A concrete oleoresin, obtained from Pinus australis and from other species of Pinus.

Characters. - In tough, yellowish masses, brittle in the cold, crummy-crystalline in the interior, of a terebinthinate odour and taste.

Dose. - As a stimulant, antispasmodic, or diuretic, 5-30 min. As an anthelmintic, 2-4 fl. dr.

Oleum Terebinthinae, B. and U.S.P. Oil of Turpentine. The volatile oil distilled usually by the aid of steam from the oleoresin (turpentine) obtained from Pinus australis (P. palustris), Pinus Taecla, and sometimes Pinus Pinaster and Pinus sylvestris, rectified if necessary.

Characters. - Limpid, colourless, with a strong peculiar odour, and pungent and bitter taste.

Composition. - A mixture of several hydrocarbons having the composition C10H16.

Preparations.

B.P.

Dose.

Confectio Terebinthinae.....................................................................

60-120 gr.

Enema ,, ....................................................................

Linimentum ,, (vide p. 516)..............................................

„ „ Aceticum (vide p. 516)....................................

Unguentum ,, ..................................................................

U.S.P.

Linimentum Cantharidis (vide p. 517) ...............

1 part in 7.

„ Terebinthinae (vide p. 517)............

1 part in 3.

Confectio Terebinthinae. Confection of Turpentine. - Oil of turpentine, 1 fl. oz.; liquorice root, 1 oz.; honey, 2 oz.

Enema Terebinthinae. - Oil of turpentine, 1 fl. oz.; mucilage of starch, 15 fl. oz.

Action. - Oil of turpentine when applied to the skin acts as an irritant and rubefacient, causing a sensation of burning, and if applied for any length of time, especially if evaporation be prevented, it causes vesication.

When inhaled it produces sneezing, tightness across the eyes, and difficulty of breathing, caused reflexly by the local irritant action of the drug on the nasal mucous membrane.

Internally it causes burning in the mouth, and reflexly a profuse flow of saliva, and in the stomach it gives rise to a sensation either of heat or of cold. In large doses it produces gastro-enteritis with vomiting and diarrhoea. Ulceration of the intestine has been found after death from poisoning with turpentine.

After absorption it causes a rise and then a fall of blood-pressure, due to its first stimulating and afterwards paralysing the vaso-motor centres. Its effect on the pulse is uncertain, sometimes it is slowed and sometimes quickened.

Respiration becomes quickened and spasmodic. The drug is partly excreted by the lungs, and acts on the mucous membrane, lessening its secretion.

The temperature sometimes rises and sometimes falls.

It acts on the nerve-centres, lessening first the functions of the brain, causing a diminution of voluntary movement; then the functions of the cord, lowering reflex action; and lastly those of the medulla, causing dilatation of the vessels, lowered blood-pressure, and slowed respiration.

It is excreted by the kidneys. In small doses it increases the quantity of urine, to which it gives a sweetish odour resembling that of violets. In large doses it diminishes the quantity of urine and gives rise to pain in the lumbar region, burning in the urethra, painful micturition, and even haematuria. Large doses of turpentine have a purgative action.

Uses. - Externally it is used as a rubefacient and counter-irritant to relieve pain or inflammation, as in chronic rheumatism affecting either the joints or muscles, also in inflammations of internal organs, as chronic bronchitis (liniment over the chest), pleuritis, and peritonitis with tympanites (by means of hot turpentine stupes). It is also very useful as a local application in sciatica and other neuralgias. It is used as an inhalation (as well as internally) in chronic bronchitis with profuse expectoration (p. 253), and is supposed to be useful in phthisis. It has been used as a curative agent in psoriasis, after the removal of the scales by alkaline baths. Two drachms to one ounce of olive oil is a good strength to begin with; the proportion must be increased till pure oil is used, if the patient can bear the application. The treatment has, however, been almost completely superseded by chrysophanic acid and other preparations.

Internally, in haemorrhage and ulceration of the intestine, as in typhoid fever, it is very serviceable in doses of 10-60 minims every hour or two hours, the action being watched; also in haemorrhage from other organs, as the lungs, nose, uterus, kidneys; but in haematuria it must be given in very small doses (5 minims), as large ones produce harm.

As a vermifuge, to destroy tape-worm, it must be given in large doses, which are best combined with castor oil, as it then passes through the alimentary canal rapidly, and consequently is not absorbed and produces no disagreeable renal symptoms. If moderate doses are given, insufficient to produce purgation, the drug may be absorbed, and haematuria, nausea, and vomiting may ensue.

It is sometimes employed in biliary colic (1 part of oil of turpentine with three of ether).

The French oil of turpentine (old and containing ozone) is used in phosphorus-poisoning, and has been given in acute yellow atrophy of the liver. New oil of turpentine, free from ozone, is useless. Turpentine is sometimes used as an antispasmodic in hysterical affections.

B.P. Oleum Pini Sylvestris. Oil of Scotch Fir. Fir

Wool Oil. - It is a colourless liquid obtained by distilling the fresh leaves of the Scotch fir, Pinus sylvestris.

B.P. Preparation.

Vapor Olei Pini Sylvestris. - Rub fir-wool oil, 40 minims, with light carbonate of magnesium, 20 grains, and gradually add sufficient water to produce one fluid ounce.

Put one fluid drachm of this mixture with half a pint of cold water and half a pint of boiling water into an apparatus so arranged that air may be made to pass through the solution and may afterwards be inhaled.

Action. - Somewhat similar to that of oil of turpentine.

Uses. - It is used as a liniment to rheumatic joints or muscles, and is used as an addition to baths in rheumatism (p. 470). As an inhalation (at 140° F.) it is useful in sore-throat and laryngeal catarrh. The use of water which is too hot may cause loss of voice. It is a stronger stimulant than benzoin (p. 964) and is more useful in subacute or chronic cases. In acute cases the inhalation of benzoin (1 fl. dr. of compound tincture in 10 fl. oz. of warm water) is usually preferable. It is of use in chronic bronchitis, in bronchiectasis, and in phthisis with a tendency to haemorrhage.