These are small, flat, and hard, so that they can be readily carried about and melt slowly in the mouth. They are thus convenient for giving drugs which are intended to act upon the mouth or throat locally, or to be readily carried about and taken at times and in places where more bulky preparations would be inconvenient. Thus we have lozenges of chlorate of potassium, which are useful for soreness of the mouth and tongue; tannic acid and catechu, which are useful in relaxed sore-throat and hoarseness; ipecacuanha with morphine, and with opium, which are useful in coughs; bicarbonate of sodium useful before meals in dyspepsia or after meals in acidity; bismuth for irritability of the stomach; and reduced iron for debility. Bismuth, morphine, and opium are also useful in diarrhoea. In many cases it happens that although patients can take potions before, after, or with their morning and evening meals, they are unable to do so in the middle of the day when they are absent from home and engaged in various avocations. For such cases lozenges form a useful means of administering medicine.

B.P. (11).

Trochisci

Acidi Tannici.

"

Bismuthi.

"

Catechu.

"

Ferri Redacti.

"

Ipecacuanhas.

"

Morphinae.

"

Morphinas et Ipecacuanhae.

u.s.p. (16)

Trochisci

Acidi Tannici.

"

Ammonii Chloridi.

"

Catechu.

"

Cretae.

"

Cubebae.

"

Ferri.

"

Glycyrrhizae et Opii.

B.P.

Trochisci

Opii.

"

Potassii Chloratis.

"

Santonini.

"

Sodii Bicarbonatis.

U.S.P.

Trochisci

Ipecacuanhas.

"

Krameriae.

"

Magnesiae.

"

Menthae Piperitae.

"

Morphinae et Ipecacuanhae.

"

Potassii Chloratis.

"

Sodii Bicarbonatis.

"

" Santoninatis.

"

Zingiberis.

Unguenta. Ointments. - These are soft admixtures of medicines with fatty substances for external application. The basis of many of them is lard, either alone or mixed with benzoin in order to preserve it from rancidity, or mixed with white wax in the form of ointment (unguentum U.S.P.). In the B.P., simple ointment, which consists of white wax and almond oil, forms the basis of several ointments.

The semi-solid substances, obtained from American petroleum, form a useful basis for ointments, as they do not become rancid. They consist of hydrocarbons, mostly of the marsh-gas series. There are two chief varieties, one softer, having a melting point about 40° C. (104° F.), the other 51° C. (or 121° F.). They are obtained by distilling off the lighter and more volatile portions from American petroleum. They are known under different names, paraffin (B.P.), petrolatum (U.S.P.), unguentum petrolei, and vaseline.

b.p. (43).

Unguentum

Acidi Borici.

"

" Carbolici.

"

" Salicylici.

"

Aconitinae.

"

Antimonii Tartarati.

"

Atropinae.

"

Belladonnae.

"

Calaminae.

"

Cantharidis.

"

Cetacei.

"

Chrysarobini.

"

Creasoti.

"

Elemi.

"

Eucalypti.

"

Gallae.

"

" cum Opio.

"

Glycerini Plumbi Subace-tatis.

"

Hydrargyri (blue ointment).

"

" Ammoniati.

"

" Compositum.

"

" Iodidi Rubri.

"

" Nitratis.

"

" " Dilutum.

"

" Oxidi Rubri.

"

" Subchloridi.

"

Iodi.

"

Iodoformi.

"

Picis Liquidae.

U.S.P. (25).

Unguentum

Acidi Carbolici.

"

Acidi Gallici.

"

" Tannici.

"

Aquas Rosae (cold cream)..

"

Belladonnae.

"

Chrysarobini.

"

Diachylon.

"

Gallae.

"

Hydrargyri.

"

" Ammoniati.

"

" Nitratis.

"

" Oxidi Flavi.

"

" " Rubri

"

Iodi.

"

Iodoformi.

"

Mezerei.

"

Picis Liquidae.

"

Plumbi Carbonatis.

"

" Iodidi.

"

Potassii Iodidi.

"

Stramonii.

"

Sulphuris.

"

" Alkalinum.

"

Veratrinae.

"

Zinci Oxidi.

B.P.

Unguentum

Plumbi Acetatis.

"

" Carbonatis.

"

" Iodidi.

"

Potassae Sulphuratae.

"

Potassii Iodidi.

"

Resinae.

"

Sabinae.

"

Simplex.

"

Staphisagriae.

"

Sulphuris.

"

" Iodidi.

"

Terebinthinae.

"

Veratrinae.

"

Zinci.

"

" Oleati.

U.S.P