Aquae. Waters. (16 in B.P.; 15 U.S.P.) - One is simply water, another distilled water. The others in the B.P. are water containing small quantities of volatile oils in solution, with the exception of two, aqua chloroformi and aqua laurocerasi, which contain chloroform and hydrocyanic acid respectively instead of a volatile oil. Two waters are prepared by simply dissolving the substances in them in the cold; these are aqua camphorae and aqua chloroformi. All the rest are prepared by distillation. Two are prepared by distilling the volatile oils with water; these are peppermint and spearmint waters. All the rest are prepared by distilling the plant in a retort with water and continuing the process until a certain quantity is distilled over.

In the U.S.P. aqua ammoniae, aqua ammoniae fortior, and aqua chlori consist of solutions of ammoniacal and chlorine gases in water. One, the aqua creasoti, consists of a solution of one part of creasote in 100 of water.

The others consist of volatile oils in water. Only two, aqua aurantii florum and aqua rosae, are prepared by distilling the flowers with water. The others are prepared by thoroughly distributing the requisite quantity of volatile oil through a quantity of cotton, and dissolving it in water, by allowing the latter to percolate through. Camphor is dissolved in alcohol before adding it to the cotton.

Waters are chiefly used as vehicles.

The dose of all those in the B.P. with one exception is from half an ounce to two ounces. This exception is aqua laurocerasi, which is not used as a vehicle, but is, on the contrary, a powerful drug containing hydrocyanic acid, and the dose of it is very small, 5-30 minims.

Aqua anethi is a favourite remedy for flatulence in children, and in them it is given in a dose of a teaspoonful or more.

B.P. (16).

Dose.

Aqua

"

Destillata.

"

Anethi....................

1/2-2 oz.

"

Anisi .....................

"

"

Auranti Floris .......

"

"

Camphorae ...........

"

"

Carui .....................

"

"

Chloroformi.........

"

"

Cinnamomi ............

"

"

Foeniculi ................

"

"

Laurocerasi ............

5-30 minims.

"

Menthae Piperitae....

1/2 - 2 oz.

"

Menthae Viridis......

"

"

Pimentae ................

"

"

Rosae..................

"

"

Sambuci....................

"

U.S. P. (15).

Dose.

Aqua

"

Destillata.

"

Ammoniae.............

10-30 minims

"

Ammoniae Fortior.

"

Amygdalae Amarae

2 drachms.

"

Anisi......................

1/2-2 oz.

"

Aurantii Florum......

"

"

Camphorae........

"

"

Chlori...................

"

"

Cinnamonii...........

1/2-2 fluid oz.

"

Creasoti................

1 4 drachms.

"

Foeniculi................

1-2 fluid oz.

"

Menthae Piperitae....

"

"

Menthae Viridis......

"

"

Rosae....................

"

B.P. Cataplasmata. Cataplasms or Poultices. (6.)-These are used as a means of applying externally moisture and warmth, and in certain cases medicaments, to parts of the body. They consist of linseed meal or of bread crumb, made into a paste with hot water. In one, cataplasma conii, hemlock leaf is added to relieve pain; in another, cataplasma sinapis, mustard is used to stimulate the skin; and in the cataplasma carbonis, cataplasma fermenti, and cataplasma sodae chlorinatae, wood charcoal, yeast, and chlorinated soda respectively, are added for the purpose of removing foetor or acting as disinfectants.

B.P. (6)

Cataplasma Carbonis. „ Conii.

„ Fermenti.

Cataplasma Lini.

,, Sinapis.

„ Sodae Chlorinatae.