandula...
-Santonica, B. and U.S.P. Santonica
The dried unexpanded flower-heads of Artemisia maritima, var. Stechmanniana. Imported from Russia. Characters. - Flower-heads resembling seeds in appearance, fusiform, blunt at each end, pale greeni...
-B. and U.S.P. Santoninum. Santonin. C30H18O6 or C15H18O3
A crystalline neutral principle prepared from Santonica. Characters. - Colourless, flat, rhombic prisms, feebly bitter, fusible and subliming at a moderate heat. Solubility. - Scarcely soluble in co...
-Anthemidis Flores, B.P.; Anthemis, U.S.P. Chamomile Flowers, B.P.; Anthemis, U.S.P
The dried single and double flower-heads of the common chamomile, Anthemis nobilis, collected from cultivated plants. Characters. - Subglobular heads, about three-quarters of an inch (2 centimetres) ...
-B.P. Infusura Anthemidis. Infusion of Chamomile
Chamomile flowers, 1/2 oz.; boiling water, 10 fl. oz.; infuse for quarter of an hour and strain. B.P. Oleum Anthemidis. Oil of Chamomile. - The oil distilled in Britain from chamomile flowers. Chara...
-U.S.P. Matricaria. German Chamomile
The flower-heads of Matricaria Chamomilla. Characters. - About three-fourths of an inch (18 millimetres) broad, composed of a flattish, imbricate involucre, a conical, hollow, naked receptacle, about...
-U.S.P. Eupatorium. Eupatorium. Thoroughwort
The leaves and flowering tops of Eupatorium perfoliatum. Characters. - Leaves opposite, united at base, lanceolate, from four to six inches (10 to 15 centimetres) long, tapering, crenately serrate, r...
-Taraxaci Radix, B.P.; Taraxacum, U.S.P. Dandelion Root, Taraxacum
The fresh and dried roots of Taraxacum officinale (T. Dens-leonis). Characters. - Tap-shaped roots, smooth and dark-brown externally, white within, easily broken, and giving out an inodorous, bitter,...
-B.P. Lactuca. Lettuce
The flowering herb of Lactuca virosa. Composition. - It contains lactucarium. Preparation. B.P. Dose. Extractum Lactucae................................................ ...
-U.S.P. Lactucarium. Lactucarium
The concrete milk-juice of Lactuca virosa. Characters. - In sections of plano-convex, circular cakes, or in irregular, angular pieces, externally grey brown or dull reddish-brown, internally whitish ...
-Arnicae Rhizoma, B.P.; Arnicae Radix, U.S.P. Arnica Rhizome, B.P.; (Root, U.S.P.)
The dried rhizome and rootlets of Arnica montana. Middle and Southern Europe and Northwest of the United States. Characters. - Rhizome, cylindrical, contorted, rough from the scars of the coriaceous ...
-U.S.P. Arnicae Flores. Arnica Flowers
The flower-heads of Arnica montana. Characters. - About one and one-fifth inch (30 centimetres) broad, depressed-roundish, consisting of a scaly involucre in two rows, and a small, flat, hairy recept...
-U.S.P. Calendula. Calendula. Marigold
The fresh, flowering herb of Calendula officinalis. Characters. - Stem somewhat angular, rough; leaves alternate, thickish, hairy, spatulate or oblanceolate, slightly toothed, the upper ones sessile;...
-U.S.P. Grindelia. Grindelia
The leaves and flowering tops of Grindelia robusta. Characters. - Leaves about two inches (5 centimetres) or less long, varying from broadly spatulate or oblong to lanceolate, sessile or clasping, ob...
-U.S.P. Inula. Inula. Elecampane
The root of Inula Helenium. Characters. - In transverse concave slices or longitudinal sections, with overlapping bark, externally wrinkled and brown; flexible in damp weather; when dry, breaking wi...
-U.S.P. Lappa. Lappa. Burdock
The root of Lappa officinalis. Characters. - About twelve inches (30 centimetres) or more long, and about one inch (25 millimetres) thick; nearly simple, fusiform, fleshy, longitudinally wrinkled, cr...
-Campanulaceae. (Lobeliaceae). Lobelia, B. and U.S.P. Lobelia
The dried flowering herb of Lobelia inflata. North America, B.P. The leaves and tops of Lobelia inflata collected after a portion of the capsules have become inflated, U.S.P. Characters. - Usually in...
-Ericaceae. Uvae Ursi Folia, B.P. Bearberry Leaves
The dried leaves of Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi. From indigenous plants. Uva Ursi, U.S.P. Uva Ursi. [Bearberry.] - The leaves of Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Fig. 206. - Uva Ursi. Characters. - Obovate, ...
-U.S.P. Chimaphila. Chimaphila. [Pipsissewa.]
The leaves of Chimaphila unibellata. Characters. - About two inches (5 centimetres) long, oblanceolate, sharply serrate above, wedge-shaped and nearly entire toward the base; coriaceous, smooth, and ...
-U.S.P. Oleum Gaultheriae. Oil of Gaultheria
Oil of wintergreen, a volatile oil distilled from Gaultheria procumbens. Characters. - A colourless, yellow, or reddish liquid, of a peculiar, strong, and aromatic odour, a sweetish, warm, and aromat...
-Sapotaceae. Gutta-percha, B. and U.S.P. Gutta-percha
The concrete juice of Dichopsis Gutta (Isonandra Gutta) and of several other trees of the natural order Sapotaceae. Characters. - In tough, flexible pieces, of a light brown or chocolate colour. Sol...
-Styracacae. Benzoinum, B. and U.S.P. Benzoin
A balsamic resin obtained from Styrax Benzoin, and probably from one or more other species of Styrax. It is generally procured by making deep incisions in the bark of the trees, and allowing the liqui...
-Acidum Benzoicum, B. and U.S.P. Benzoic Acid. HC7H5O2. (Not chemically pure
Preparation. - By heating benzoin, when benzoic acid sublimes. Properties. - In light, feathery, crystalline plates and needles, which are flexible, nearly colourless, and have an agreeable aromatic ...
-Ammonii Benzoas, B. and U.S.P. Benzoate of Ammonium. NH4C7H5O2; 139 (cf. p. 643)
Preparation. - By dissolving benzoic acid in a slight excess of ammonia, evaporating and crystallising. HC7H5O2 + NH4HO = NH4C7H5O2 + H2O. Properties. - In colourless, laminar crystals; soluble in w...
-Oleaceae. Oleum Olivae, B. and U.S.P. Olive Oil
The fixed oil expressed from the ripe fruit of Olea europcea. South of Europe. Characters. - Pale-yellow, with scarcely any odour, and a bland, oleaginous taste; congeals partially at about 36 F...
-Sapo Durus, B.P. Hard Soap. Sapo, U.S.P. Soap
. Soap made with olive oil and soda. Characters. - Greyish-white, dry, inodorous; horny and pulverisable when kept in dry, warm air; easily moulded when heated; soluble in rectified spirit; not impar...
-Sapo Mollis, B.P. Soft Soap. Sapo Viridis, U.S.P. Green Soap
Soap made with olive oil and potash, B.P. Soap prepared from potassa and fixed oils, U.S.P. Characters. - Yellowish-green, inodorous, of a gelatinous consistence. Soluble in rectified spirit; not imp...
-Glycerinum, B. and U.S.P. Glycerine, B.P.; Glycerin, U.S.P.; Glycerol
A sweet principle (B.P.). It is a trihydric alcohol, C3H5(HO)3; 92, obtained by reaction of fats and fixed oils with aqueous fluids, and containing a small percentage of water (not less than 95 per ce...
-Manna, B. and U.S.P. Manna
A concrete saccharine exudation obtained by making transverse incisions in the stems of the trees of Fraxinus Ornus, cultivated in Calabria and Sicily. Characters. - In stalactiform pieces from one t...
-Apocynaceae. U.S.P. Apocynum. Apocynum. Canadian Hemp
The root of Apocynum cannabinum. Characters. - Long, cylindrical, somewhat branched, one-fourth to one-third of an inch (6 to 8 millimetres) thick, pale brown, longitudinally wrinkled and transversel...
-Quebracho Cortex. White Quebracho Bark
Not officinal. - The bark of Aspidosperma Quebracho, imported from the Argentine Republic. Characters. - In large pieces, about three-quarters of an inch thick, greyish-brown outside, yellowish insid...
-Asclepiadaceae. U.S.P. Asclepias. Asclepias. Pleurisy Root
The root of Asclepias tuberosa. Characters. - Root large and fusiform, dried in longitudinal or transverse sections; from one to six inches (25 to 150 millimetres) long, and about three quarters of ...
-B.P. Hemidesmi Radix. Hemidesmus Root
The dried root of Hemidesmus indicus, Indian sarsaparilla. India. Fig. 207. - Hemidesmus. Characters. - Yellowish-brown, cylindrical, tortuous, furrowed, and with annular cracks; having a fragrant...
-Condurango
. Not officinal. - The bark of Gonolobus Cun-durango from Ecuador. It is said, however, that there are several species of plants yielding a bark known by the name 'Condurango.' Characters. - Conduran...
-Loganiaceae. Nux Vomica. Nux Vomica
The seeds of Strychnos Nuxvomica. East Indies. Characters, - Nearly circular and flat, about an inch in diameter, urn-bilicated and slightly convex on one side, externally of an ash-grey colour, thic...
-U.S.P. Ignatia. Ignatia. Bean of St. Ignatius
The seed of Strychnos Ignatii. Characters. - About an inch and a fifth (3 centimetres) long, oblong, or ovate, irregularly angular, dull brownish or blackish, very hard, horny; fracture granular, irr...
-Strychnina, B. and U.S.P. Strychnine. C21H22N2O2; 334
An alkaloid prepared from Nux Vomica (B.P.) or Ignatia, and also occurring in other plants of the Nat. Ord. Loganiaceae (U.S.P.) Preparation. - Softening the tough seeds by steam, chopping, drying, a...
-Strychnina, B. and U.S.P. Strychnine. C21H22N2O2; 334. Continued
The medicinal use of strychnine is said to cause in some cases fits resembling those of tertian ague.1 It is not improbable that these are true ague fits, due to malaria, the action of which has been ...
-Curare. Not officinal. - Synonyms : Curara, Woorari, Wourali, Urari, Tlcunas
This substance appears to be an extract from a species of Strychnos mixed with some mucilaginous juice. Characters. - A black extractiform body some specimens of which are readily soluble in water, b...
-Gelsemium, B. and U.S.P. Gelsemium. Yellow Jasmine
The dried rhizome and rootlets of Gelsemium nitidum (G. semperrirens) Characters. - Nearly cylindrical, from 1/2 to 6 inches or more in length, and commonly from 1/4 to 3/4 inch in diameter, with sma...
-U.S.P. Spigelia. Spigelia. Pinkroot. Maryland Pink. Carolina Pink
The rhizome and rootlets of Spigelia mary-landica. Characters. - Rhizome two inches (5 centimetres) or more long, about one-eighth of an inch (3 millimetres) thick, horizontal, bent, somewhat branche...
-Gentianaceae. Gentianae Radix, B.P.; Gentiana, U.S.P. Gentian Root, B.P.; Gentian, U.S.P
The dried root of Gentiana lutea. Mountainous districts of Central and South Europe. Fig. 208. - Gentian, half the natural size. Characters. - From half an inch to one inch in thickness, several i...
-Chirata, B. and U.S.P. Chiretta
The dried plant Ophelia Chirata; collected when the fruit begins to form. Northern India. Characters. - Stems about three feet long, of the thickness of a goose-quill, round, smooth, pale-brown, bran...
-Convolvulacae. B.P. Scammoniae Radix. Scammony Root
The dried root of Convolvulus Scammonia. Syria and Asia Minor. Characters. - Tap-shaped roots, often twisted, sometimes three inches in diameter at the top, brown without, white within, slightly odor...
-Scammonium, B. and U.S.P. Scammony
A gum-resinous exudation obtained by incision from the living root of Convolvulus Scammonia, hardened in the air. Chiefly in Asia Minor. B.P. A resinous exudation from the root of Convolvulus Scammoni...
-B.P. Mistura Scammonii. Scammony Mixture
Scammony (3 gr.) triturated with milk (1 fl. oz.). Scammoniae Resina, B.P. Resina Scammonii, U.S.P. Resin of Scammony. Characters. - In brownish, translucent pieces; brittle; resinous in fracture; o...
-B.P. Confectio Scammonii. Confection of Scammony
Resin of scammony, 3 oz.; ginger, 1 1/2 oz.; oil of caraway, 1 fl. dr.; oil of cloves, 1/2 fl. dr.; syrup, 3 fl. oz.; clarified honey. 1 1/2 oz. B.P. Pulvis Scaramonii Compositus. Compound Powder of...
-Jalapa, B. and U.S.P. Jalap
The dried tubercles of Ipomoea Purga (Exogoniun Purga), B.P. The tuberous root of Exogonium Purga, U.S.P. Mexico. Fig. 210. - Jalap, reduced to 1/3 in size. Characters. - Varying from the size of ...
-Jalapae Resina, B. and U.S.P. Resin of Jalap
Extracted from jalap by rectified spirit. Characters and Solubility. - In dark-brown opaque fragments, translucent at the edges, brittle, breaking with a resinous fracture, readily reduced to a pale ...
-Solanaceae. U.S.P. Dulcamara. Dulcamara. Bittersweet
The dried young branches of Solarium Dulcamara. From indigenous plants which have shed their leaves. Characters. - Light, hollow, cylindrical, about the thickness of a goose-quill; bitter and subsequ...
-Capsici Fructus, B.P.; Capsicum, U.S.P. Capsicum Fruit, B.P.; Capsicum, U.S.P
The dried ripe fruit of Capsicum fastigiatum. Zanzibar. Characters. - Pod membranous, from five to eight lines long, two lines broad, straight, conical, pointed, smooth, shining, but somewhat corruga...
-Sub-Order. - Atropeae. Belladonnas Folia, B. and U.S.P. Belladonna Leaves
The leaves of Atropa Belladonna, U.S.P. The fresh leaves, with the branches to which they are attached, of the deadly nightshade, Atropa Belladonna; also the leaves separated from the branches and car...
-Belladonnas Radix, B. and U.S.P. Belladonna Root
The dried root of Atropa Belladonna. Britain or Germany Characters. - From one to two feet long, and from half an inch to two inches thick, branched and wrinkled, brownish-white. An infusion dropped ...
-Atropina, B. and U.S.P. Atropine. C17H23NO3; 289
An alkaloid obtained from belladonna. Preparation. - It cannot be profitably prepared on a small scale. The chief parts of the process are the precipitation of acid colouring matters from a strong ti...
-Atropinae Sulphas, B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Atropine
Preparation. - By dissolving atropine in dilute sulphuric acid and evaporating. Characters. - A colourless powder. Solubility and Reactions. - Soluble in water, forming a solution which is neutral t...
-Atropinae Sulphas, B. and U.S.P. Sulphate of Atropine. Continued
On the Intestines. - Small doses increase the movements of the intestines. This action is probably due to paralysis of the inhibitory fibres of the splanchnic, since stimulation of the peripheral end ...
-Hyoscyami Folia, B.P.; Hyoscyamus, U.S.P. Hyoscyamus Leaves, B.P.; Hyoscyamus, U.S.P
The fresh leaves, with the branches to which they are attached, of Hyoscyamus niger, also the leaves separated from the branches and carefully dried, collected from plants of the second year's growth....
-U.S.P. Hyoscyaminae Sulphas. Sulphate of Hyoscyamine, (C17H23NO3)2.H2SO4; 676
The neutral sulphate of an alkaloid prepared from hyoscyamus. It is found also in the seeds of Belladonna Stramonium, and in Duboisia myoporoides, the alkaloid of which (duboisine) is identical with ...
-U.S.P. Stramonii Folia. Stramonium Leaves
The dried leaves of Datura Stramonium. Thorn Apple. Characters. - Large, ovate, sinuous, deeply cut; of a heavy odour, which is strongest while they are drying, and of a mawkish, faintly bitter, naus...
-Tabaci Folia, B.P.; Tabacum, U.S.P. Leaf Tobacco, B.P.; Tobacco, U.S.P
The dried leaves of Virginian Tobacco, Nicotiana Tabacum. Cultivated in America. Characters. - Large, mottled-brown, ovate or lanceolate, acuminate leaves, up to twenty inches (50 centimetres) long,...
-Scrophulariaceae. Digitalis Folia, B.P.; Digitalis, U.S.P. Digitalis Leaf, B.P.; Digitalis, Foxglove, U.S.P
The dried leaf of Digitalis purpurea, purple foxglove. Collected from wild indigenous plants, when about two-thirds of the flowers are expanded, B.P. The leaves of Digitalis, U.S.P. Characters.- Ovat...
-Digitalinum. Digitalin. Not officinal
Preparation. - Dissolving out digitalin from an alcoholic extract of the leaves by acetic acid and water, decolorising by animal charcoal. Neutralising by ammonia and precipitating the digitalin by ta...
-Digitalinum. Digitalin. Not officinal. Part 2
The rapid pulse in the second stage of digitalis-poisoning is due to paralysis of the vagus-ends. The irregularities in the third stage depend on the action of the drug on the heart itself. The actio...
-Digitalinum. Digitalin. Not officinal. Part 3
Although neither the vagus centre nor the vagus ends in the heart are completely paralysed by very high temperatures they are yet weakened so much that digitalis, and probably all drugs which act like...
-U.S.P. Leptandra. Leptandra. Culver's Root
The rhizome and rootlets of Leptandra virginica (Veronica virginica). Characters. - Horizontal, from four to six inches (10 to 15 centimetres) long, and about a quarter of an inch (6 millimetres) thi...
-Pedalineae. U.S.P. Oleum Sesami. Oil of Sesamum. (Benne Oil.)
A fixed oil expressed from the seed of Sesamum indicum. Characters. - A yellowish or yellow, oily liquid, inodorous or nearly so, having a bland, nut-like taste, and a neutral reaction. Action. - Si...
-Labiatae. Rosmarinus, U.S.P. Rosemary
The leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis. Characters. - About one inch (25 millimetres) long, rigid, linear, entire, revolute, dark green above, woolly and glandular beneath; pungently aromatic; somewhat...
-Oleum Rosmarini, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Rosemary
The oil distilled from the flowering tops of Rosmarinus officinalis, B.P. A volatile oil distilled from rosemary, U.S.P. Characters. - Colourless, with the odour of rosemary, and a warm aromatic tast...
-U.S.P. Lavandulae. Lavender
The flowers of Lavandula vera. Characters. - Calyx tubular, blue-grey, hairy, five-toothed, the upper tooth largest and roundish-rhomboid; corolla violet-blue, hairy and glandular on the outside, tub...
-Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, B. and U.S.P. Compound Tincture of Lavender
Oil of lavender 1 1/.2 fl. dr., oil of rosemary 10 min., cinnamon bark, bruised, 150 gr., nutmeg, bruised, 150 gr., red sandal-wood 300 gr., rectified spirit 2 pints, B.P. Oil of lavender 8 parts, oil...
-U.S.P. Oleum Lavandulae Florum. Oil of Lavender Flowers
A volatile oil distilled from fresh lavender. Characters. - A colourless or yellowish liquid, having the fragrant odour of lavender flowers, a pungent and bitterish taste, and a neutral reaction whil...
-Oleum Menthae Piperitae, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Peppermint
The oil distilled in Britain from fresh flowering peppermint, Mentha piperita, B.P. A volatile oil distilled from peppermint, U.S.P. Characters. - Colourless or pale yellow, with the odour of pepper...
-B.P. Menthol. C10H20O. Peppermint Camphor
A stearop-tene obtained by cooling the oil distilled from the fresh herb of Mentha arvensis, vars. piperascens et glabrata; and of Mentha piperita. Characters. - Colourless crystals or masses, with a...
-Oleum Menthae Viridis, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Spearmint
The oil distilled in Britain from fresh flowering spearmint, Mentha riridis, B.P Characters. - Colourless or pale yellow, with the odour and taste of spearmint. Dose. - 1-5 min. Preparations....
-Thymol, B. and U.S.P. Thymol. C10H13HO, or C6H3. C3H7.CH3.OH
A stearoptene obtained from the volatile oils of Thymus vulgaris (Labiatae), Monarda punctata (Labiatae), and Carum Ajowan (Ptychotis Ajowan) (Umbelliferae). These oils contain thymol and thymene, C1...
-U.S.P. Hedeoma. Hedeoma. Pennyroyal
The leaves and tops of Hedeoma pulegioides. Characters. - Leaves opposite, short-petioled, about half an inch (12 millimetres) long, oblong-ovate, obscurely serrate, glandular beneath; branches round...
-U.S.P. Marrubium. Marrubium. Horehound
The leaves and tops of Marrubium vulgare. Chaeacters. - Leaves about one inch (25 millimetres) long, opposite, petiolate, roundish-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate, strongly rugose, downy above, white...
-U.S.P. Melissa. Melissa. Balm
The leaves and tops of Melissa officinalis. Characters. - Leaves about 2 inches (5 centimetres) long, petiolate, ovate, obtuse, crenate, somewhat hairy, glandular; branches quadrangular; flowers in ...
-U.S.P. Origanum. Origanum. Wild Marjoram
Origanum vulgare. Characters. - Stem branched above, often purplish, leaves opposite, petiolate, about an inch (25 millimetres) long, roundish-ovate, obtuse, nearly entire, pellucid-punctate, hairy b...
-U.S.P. Salvia. Salvia. Sage
The leaves of Salvia officinalis. Characters. - About two inches (5 centimetres) long, petiolate, ovate-oblong, obtuse, finely crenulate, thickish, wrinkled, greyish-green, soft-hairy and glandular b...
-U.S.P. Scutellaria. Scutellaria. Skull-cap
Scutellaria lateriflora (whole plant). Characters. - About twenty inches (50 centimetres) long, smooth; stem quadrangular, branched; leaves opposite, petiolate, about two inches (5 centimetres) long,...
-Chapter XXXV. Class III. - Dicotyledones Monochlamydeae. (Apetalae.) Chenopodiaceae. U.S.P. Chenopodium. Chenopodium. American Wormseed
The fruit of Chenopodium ambrosioides, var. anthelminticum. Characters. - Nearly one-twelfth of an inch (2 millimetres) in diameter, depressed-globular, glandular, dull greenish or brownish, the inte...
-Phytolaccaceae. U.S.P. Phytolaccae Bacca. Phytolacca Berry. Poke Berry
The fruit of Phytolacca decandra. Characters. - A depressed-globular, dark purple, compound berry, about one-third of an inch (8 millimetres) in diameter, composed of ten carpels, each containing one...
-Polygonaceae. Rhei Radix, B.P.; Rheum, U.S.P. Rhubarb Root, B.P.; Rhubarb, U.S.P
The root more or less deprived of its bark, sliced and dried, of Rheum palmatum, Rheum officinale, and probably other species. Collected and prepared in China and Thibet. Characters. - Trapezoidal, r...
-U.S.P. Pulvis Rhei Compositus. Compound Powder of Rhubarb
Rhubarb, 25; magnesia, 65; ginger, 10 parts. U.S.P. Syrupus Rhei. Syrup of Rhubarb. - Rhubarb, 90; cinnamon, 18; carbonate of potassium, 6; sugar, 600; water q.s. to make 1,000. U.S.P. Syrupus Rhei ...
-U.S.P. Rumex. Rumex. Yellow Dock
The root of Rumex crispus and of other species of Rumex. Characters. - From eight to twelve inches (20 to 30 centimetres) long, about half an inch (12 millimetres) thick, somewhat fusiform, fleshy, n...
-Aristolochiaceae. Serpentariae Rhizoma, B.P.; Serpentaria, U.S.P. Serpentary Rhizome, B.P.; Serpentaria, U.S.P
The dried rhizome and rootlets of Aristolochia Serpentaria or Aristolochia reticulata. From the southern parts of North America. Fig. 217. - Serpentary, half the natural size. Characters. - A smal...
-Piperaceae. Piper Nigrum, B.P.; Piper, U.S.P. Black Pepper
The dried unripe fruit of Piper nigrum, B.P. The unripe fruit of Piper nigrum, U.S.P East Indies. Characters. - Small, roundish, wrinkled; tegument brownish-black, containing a greyish-yellow globul...
-U.S.P. Oleoresina Piperis. Oleoresin of Pepper
Exhaust pepper with stronger ether, remove the ether by distillation and evaporation, and separate the oleoresin from the piperine in the residue by expression through a muslin strainer. Composition....
-U.S.P. Piperina. Piperine. C17H19NO3; 285
A proximate principle of feebly alkaloidal power, prepared from pepper, and occurring also in other plants of the Nat. Ord. Piperaceae. Characters. - Colourless, or pale yellowish, shining, four-side...
-Cubeba, B. and U.S.P. Cubebs
The dried unripe fruit of Piper Cubeba (Cubeba officinalis). Java. Fig. 218. - 3Cubebs. Characters. - Is like black pepper, but is distinguished from it by the adherent stalk of rather more than i...
-Oleum Cubebae, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Cubebs
A volatile oil distilled from cubebs. Characters. - Colourless or pale greenish-yellow, having the peculiar odour and taste of cubebs. Composition. - A hydrocarbon holding a camphor in solution. Ole...
-Maticae Folia, Matico Leaves, B.P. Matico, Matico, U.S.P
3The dried leaves of Piper angustifolium (Artanthe elon-ciata). Peru. Characters. - From two to eight inches long, veined and tesselated on the upper surface, downy beneath. They may be confounded wi...
-Myristiceae. Myristica, B. and U.S.P. Nutmeg
The kernel of the seed of Myristica fragrans deprived of its hard coat or shell. Malayan Archipelago. Characters. - Oval or nearly round, about an inch in length, marked externally with reticulated ...
-Oleum Myristicae, B. and U.S.P. Volatile Oil of Nutmeg
The oil distilled in Britain from nutmeg, B.P. A volatile oil distilled from nutmeg, U.S.P. Characters. - Colourless or straw-yellow, having the odour and taste of nutmegs. Preparations. ...
-B.P. Oleum Myristicae Expressum. Expressed Oil of Nutmeg
A concrete oil obtained by means of expression and heat from nutmegs. Characters. - Of an orange colour, firm consistence, and fragrant odour like that of nutmeg. Preparations. B.P Emplastrum Cale...
-U.S.P. Macis. Mace
The arillus of the fruit of Myristica fragrans. Characters. - In narrow bands, one inch (25 millimetres) or more long, somewhat branched and lobed above, united to broader bands below; brownish-orang...
-Laurineae. Cinnamomi Cortex, B.P.; Cinnamomum, U.S.P. Cinnamon Bark, B.P.; Cinnamon, U.S.P
The inner bark of shoots from the truncated stocks of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Imported from Ceylon. Characters. - In closely rolled quills, containing several small quills within them, light yellowish...
-Oleum Cinnamomi, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Cinnamon
The oil distilled from cinnamon bark. Characters. - Yellowish when recent, gradually becoming red, having the odour and taste of cinnamon. Composition. - Consists principally of cinnamic aldehyde, o...
-Camphora, B. and U.S.P. Camphor
A stearoptene (concrete volatile oil), obtained from the wood of Cinnamomum Camphora (Camphora officinarum). Imported in the crude state from China and Japan, and purified by sublimation. Characters....
-U.S.P. Ceratum Camphorae. Camphor Cerate
Camphor liniment, 3; olive oil, 12; cerate, 85. Physiological Action. - Externally camphor is stimulant and rubefacient. Internally in small doses it acts as a carminative, in large doses as an irri...
-U.S.P. Camphora Monobromata. Monobromated Camphor. C10H15BrO; 230.8
Preparation. - By heating camphor with bromine and crystallising from petroleum benzin. Characters. - Colourless, prismatic needles or scales, permanent in air, unaffected by light, having a mild cam...
-B.P. Sassafras Radix. Sassafras Root
The dried root of Sassafras officinalis. From North America. Characters. - In branched pieces; bark externally greyish-brown, internally rusty-brown, of an agreeable odour, and a peculiar aromatic wa...
-U.S.P. Sassafras. Sassafras
The bark of the root of Sassafras officinalis. Characters. - In irregular fragments, deprived of the grey, corky layer; bright rust-brown, soft, fragile, with a short, corky fracture; strongly fragra...
-U.S.P. Sassafras Medulla. Sassafras Pith
The pith of Sassafras officinalis. Characters. - In slender cylindrical pieces, often curved or coiled, light, spongy, white, inodorous, insipid. Macerated in water it forms a mucilaginous liquid, wh...
-B.P. Nectandrae Cortex. Bebeeru Bark
The dried bark of Nectandra Rodiaei, the green-heart tree. Imported from British Guiana. Characters. - In large flat heavy pieces; external colour greyish-brown, internal, dark cinnamon-brown; taste ...
-B.P. Beberinae Sulphas. Sulphate of Beberine. C36H42N2O6.H2SO4
Prepared from Nectandra or Bebeeru bark. It is probably a mixture of sulphates of beberine, C36H42N2O6, nectandrine, C40H46N2O6, and other alkaloids. Preparation. - By exhausting the bark with dilute...
-Santalaceae. Oleum Santali, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Santal (Oil of sandal wood)
A volatile oil distilled from the wood of Santalum album. Characters. - A pale yellowish or yellow liquid of a peculiar strongly aromatic odour, a pungent and spicy taste, and a slightly acid reactio...
-Thymelaceae. Mezerei Cortex, B.P.; Mezereum, U.S.P. Mezereon Bark, B.P.; Mezereum, U.S.P
The dried bark of Daphne Mezereum, or of Daphne Laureola. Characters. - In long thin more or less flattened strips, which are commonly folded or rolled into disks; or in small quills of various lengt...
-Euphorbiaceae. Cascarillae Cortex, B.P.; Cascarilla, U.S.P. Cascarilla Bark, B.P.; Cascarilla, U.S.P
The dried bark of Croton Elu-teria. Bahama Islands. Fig. 219. - Cascarilla. Characters. - In quills, two or three inches in length and about 1/6 to 1/2 inch in diameter, dull brown, but more or le...
-U.S.P. Stillingia. Stillingia. Queen's Root
The root of Stillingia sylvatica. Characters. - About twelve inches (30 centimetres) long, and nearly two inches (5 centimetres) thick, sub-cylindrical, slightly branched, compact, wrinkled, tough, g...
-Oleum Crotonis, B.P.; Oleum Tiglii, U.S.P. Croton Oil
A fixed oil expressed (in Britain) from the seeds of Croton Tiqlium. East Indies. Fig. 220. - Croton Oil Seeds. Characters. - Slightly viscid; colour brownish-yellow, taste acrid, odour faintly na...
-Oleum Ricini, B. and U.S.P. Castor Oil
A fixed oil expressed from the seeds of Ricinus communis. Calcutta. Fig. 221.3 - Castor Oil Seeds. Characters. - Viscid, colourless, or pale straw-yellow, having a slightly nauseous odour, and a s...
-Kamala, B. and U.S.P. Kamala. Wurrus
A powder which consists of the minute glands and hairs obtained from the surface of the fruits of Mallotus philippinensis (Rottlera tinctoria). India. Characters. - A fine granular mobile powder, of ...
-Urticaceae. Sub-Order I. - Ulmeae. U.S.P. Ulmus. Elm. Slippery Elm
The inner bark of Ulmus fulva. Characters. - In flat pieces, varying in length and width, about one-eighth of an inch (3 millimetres) thick; tough, pale brownish-white, the inner surface finely ridge...
-Sub-Order II. - Cannabineae. Cannabis Indica, B. and U.S.P. Indian Hemp
The dried flowering tops of the female plants of Cannabis sativa, the common hemp. (For medicinal use that which is grown in India, and from which the resin has not been removed, is alone to be employ...
-U.S.P. Cannabis Americana. American Cannabis
Cannabis sativa, grown in the Southern United States and collected while flowering. Characters. - Stem about six feet (2 metres) long, rough; leaves opposite below, alternate above, petiolate, digita...
-B.P. Lupulus. Hop
The dried strobiles of Humulus Lupulus. Cultivated in England. Characters. - Strobiles of a greenish-yellow colour, with minute yellow grains (lupulin) adherent to the base of the scales. Odour arom...
-Lupulinum, B. and U.S.P. Lupulin
The glandular powder, separated from the strobiles of Humulus Lupulus. Characters. - Bright brownish-yellow, becoming yellowish-brown, resinous, consisting of minute granules which, as seen under the...
-Sub-Order III. - Moreae. B.P. Mori Succus. Mulberry Juice
The juice of the ripe fruit of Morus nigra. Characters. - Of a dark violet colour, with a faint odour, and an acidulous sweet taste. Composition. - Colouring matter, sugar, and acid, supposed to be ...
-Sub-Order IV. - Artocarpeae. Ficus, B.P. Fig
The dried fruit of Ficus Carica, Smyrna. Ficus, U.S.P. Fig The fleshy receptacle of Ficus Carica, bearing fruit upon its inner surface. Characters. - Compressed, of irregular shape, fleshy, covered ...
-Juglandaceae. U.S.P. Juglans. Juglans. Butternut
The inner bark of the root of Juglans cinerea, collected in autumn. Characters. - In flat or curved pieces, from an eighth to a quarter of an inch (3 to 6 millimetres) thick; the outer surface nearly...
-Hamamelaceae. U.S.P. Hamamelis. Hamamelis. Witch-hazel
The leaves of Hamamelis virginica, collected in autumn. Characters. - Short-petiolate, about four inches (10 centimetres) long, obovate or oval, slightly heart-shaped and oblique at the base, sinuate...
-Balsamiflorae. Styrax Praeparatus, B.P.; Styrax, U.S.P. Prepared Storax, B.P.; Storax, U.S.P
A balsam obtained from the inner bark of Liquidambar orientalis. Purified by solution in spirit, filtration and evaporation. Characters. - A semi-transparent, brownish-yellow semi-fluid resin, of the...
-Cupuliferae. B.P. Quercus Cortex. Oak Bark
The dried bark of the smaller branches and young stems of Quercus robur. Collected in spring, from trees growing in Britain. Characters. - Covered with a greyish shining epidermis, cinnamon-coloured ...
-U.S.P. Quercus Alba
The bark of Quercus alba. Characters. - In nearly flat pieces, deprived of the corky layer, about a quarter of an inch thick, pale brown, inner surface with short sharp longitudinal ridges, tough, of...
-Galla, B. and U.S.P. Galls, B.P.; Nutgalls, U.S.P
Excrescences on Querecus lusitanica, var. infectoria, caused by the punctures and deposit of an egg or eggs of Cynips Gallae tinctoriae. Asia Minor. Characters. - Hard, heavy, globular bodies, tuberc...
-Acidum Tannicum, B. and U.S.P. Tannic Acid. [Tannin.] C27H22O17
A glucoside extracted from galls. Preparation. - By dissolving out the tannic acid from powdered galls with ether mixed with a very little water, gently evaporating the solution, and drying the acid....
-Acidum Gallicum, B. and U.S.P. Gallic Acid. C6H2(OH)
(CO.OH). H2O; 188. - A crystalline acid prepared from galls; it may be considered as salicylic acid in which two atoms of hydrogen are replaced by two of hydroxyl (cf. p. 810). Preparation. - From ga...
-U.S.P. Castanea. Castanea. [Chestnut.]
The leaves of Castanea vesca, collected in September or October, while still green. Characters. - From six to ten inches (15 to 25 centimetres) long, about two inches (5 centimetres) wide, petiolate,...
-Salicineae. U.S.P. Salix. Salix. Willow
The bark of Salix alba, and of other species of Salix. Characters. - In fragments or quills, from one-twenty-fifth to one-twelfth of an inch (1 to 2 millimetres) thick, smooth; outer surface somewhat...
-Salicinum, B. and U.S.P. Salicin. C13H18O7; 286
A crystalline glucoside obtained by treating the bark of Salix alba, and other species of Salix, and the bark of various species of Populus, with hot water, removing tannin and colouring matter from t...
-Chapter XXXVI. Sub-Kingdom I. - Phanerogamae. Class IV. - Monocotyledones. Orchidaceae. U.S.P. Vanilla. Vanilla
The fruit of Vanilla planifolia. Characters. - From six to ten inches (15 to 25 centimetres) long, linear, narrowed and bent or hooked at the base, rather oblique at the apex, wrinkled, somewhat wart...
-U.S.P. Cypripedium. Cypripedium. Ladies' Slipper
The rhizome and rootlets of Cypripedium pubescens, and of Cypripedium parviflorum. Characters. - Horizontal, bent, four inches (10 centimetres), or less, long; about one-eighth of an inch (3 millimet...
-(Zingiberaceae). Zingiber, B. and U.S.P. Ginger
The (scraped and dried, B.P.) rhizome of Zingiber officinale. West Indies, India, and other countries. Characters. - Irregular lobed decorticated pieces, three or four inches long, yellowish-white bu...
-B.P. Turmeric
The rhizome of Curcuma longa. Turmeric Tincture, B.P.; Solution of Turmeric, U.S.P. A solution prepared by macerating 1 part bruised turmeric in 6 parts rectified spirit, B.P., or diluted alcohol, U....
-Cardamomi Semina, B.P.; Cardamomum, U.S.P. Cardamoms
The fruit U.S.P- (dried capsules, B.P.), of Elettaria Cardamomum. Malabar. The seeds are best kept in their pericarps, from which they should be separated when required for use, the pericarpal coats b...
-Tinctura Cardamomi Composita. Compound Tincture Of Cardamoms. B. and U.S.P
Cardamom seeds and caraway fruit bruised each 1/4 oz., raisins freed from seeds 2 oz., cinnamon bark 1/2 oz., cochineal 55 gr., proof spirit 1 pint. B.P. Cardamom and cinnamon, each 20 parts, caraway ...
-Irideae. Crocus, B. and U.S.P. Saffron
The dried stigmas and top of the style of Crocus sativus, B.P. The stigmas of Crocus sativus, U.S.P. Spain, France, and Italy. Characters. - Thread-like styles, each terminated by three long orange-b...
-U.S.P. Iris. Iris. Blue Flag
The rhizome and rootlets of Iris versicolor. Characters. - Rhizome horizontal, consisting of joints, two to four inches (5 to 10 centimetres) long, cylindrical in the lower half, flattish near the up...
-Liliaceae. U.S.P. Allium. Garlic
The bulb of Allium sativum. Characters. - Bulb subglobular, compound, consisting of about eight compressed, wedge-shaped bulblets, which are arranged in a circle around the base of the stem, and cove...
-Scilla, B. and U.S.P. Squill
The sliced (and dried B.P.) bulb of Urginea Scilla (U. maritima). Mediterranean coasts. Characters. - Bulb pear-shaped, weighing from half a pound to ten pounds; outer scales membranous, brownish re...
-Aloe Socotrina, B.P.; Aloe, U.S.P. Socotrine Aloes, B.P.; Aloes, U.S.P
The inspissated juice of the leaf of Aloe Perryi and probably other species. Imported principally by way of Bombay and Zanzibar. Characters. - In hard, opaque, reddish-brown or yellowish-brown, not ...
-B.P. Decoctum Aloes Compositum. Compound Decoction of Aloes
Extract of Socotrine aloes, 120 gr.; myrrh, 90 gr.; saffron, 90 gr.; carbonate of potassium, 60 gr.; extract of liquorice, 1 oz.; compound tincture of cardamoms, 8 fl. oz.; distilled water up to 30 fl...
-B.P. Aloin. Aloin. C16H18O7
A crystalline substance extracted from aloes by solvents and purified by recrystallisation. As obtained from the different varieties of aloes, the products differ slightly, but their medicinal propert...
-U.S.P. Aloe Purificata. Purified Aloes
Preparation. - By melting aloes 100, adding alcohol 15, straining and evaporating. Characters. - Purified aloes is in irregular brittle pieces of a dull-brown or reddish-brown colour, and having the ...
-B.P. Aloe Barbadensis. Barbadoes Aloes
The inspissated juice of the leaf of Aloe vulgaris. Barbadoes and Dutch West Indian Islands. Characters. - In yellowish-brown or dark-brown opaque masses; breaks with a dull conchoidal fracture; has ...
-B.P. Extractum Aloes Barbadensis
Prepared like extract of Socotrine aloes. Action and Uses. - It causes a bitter taste in the mouth, and reflex salivation. In small doses it seems to have a topic action like simple bitters. It incre...
-Veratri Viridis Rhizoma, B.P.; Veratrum Viride, U.S.P. Green Hellebore Rhizome, B.P.; American Hellebore, U.S.P
The rhizome and rootlets of Veratrum viride. United States and Canada. Characters. - Rhizome two or three inches long, one to two inches thick, with numerous shrivelled, light yellowish-brown rootlet...
-B.P. Sabadilla. Cevadilla
The dried ripe seeds of Schoe nocaulon officinale (Asagrcea officinalis). Mexico. Characters. - Fruit about half an inch long, consisting of three lighi-brown papyraceous follicles, each containing f...
-Veratrina, B. and U.S.P. Verateine
An alkaloid or mixture of alkaloids obtained from cevadilla; not quite pure, B.P. An alkaloid or mixture of alkaloids prepared from the seeds of Asagrcea officinalis, U.S.P. Preparation. - A concentr...
-Colchici Cormus, B.P.; Colchici Radix, U.S.P. Colchicum Corm, B.P.; Colchicum Root, U.S.P
The (fresh, B.P.) corm of Colchicum autumnale, collected about the end of June, and the same stripped of its coats, sliced transversely, and dried at a temperature not exceeding 150 F., B.P. F...
-Colchici Semina, B.P.; Colchici Semen, U.S.P. Colchicum Seeds, B.P.; Colchicum Seed, U.S.P
The seeds of Colchicum autumnale, collected when fully ripe, usually about the end of July or beginning of August, and carefully dried, B.P. The seed of Colchicum autumnale, U.S.P. Characters. - Abou...
-Liliaceae. (Smilaceae.) Sarsae Radix, B.P.; Sarsaparilla, U.S.P. (Jamaica, B.P.) Sarsaparilla
The (dried B.P.) root of Smilax officinalis (Smilax medica, and other undetermined species of Smilax, U.S.P.). It is commonly known as Jamaica Sarsaparilla, from having been formerly obtained from cen...
-U.S.P. Extractum Sarsaparilla Compositum Fluidum
Sarsaparilla, 75; glycyrrhiza, 12; sassafras bark, 10; mezereum, 3; glycerin, 10; alcohol and water, of each, q.s. to make 100 parts. U.S.P. Syrupus Sarsaparilla Compositus. - Sarsaparilla, 150; guai...
-Aroideae. U.S.P. Calamus. Calamus. Sweet Flag
The rhizome of Acorus Calamus. Characters. - In sections of various lengths, unpeeled, about three-quarters of an inch (2 centimetres) broad, subcylindrical, longitudinally wrinkled; on the lower sur...
-Gramineae. B.P. Farina Tritici. Wheaten Flour
The grain of wheat, Triticum sativum, ground and sifted. Preparation. Cataplasma Fermenti. Composition. - Starch and gluten. Use. - Chiefly as an article of food. ...
-B.P. Mica Panis. Crumb of Bread
The soft part of bread made with wheat-flour. Preparation. Cataplasma Carbonis (p. 541). Use. - It is used as a cataplasm, both alone and in cataplasma carbonis. It is also used as a basis for pills...
-Amylum, B. and U.S.P. Starch
The starch procured from the grains of common wheat, Triticum sativum (T. vulgare); maize, Zea Mays; and rice, Oryza sativa. Characters. - In white columnar or irregular angular masses, white, inodor...
-U.S.P. Triticum. Triticum. Couch-Grass
The rhizome of Triticum repens, gathered in the spring and deprived of the rootlets. Characters. - Very long, but, as met with in the shops, cut into sections about two-fifths of an inch (1 centimetr...
-B.P. Hordeum Decorticatum. Pearl Barley
The husked seeds of Hordeum distichon. Britain. Characters. - White, rounded, retaining a trace of the longitudinal farrow. Composition. - Starch, albuminous matter, cellulose, and a small quantity ...
-U.S.P. Maltum, Malt
The seed of Hordeum distichon, caused to enter the incipient stage of germination by artificial means and dried. Characters. - Malt should be fresh, of a colour not darker than pale amber, and should...
-Saccharum Purificatum, B.P.; Saccharum, U.S.P. Refined Sugar, B.P.; Sugar, U.S.P. C12H22O11 or C24H22O11; 342
The refined sugar of Saccharum officinarum. West Indies and other tropical countries. Characters. - Compact crystalline conical loaves, known in commerce as lump sugar. Impurities. - Salts, foreign ...
-B.P. Theriaca. Treacle
The uncrystallised residue of the refining of sugar. Characters. - A thick brown fermentable syrup, very sweet; not crystallising by rest or evaporation. Specific gravity about 1.40. Test. - Nearly f...
-Chapter XXXVII. Sub-Kingdom I. - Phanerogamae. Division II. - Gymnospermae. Coniferae. Terebinthina Canadensis, B. and U.S.P. Canada Balsam, B.P.; Canada Turpentine (Balsam of Fir), U.S.P
The turpentine obtained by incision from the stem of Pinus balsamea (Abies balsamea), B.P. A liquid oleoresin, obtained from Abies balsamea, U.S.P. Canada. Characters. - A pale-yellow ductile oleores...
-B.P. Thus Americanum. Common Frankincense
The concrete turpentine which is scraped off the trunks of Pinus aus-tralis and Pinus Taeda. Southern States of North America. Characters. - A softish bright yellow opaque solid, resinous but tough, ...
-U.S.P. Terebinthina. Turpentine
A concrete oleoresin, obtained from Pinus australis and from other species of Pinus. Characters. - In tough, yellowish masses, brittle in the cold, crummy-crystalline in the interior, of a terebinthi...
-Terebene. C10H16
Not officinal. - Isomeric with oil of turpentine, and prepared from it by oxidation with sulphuric acid. Characters. - A colourless liquid, with the odour of pine wood, and a hot taste. Solu...
-U.S.P. Oleum Succini. Oil of Amber
A volatile oil obtained by the destructive distillation of amber and purified by subsequent rectification. Characters. - A colourless pale yellow thin liquid, having an ernpyreu-matic balsamic odour,...
-Resina, B. and U.S.P. Resin. Colophony
The residue left after distilling off the volatile oil from turpentine, U.S.P. Characters. - Translucent, yellowish, brittle, pulverisable; fracture shining. Composition. - Resin is the portion of t...
-B.P. Laricis Cortex. Larch Bark
The bark, deprived of its outer layer, of Pinus Larix (Abies Larix), the common larch. Characters. - In flat pieces or sometimes large quills, with the inner surface yellow and fibrous, and the outer...
-Pix Burgundica B. and U.S.P. Burgundy Pitch
A resinous exudation from the stem of the spruce fir, Pinus picea (Pinus Abies or Abies excelsa). Melted and strained. Switzerland. Characters. - Hard and brittle, yet gradually taking the form of th...
-U.S.P. Pix Canadensis. Canada Pitch. Hemlock Pitch
The prepared resinous exudation of Abies canadensis. Characters. - It is somewhat softer than the Burgundy pitch. Preparation. Emplastrum Picis Canadensis. ...
-Pix Liquida, B. and U.S.P. Tar
A bituminous liquid, obtained from the wood of Pinus sylvestris and other pines by destructive distillation, B.P. An empyreumatic oleoresin obtained by the destructive distillation of the wood of Pinu...
-U.S.P. Syrupus Picis Liquidae. Syrup of Tar
Pour cold water (12) on tar (6), stir frequently for twenty-four hours, and then throw the water away. Pour on boiling distilled water (50), stir for fifteen minutes, and then set aside for thirty-six...
-U.S.P. Oleum Picis Liquidae. Oil of Tar
A volatile oil distilled from tar. An almost colourless liquid when freshly distilled, but soon acquiring a dark, reddish-brown colour, having a strong tarry odour and taste, and an acid reaction. Sp...
-U.S.P. Thuja. Thuja. Arbor Vitae
The fresh tops of Thuja occidentalis. Characters. - Twigs flattish, two-edged, the scale-like leaves appressed and closely imbricate in four rows, rhombic-ovate, obtusely pointed, with a roundish gla...
-U.S.P. Juniperus. Juniper
The fruit of Juniper us communis. Characters. - Nearly globular, about one-third of an inch (8 millimetres) in diameter, dark purplish, with a bluish-grey bloom, a three-rayed furrow at the apex, int...
-Oleum Juniperi, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Juniper
A volatile oil distilled from the unripe fruit of Juniperus communis. Characters. - Colourless or pale greenish-yellow, of a sweetish odour, and warm aromatic taste. Dose. - 1-4 min. Preparat...
-Sabinae Cacumina, B.P.; Sabina, U.S.P. Savin-tops, B.P.; Savine, U.S.P
The (fresh and dried, B.P.) tops of Juni-perus Sabina. Collected in spring. Characters. - Twigs densely covered with minute imbricated appressed leaves in four rows; odour strong, peculiar, and unple...
-Oleum Sabinae, B. and U.S.P
A volatile oil distilled from the fresh tops of Juniperus Sabina Characters. - Colourless or yellowish, becoming darker and thicker by age and exposure to air, peculiar odour, pungent, bitterish, and...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Sub-Kingdom II. - Cryptogams. Filices. Filix Mas, B.P.; Aspidium, U.S.P. Male Fern
The rhizome with the persistent bases of the petioles of Aspidium Filix mas. Collected late in the autumn, divested of its scales, roots, and all dead portions, and carefully dried with a gentle heat...
-Lichenes. Cetraria, B. and U.S.P. Iceland Moss
The entire lichen, Cetraria islandica. North of Europe. Characters. - Foliaceous, lobed, crisp, cartilaginous, brownish-white, paler beneath; taste bitter and mucilaginous. A strong decoction gelatin...
-B.P. Litmus
A blue pigment prepared from various species of Roccella. Litmus Paper, Blue, B. and U.S.P. - Unsized white paper steeped in tincture of litmus, and dried by exposure to the air. Litmus Paper, Red, ...
-Fungi. Muscarine Nitras
Not officinal. - An alkaloid, C3H15NO3, prepared from the Fly Agaric, Amanita muscaria, a fungus growing in all parts of the world. Muscarine can be prepared artificially fromcholin, C5H15NO2, by oxi...
-Agaricus Albus. Not officinal
Characters. - It occurs in white irregular pieces, light and friable, with a sweetish and afterwards bitter taste. Dose. - 2 to 30 gr. Composition. - A white, crystalline body, agaricin, and various...
-Ergot, B. and U.S.P. Ergot. Ergot of Rye
The sclerotium (compact mycelium or spawn) of Claviceps purpurea, produced between the paleae and replacing the grain of Secale cereale, the common rye, Nat. Ord. Graminaceae. Characters. - Somewhat ...
-B.P. Ergotinum. Ergotin
Purified extract of ergot, commonly called ergotin or ergotine, or Bonjean's ergotine. Preparation. - By evaporating the fluid extract of ergot, 4 fl. oz., by a water-bath to a syrupy consistence, an...
-U.S.P. Ustilago. Ustilago. Corn-smut
Ustilago Maydis (Nat. Ord., Fungi), grown upon Zea Mays (Nat. Ord., Graminaceae). Ustilago should be preserved in a dry place, and should not be kept longer than a year. This fungus is a form of smut...
-B.P. Cerevisiae Fermentum. Beer Yeast
The ferment obtained in brewing beer, and produced by Sacckaromyces (Torula) cerevisiae. Characters. - Viscid, semi-fluid, frothy, exhibiting under the microscope numerous round or oval confervoid ce...
-Section VI. Animal Kingdom. Chapter XXXIX. Class Mammalia. Order Rodentia. Castoreum. Castor
Not officinal. - The dried preputial follicles and their secretion, obtained from the beaver, Castor Fiber, and separated from the somewhat shorter and smaller oil-sacs which are frequently attached t...
-Order Ruminantia.. Moschus, B. and U.S.P. Musk
The inspissated and dried secretion from the preputial follicles of Moschus moschiferus. Central Asia. Characters. - In irregular reddish-black rather unctuous grains; having a strong, peculiar, ver...
-Sevum Praeparatum, B.P.; Sevum, U.S.P. Prepared Suet, B.P.; Suet, U.S.P. -
The internal fat of the abdomen of the sheep, Oris Aries, purified by melting and straining. Characters. - White, smooth, almost scentless; fusible at 103 F. Composition. - Consists principally ...
-Lanolin
Not officinal. - The purified fat of sheep's wool. It is also found in other tissues containing keratin. Characters. - Pure lanolin is of a consistence between resin and fat, but it rapidly takes up ...
-B.P. Sapo Animalis. Curd Soap
A soap made with soda and a purified animal fat, consisting principally of stearin. Characters. - White or with a very light greyish tint; dry; nearly inodorous; horny and pulverisable when kept in d...
-Saccharum Lactis, B. and U.S.P. Sugar of Milk
C12H24O12 or C24H24O24; 360. - A peculiar crystalline sugar, obtained from the whey of cows' milk by evaporation and purified by re-crystallisation. Characters. - Usually in cylindrical masses, two i...
-U.S.P. Pepsinum Saccharatum. - Pepsin
The digestive principle of the gastric juice, obtained from the mucous membrane of the stomach of the hog, and mixed with powdered sugar of milk. Characters. - Saccharated pepsin is a white powder of...
-U.S.P. Fel Bovis. Ox-gall. - The fresh gall of Bos Taurus
Characters. - A brownish-green, or dark green, somewhat viscid liquid, having a peculiar odour, a disagreeable bitter taste, and a neutral or faintly alkaline reaction. Specific gravity 1.018 to 1.028...
-Fel Bovinum Purificatum, B.P.; Fel Bovis Purificatum, U.S.P. Purified Ox-bile
The purified gall of the ox, Bos Taurus. Preparation. - Mix fresh ox-bile (1 pint) and rectified spirit (2 pints) by agitation in a bottle, and set aside for twelve hours until the sediment subsides....
-Keratin. Not officinal
Preparation. - Horn-turnings are digested with artificial gastric juice until all the matter soluble in them has been removed. They are then allowed to lie for some weeks in ammonia or glacial acetic ...
-Order Pachydermata.. Adeps Praeparatus, B.P.; Adeps, U.S.P. Prepared Lard, B.P.; Lard, U.S.P
The purified fat of the hog, Sus Scrofa, B.P.; the prepared internal fat of the abdomen of Sus Scrofa purified by washing with water, melting, and straining, U.S.P. Characters. - A soft white fatty s...
-Order Cetaceae.. Cetaceum, B. and U.S.P. Spermaceti
A peculiar concrete, fatty substance obtained from Physeter macrocejrfialus, U.S.P. Nearly pure cetine, obtained, mixed with oil, from the head of the sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus, inhabiting t...
-Class Aves. Order Gallinae. Ovi Albumen. Egg Albumen. B.P. Ovi Albumen. Egg Albumen
The liquid white of the egg of Gallus Banckiva, var. domesticus. Characters. - Transparent, viscid, soluble in water, coagulable on heating to 160 F. When coagulated it is opaque and insoluble i...
-Class Pisces. Order Sturiones.. Isinglass, B.P.; Ichthyocolla, U.S.P
The swimming-bladder or sound of Acipenser Huso, and other species of Aci-penser. Properties. - In fine shreds, B.P.; in separate sheets, etc., U.S.P. Composition. - It consists of gelatine, which i...
-Order Teleosteae. Fam. Gadidae.. Oleum Morrhuae, B. and U.S.P. Cod-Liver Oil
A fixed oil extracted from the fresh livers of the cod, Gadus Morrhua, B.P. (or of other species of Gadus, U.S.P.), by the application of a heat not exceeding 180 F. Characters. - Pale yellow, w...
-Class Insecta. Order Hymenoptera. Mel. Honey
Mel, B. and U.S.P. Honey. - A saccharine secretion deposited in the honeycomb by Apis mellifica, the hive-bee. Characters. - When recently separated froni the honeycomb, it is a viscid translucent li...
-Cera Flava, B. and U.S.P. Yellow Wax
The prepared honeycomb of the hive-bee, Apis melliflca, B.P.; a peculiar concrete substance prepared by Apis mellifica, U.S.P. Characters. - Yellowish or yellowish-brown, solid, firm, breaking with a...
-Cera Alba, B. and U.S.P. White Wax
Yellow wax bleached by exposure to moisture, air, and light. Characters. - Hard, nearly white, translucent. Not unctuous to the touch; does not melt under 150 F. Officinal Preparations. B.P C...
-Order Hemiptera. Coccus, Cochineal, B. and U.S.P. Coccus Cacti
The dried female of Coccus cacti, reared on Opuntia cochinillifera, and on other species of Opuntia. Mexico and Teneriffe. Characters. - Ovate, plano-convex, about one-fifth of an inch (5 millimetres...
-Order Coleoptera.. Cantharis, B. and U.S.P. Cantharides. Spanish Flies
The beetle, Cantharis vesicatoria, dried. Hungary. Characters. - From eight to ten lines long, furnished with two wing-covers of a shining metallic-green colour, under which are two membranous transp...
-Class Annelida.. B.P. Hirudo. The Leech
(1) Sanguisuga medicinalis, the speckled leech; (2) S. officinalis, the green leech. Collected in Spain, France, Italy, and Hungary. Characters. - Body elongated, two or three inches long, tapering a...
-Methylal. Methylenedimethyl Ether. CH2(OCH3)2. Not officinal
Characters. - A mobile, colourless, volatile liquid, boiling at 42 C.; sp. gr. 0.8551. Odour like chloroform and acetic ether, with a burning aromatie taste. Preparation. - By distilling methyl...
-Iodol. Tetraiodpyrrol. C4I4NH. Not officinal
Characters. - Light brown tasteless crystalline powder, with a faint smell somewhat like thymol. Solubility. - Insoluble in water, soluble in 3 parts of alcohol, readily soluble in ether and chlorofo...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies
Note. - The numbers after the drugs refer to the works quoted as authorities for the treatment :-Neale's Medical Digest, 1; Ringer's Therapeutics, 2; Bartholow's Therapeutics, 3; Wood's Therapeutics, ...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 2
Morphine and Atropine. Hypodermically very useful, 1/6-1/4 gr. morphine with 1/100 gr. of atropine Opium. The same as morphine Poultices. Warm, to the hypogastrium relieve Quinine. 5-10 gr. night a...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 3
Pilocarpine, 1, 4. Subcutaneous injection has been useful Sabinae Oleum, 1. Prevents loss of hair in Alopecia pityrodes Sapo Viridis, 1. Very useful as a shampoo night and morning - R Saponis virid....
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 4
Ferri Perchloridi Liquor. 1. To cause coagulation on injection into sac Lead Acetate. Useful, combined with rest Potassium Iodide. Very useful in doses of gr. xxx. Should be combined with the recumb...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 5
Asthenopia. Atropine. To prevent spasms Hydrocyanic Acid, 1. In irritable ophthalmia Hysteria, 1. A cause Masturbation, 1. Often a cause Myotomy, Intraocular, 1. To relieve spasm Physostigma, 1. In t...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 6
Aloes. In constipation, and in deficient secretion of bile Ammonium Chloride, 2. In jaundice due to Biliousness. catarrh of the bile-ducts; early stage of cirrhosis; deficient intestinal secretion ...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 7
Asapcetida. Like Ammoniacum Belladonna, 1. In acute bronchitis of children, to stimulate respiratory centre Benzoin and Benzoic Acid, 3. 3j. inhaled from hot water eases cough and lessens expectorat...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 8
Antim. Tart. in cases of great dyspnoea. The carbonate in viscid secretion Sanguinaria, 2. With other expectorants Senega, 3. When expulsive efforts are feeble Serpentaria. Like Senega Splnal Ice-bag,...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 9
Burns and Scalds. in very extensive burns or scalds. It relieves pain, although it may not save life Whiting and Water, 1. Mixed to the thickness of cream and smeared over, excluding the air, gives ...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 10
Carbolic Acid, 1, 2, 3. As application or injection into tumour to lessen pain, retard growth, and diminish foetor Carbonic Acid, 1, 3. To relieve pain in uterine cancer Caustic Alkalies, 1. In stron...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 11
Cold Powder - Camph. partes v, dissolved in ether to consistence of cream, add Ammon. carbonat. partes iv. and Pulv. opii pars j. Dose, grs. iij-x. To break up or modify cold Cubebs. Powder as insuff...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 12
Sulphurous Acid. As lotion or as fumigation Chest Pains. Belladonna, 3. In pleurodynia, as plaster or ointment Iodine, 3. In myalgia as ointment Chicken Pox. Aconite Ammonium Acetate Bath. Cold ...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 13
Opium. Hypodermically Salines, 2. To precede the use of Lead Acetate Sumbul Veratrum Album Chordee. Aconite. 1 m. every hour Amyl Nitrite, 1 Atropine, 2. Subcutaneously along with morphine Bel...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 14
Sulphur, 1. To aid elimination Sulphur Baths Sulphuric Acid, 1, 2. Dilute in lemonade as a prophylactic and curative Colic, Renal and Hepatic, vide also Calculi. Aliment. Abstain from starches and ...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 15
Eucalyptus. A tonic after malarial disease Guarana, 2. Same as coca Hydrastis, 2. As a substitute for quinine Iron, 2. As chalybeate waters Koumiss Lime. As lime-water or carbonate of calcium Opium. ...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 16
Hyoscyamus. To relieve pain and irritability Iodine and Iodides, 4 Iodoform. As suppository Milk Diet, 1 Opium. As enema, or suppository, to relieve pain Pareira. In chronic cases Potassium Bromide. T...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 17
Salicylate of Sodium Skim-Milk Diet Sodium Citrate Sodium Phosphate. As purgative Dlarrhoea. Aconite. In high fever and cutting abdominal pains Alkalies, 3, 4. In small doses in diarrhoea of childr...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 18
Chloral Hydrate Chlorinated Lime. Locally, as gargle or wash Chlorine Water. Internally, locally in sloughing of the throat Cold, 3, 4. Externally Copper Sulphate. As emetic Glycerine of Carbolic...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 19
DysmenorrhOea. Aconite, 2. In congestive form in plethorics; or sequent to sudden arrest Ammonium Acetate, 4 Amyl Nitrite, 2, 3, 4. In neuralgic form Apiol (Oil of Parsley), 4. As emmenagogue in neur...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 20
Grape Cure. Useful Lead. Locally Quinine, 2, 3. For the malnutrition Zinc Oxide. Locally Ectropium And Entropium Collodion Silver Nitrate Eczema. Alkalies. Weak solutions as a constant dressing...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 21
Enteritis. Aconite. In acute cases Argentic Nitrate, 1,4. In chronic form Arsenic, 3. In small doses along with opium Calomel, 4. In obstructive enteritis with constipation, pushed to salivate Castor...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 22
Silver Nitrate. Strong solution locally applied for an inch or two beyond inflamed area Sodium Salicylate, 2. Antipyretic Sulphurous Acid, 3. Equal parts with glycerine locally Tartar Emetic, 1. Sm...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 23
Hot Water, 3. Between meals Ipecacuanha, 3. In constipation, oppression at epigastrium, and in pregnancy Mercury, 3. When liver sluggish Muscarine, 2. In intestinal paresis Nux Vomica, 2, 3. In co...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 24
Glaucoma. Atropine. Has caused this disease Dubosine. Like Atropine Eserine. Lowers intraocular tension Iridectomy. The only cure Gleet. Aloes Bismuth, 3. Along with glycerine or mucilage Blister...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 25
Sodium Chloride. In drachm doses subsulphate of iron, 4 Sulphuric Acid, 3 Tannin, 1,3 Tr. Laricis, 1 Turpentine, 1,3,4 Veratrum Viride, 1, 2 Haemorrhage, Intestinal. Belladonna. For rectal ulcers C...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 26
Skull-cap as prophylactic Sodium Chloride, 1 Sodium Phosphate, 2. As laxative in bilious headache Spectacles. Where the headache depends on inequality of focal length or astigmatism Strychnine, 1, 2 T...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 27
Mercury, 1 Morphine, 1 Pilocarpine, 1, 2, 3 resin of Copaiba, 2 Sanguinaria Tr. Ferri, 1 Veratrum Viride, 1 Hypochondriasis. Alcohol, 4. As temporary stimulant Arsenic, 2. In the aged Asafoetid...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 28
Cold Douche, 3 Insomnia. Digitalis, 1. When deficient tone of vaso-motor system Dubolsine, 2 Ether, 3. In full dose Galvanisation', 2 Gelsemium, 3. In simple wakefulness Humulus, 2. A hop-pillow so...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 29
Sanguinaria Sodium Phosphate, 2, 3. Very useful in catarrh of bile-ducts Stllingia. After ague Turpentine, 1 Lactation, Defective. Calabar Bean Castor Oil Leaves Jaborandi, 2 Lactation, Defectiv...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 30
Chloral Hydrate, 1, 2, 3, 4. As narcotic and carminative Chloral and Camphor, 4 Cold Douche, 3 Coniine, 1, 2, 2,4. Alone, or with morphine Croton Oil, 3, 4. As purgative Daturine Digitalis, 1, 2...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 31
Muscae Volitantes. Blue Pill. In biliousness Iodide of Potassium Iron. Perchloride in anaemia and climacteric Valerian Myalgia. Acupuncture, 1, 2 Aquapuncture, 2 Ammonium Chloride, 1, 2, 3 Ar...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 32
Morphine, 1, 2, 3. Hypodermically Mustard Poultice Narceine, 1 Nickel, 1 Neuralgia. Nltro-Glycerln, 2, 4 Nux Vomica. In visceral neuralgia Oil of Cloves. Locally Opium, 3 Peppermint, 3. Locally ...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 33
Iodine. Locally Mercury, 1. Internally Mercury and Morphine Oleate, 3. Externally Mezereon. In rheumatic and scrofulous cases Phosphates, 4 Poultices Stavesacre. When long bones affected Perito...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 34
Chloroform, 3. As linctus to check cough Cocaine, 2. A solution locally to throat and mouth tends to relieve irritable condition and aphthae, especially in later stages Cod-Liver Oil, 2,3, 4. Most use...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 35
Veratrum Viride, 1, 2,3, 4 Wet Pack, 2 Polypus. Alcoholic Spray, 1 Alum. As insufflation Carbolic Acid and Glycerine, 1 Sesquichloride of Iron, 1 Sodium Ethylate, 1 Tannin, 1. As insufflation Tr. Op...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 36
Camphor, 1 Carbolic Acid, 1, 2 Chloroform, 1 Creasote Oil, 1 Digitalis, 4 Emetics, 1 Ergot, 1 Hydrargyrum, 1. The subchloride or bichloride Ice, 1 Iodine, 1 Ipecacuanha, 1 Puerperal Fever. ...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 37
Sulphurated Potash, 4 Sulphurous Acid, 1, 3. Fumigative Tr. Ferri, 1 Trimethylamine, 1, 2 Turkish Bath, 3 Veratrine, 1, 3, 4 Veratrum Vlride, 1, 3 Zinc Cyanide, 1 Zinc Oxide, 1 Rheumatism, Chronic....
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 38
Veratrine, 3. As ointment Scrofula. Acacla Charcoal, 1 Acid, Phosphoric, 4 Alcohol, 4 Arsenic, 1 Barium Chloride, 1 Blisters, 3. To enlarged glands Calcium Phosphate, 3 Calomel, 3 Chalybeate...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 39
Pressure beneath Nose, over the termination of the nasal branch of the ophthalmic division of the fifth Somnambulism. Opium Potassium Bromide. In all cases of children and adults Spasmodic Affecti...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 40
Spinal Affections. Arsenic, 2. With quinine in malarial enlargement; alone in simple engorged spleen; in typho-malarial fever; and prophylactic in malaria Spinal Affections. Cold Affusion, 2. To re...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 41
Bleeding, 1. In extreme venous congestion Brandy. In small doses in collapse Camphor Chloroform. In convulsions Digitalis, 1. To stimulate heart Ergot, 1. By the mouth or subcutaneously Gelsemium Ho...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 42
Potassium Iodide, 1, 2, 3, 4. The specific for all forms of tertiary syphilis where there has been a mercurial course; also in combination with mercury Salicylic Acid, 2. Antiseptic application Sars...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 43
Asafoetida With Aloes, 1 Carbolic Acid, 1. Solution, gr. ij. to 3j. in doses of 3j.; or as enema Castor Oil Chloride of Ammonium, 3. To prevent accumulation of intestinal mucus, which serves as nid...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 44
Sulphides Sulphurous Acid, 3. The glycerine of the B.P. preparation assisted by epilation Turkish Bath, 1. Followed by the use of carbolic soap, instead of ordinary Viola Tricolor Zinc Chloride, 1...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 45
Trismus. Aconite Anaesthetics. To allay spasm Belladonna, 1. Extract in large doses Cannabis Indica Chloral, 4. In T. neonatorum, one grain dose by mouth or two by rectum when spasms prevent swal...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 46
Alkalies, 2. Especially effervescing drinks Alum, 3. In doses of five to ten grains in phthisis, when vomiting is brought on by cough Ammonium Carbonate Ammonio-Citrate of Iron, 1. In the vomiting ...
-Index Of Diseases And Remedies. Part 47
Collodion, 1, 3. To exclude air Conium Eucalyptus Glycerine, 1 Hamamelis, 3. On lint to restrain oozing Heat Iodine Iodoform, 3 Lead Dressings, 1 Nitrate of Silver. To destroy unhealthy granu...
-Bibliographical Index
Acids. Bertram, Z. f. Biol., xiv. p. 558 Bobrik, Konigsberger Diss., 1863 Brunton and Cash, Phil. Trans., pt. i. 1884, p. 231 Buchheim, Arch. f. physiol. Heilk., 1857, p. 122; Pfluger's Arch., Bd....
-Bibliographical Index. Part 2
Bonn, 1869; Centralbl. f. d. med. W., Bd. ix. p. 807,1871 Brodie, Phil. Trans., Lond., 1811, p. 178 Brunton, Lauder, Book of Health, Cassell & Co., p. 183; Practitioner, xvi. p. 56; Contemporary Rev...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 3
Arch., 1864, p. 320 Richet, Ch., Compt. Rend., xciii. p. 649; Arch. d. Phys. norm. et path., 1882, ii. pp. 145 and 366 Rilliet, Arch. Gen. de Med., iv. 35, 1848 Ringer, Journ. of Phys., vol. iii. p....
-Bibliographical Index. Part 4
Balfour, Tartar Emetic in Fever, Inflamm., Asthma, etc., Lond., 1818 Bocker, Beitr. z. Heilk., ii. p. 234, 1849 Brinton, Todd's Cyclop. of Anat. and Physiol., Suppl. p. 319 Buchheim u. Eisenmenger,...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 5
p. 128, u. Centralbl. f. med. Wiss., 1876 Gies, Arch. f. exp. Path. u. Pharm., Bd. viii. p. 175 Grohe, Fr., u. Fr. Mosler, Virch. Arch., Bd. xxxiv. p. 213 Herapath, Philosophical Mag., 1851, p. 345 ...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 6
Barium. Bohm u. Mickwitz, Arch. f. exp. Path. u. Pharm., 1875, Bd. iii. p. 216 Brunton and Cash, Roy. Soc. Proc, No. 226, 1883; Phil. Trans., 1884; Cent. d. med. Wiss., 1884, p. 545 Hermann, Toxic...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 7
235 Schmidt u. Chomse, in Moleschott's Unters., vi. Cadmium. Marine, Zeitschr. f. rat. Med., 1867, Bd. xxix. p. 113 Caffeine. Albers, Deutsche Klinik, 1853, p. 370 Amory, Boston Med. Journ., May ...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 8
Schmidt, T Centralbl. f. Chir., 1876, 552 Senator, Berl. klin. Wochenschr., 1876, p. 69 Sonnenburg, Deut. Zeits. f. Chir., Bd. ix. p. 356 Stadeler, Ann. d. Chein. u. Pharm., Bd. lxxxvii. p.17...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 9
Munchen, 1860 Wiscknewsky, Canstatt's Chemie, p. 116, 1867 Chloroform. Anstie, Stimulants and Narcotics, p. 321 Baudin, Le Progres Med., Sept. 1874 Bernard, Cl., Lecons sur les Anesthesiques, Par...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 10
Jahrb., clviii. p. 121 Schroff, Von, Schmidt's Jahrb., clviii. p. 211 Copaiba. Bernatzik, Prager Vierteljahrs., Bd. c. 1868, p. 239 Blanchard, Gaz. des Hop., xl. 1852 Gubler, Comment. therap. du Co...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 11
p. 191 Quevenne et Homolle, Arch, de Phys., de Therap., etc., par Bouchardat, i. 1854 Ranvier, Comptes Rendus, 1869, vol. lxix. p. 1327 Roucher, Practit., ix. p. 304, 1872 Sanders, Edin. Med. Journ.,...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 12
Journ., Dec. 18,1880 Ether Oil. Binz, Arch. f. exp. Path. u. Pharm., Bd. v. p. 109, Bd. viii. p. 50 Bohm u. Kobert, C. f. d. med. Wiss., 1879, p. 689 Grisar, Bonner Dissertation, 1873 Hogyes, Centr...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 13
Lond. Med. Rec, Nov. 1878, pp. 350 and 464 Oberlander, Centralbl. f. d. med. W., 1879, p. 336 Pelletan, Phila. Med. Times, iv. 695 Volker, G., Bull. Therap., t. lxxiii. p. 493, Dec. Ipecacuanha, vide...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 14
Jan.1870 Massage. Zabludowski, Cent. f. d. med. Wiss., 14, 1883, p. 241 Mercury. Baerensprung, Ann. d. Charite, 1856, Bd. vii. P. 2 Bamberger, Wien. med. Wochenschr., 1876, Nos. xi. u. xiv. Boec...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 15
Sept. 1873, p. 467 Arb, a. d. physiol. Inst. z. Leipzig, 1869; Journ. of Anat. and Phys., vol. v. p. 93; Lond. Clin. Soc. Reports, vol. iii. Balard, Ann. de Chimie et de Phys., xii. 1844, p. 294 Be...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 16
Organic Acids, vide Acids. Oxydimorphin Diedrich, Inaug. Diss. Gottingen, 1883 Oxygen. Afanassiev, Ber. d. k. sachs. Ges. d. Wiss., 1873 Assmuth, Dorp. Diss., 1864 Bert, Lecons sur la Respiratio...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 17
Harley, Journ. de l'Anat. et de la Phys., 1864, pp. 140-152 Harnack u. Witkowski, Arch. f. exp. Path. u. Pharm., v. 142 Hirschler, Wien. med. Woch., 13, xlii. 1863 Horing, Wurtemberg. Corresp.-Blatt,...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 18
1847, p. 292 Bauer u. Kunstle, Deutsch. Arch. f. klin. Med., Bd. xxiv. p. 53 Baxter, Buchanan, Practitioner, vol. viii. pp. 325-330 Binz, Zur Salicylsaure- u. Chininwirkung, Arch. f. exp. Path. u. ...
-Bibliographical Index. Part 19
Thierheilk., 1875, Heft ii. iii. u. vi.; 1876, Heft ii. u. iii. Fleck, Benzoesaure, Carbolsaure, Salicylsaure, Zimmetsaure, Vergl. Versuche, Munchen, 1875 Fliescher, Centralbl. f. d. med. Wiss., p....
-Bibliographical Index. Part 20
Journ. de la Phys., 1860, t. iii. pp. 130, 342 Matteucci, Traite des Phenom. electro-physiol., Paris, 1844 Meschede, Berl. klin. W., 1878, No. xxiv. Moller, Ugeskr. f. Lager, 3. R. Bd. xix. 161 Morea...
-Disorders Of Digestion: Their Consequences And Treatment
This Work contains, in addition to the Lettsomian Lectures, a number of other Papers by the Author on similar subjects. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 'Distinguished by accurate observation and original thinking, the...
-Pharmacology And Therapeutics; Or, Medicine Past And Present
Crown 8vo. 6s. 'The book is one which may be studied with benefit by all medical men, and those not belonging to the profession who desire to have an insight into some of the tendencies of modern med...
-The International Encyclopaedia Of Surgery
A Systematic Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Surgery. By Authors Of Various Nations. Edited By John Ashhurst, Jun., M.D., Professor of Clinical Surgery in the University of Pennsylvania, U.S....







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