These are strong solutions of 1 part volatile oil in 4 of rectified spirit. They are used as carminatives, and are usually given in the form of a few drops on a piece of lump sugar, or with a little hot sugar and water, in order to remove flatulence.

B.P. (2).

Dose.

Essentia

Anisi.............................................

10-20 m.

"

Menthae Piperitae........................

10-20 m.

Extracta. Extracts. - Extracts consist of the soluble parts of plants reduced to the consistence of a thick paste by extraction and evaporation. The plan of treatment adopted in order to extract the soluble parts, and leave behind the woody fibre and other inert constituents varies, according as the plant is fresh or dry.

From fresh plants, green extracts (B.P.) are obtained by evaporation of the fresh juice after removal of the coagulable albumin. From dried plants the active principles are removed by treatment with cold or boiling water, with spirit, ether, or acetic acid, and the solutions thus obtained are evaporated to a consistence suitable for making pills, or else to dryness.

Where the active principles are of a resinous or alkaloidal nature, and are more soluble in pure than in dilute spirit, alcohol or rectified spirit is used; in other cases dilute alcohol or proof spirit is employed. Where the drug contains more than one active substance and one is more soluble in spirit, and the other in water, both spirit and water are used. In order to prevent extracts which, when freshly prepared, are of a proper consistence for making pills, from becoming too dry and hard by keeping, the U.S.P. in several instances directs them to be mixed with 5 per cent. of glycerine.

b.p. (34).

Dose.

Extractum

Aconiti.................

1-2 gr.

"

Aloes Barbadensis

2-6 gr.

"

" Socotrinae...

"

"

Anthemidis...........

2-10 gr.

"

Belladonnae.........

1/4-1 gr.

"

" Alcoholicum

1/16-1/4 gr

"

Calumbae..............

2-10 gr.

"

Cannabis Indicae...

1/4-1 gr.

"

Cascarae Sagradae..

2-8 gr.

"

Colchici................

1/2-2 gr.

"

" Aceticum.

1/2-2 gr.

"

Colcynthidis Compositum

3-10 gr.

"

Conii.....................

2-6 gr.

"

Gelsemii Alcoholicum ...............

1/2-2 gr.

"

Gentianae..............

2-10 gr.

"

Glycyrrhizae..........

10-30 gr.

"

Haematoxyli...........

"

"

Hyoscyami............

5-10 gr.

"

Jaborandi..............

2-10 gr.

"

Jalapae.................

5-15 gr.

"

Krameriae.............

5-20 gr.

"

Lactucae...............

5-15 gr.

"

Lupuli..................

"

"

Mezereii aethereum

1/2-2 gr.

"

Nucis Vomicae.......

1/2-2 gr.

"

Opii..................

1/2-2 gr.

"

Papaveris................

2-5 gr.

"

Pareirae..................

10-30 gr.

"

Physostigmatis ...

1/16-1/4 gr.

"

Quassiae...............

3-5 gr.

"

Rhamni Frangulae

15-20 gr.

"

Rhei..................

5-15 gr.

"

Stramonii.............

1/4-1/2 gr.

"

Taraxaci...............

5-30 gr.

U.S.P. (31).

Dose.

Extractum

Aconiti.............

1/6-1/4gr

"

Aloes Aquosum ....

2-10 gr.

"

Arnicae Radicis.....

3-5 gr.

"

Belladonnae Alcoholicum...............

1/4 gr.

"

Cannabis Indicae...

"

"

Cinchonae.............

10-30 gr.

"

Colchici Radicis..

1-2 gr.

"

Colocynthidis.........

1/2-1 gr.

"

" Compositum......

5-30 gr.

"

Conii Alcoholicum

1/2-1 gr.

"

Digitialis...............

1/4 gr.

"

Ergotae.............

5-15 gr.

"

Euonymi............

1-3 gr.

"

Gentianae..........

10-30 gr.

"

Glycyrrhizae........

ad lib.

"

" Purum

ad lib.

"

Haematoxyli.........

10-30 gr.

"

Hyoscyami Alcoholicum.........

1-2 gr.

"

Iridis.....................

1-2 gr.

"

Juglandis...............

5-10 gr.

"

Krameriae.............

10-20 gr.

"

Leptandrae.............

20-30 gr.

"

Malti..................

1-4 dr.

"

Mezerei...................

"

Nucis Vomicae........

1/2-2 gr.

"

Opii..................

1/2-1 gr.

"

Podophylli..............

1-3 gr.

"

Physostigmatis ...

1/16-1/6 gr.

"

Quassiae.............

1-2 gr.

"

Rhei..................

5-10 gr.

"

Stromonii.................

1/4-1/2 gr.

"

Taraxaci...............

20-60 gr.

Fluid U.S.P. or Liquid B.P. Extracts. - These are made like watery extracts, excepting that instead of evaporating the infusion, decoction, or alcoholic. solution (U.S.P.) to a solid paste, it is only reduced to a small bulk, and in the B.P. some spirit is added to it in order to prevent decomposition.

B.P. (13).

Dose.

Extractum

Belae Liquidum.........................................

1 2 fluid drachms.

"

Cascarae Sagradae Liquidam....................

1/2-2 fluid drachms.

"

Cimicifugae Liquidam..............................

3 30 minims.

"

Cinchonae " ................................

10 30 minims.

"

Cocae " .................................

1/2-2 fluid drachms.

"

Erogotae " ................................

10-30 minims.

B.P.

Dose.

Extractum

Filicis Liquidum .................................

15-60 minims.

"

Glycyrrhizae " ..........................................................

60-120 minims.

"

Opii " ...................................

10 40 minims.

"

Pareirae " .........................................................

1/2-2 fluid drachms.

"

Rhamni Frangulae Liquidum.........................

1-4 fluid drachms.

"

Sarsae Liquidum .........................................

2-4 fluid drachms.

"

Taraxaci Liquidum .......................................

1/4-2 fluid drachms.

U.S.P. (79).

Dose.

Extractum

Aconiti Fluidum........................................

1/2-1 m. (0.03-0.06 c.c.).

"

Arnicae Radicis Fluidaum.......................

5-10 m. (0.3-0.6 c.c).

"

Aromaticum " ......................

10-20 m. (0.6-1.25 c.c).

"

Aurantii Amari " .....................

15-30 m. (0.9-1.9 c.c).

"

Belladonnae " ......................

1-2 m. (0.06-0.12 c.c).

"

Brayerae " ......................

1/2-1 fl. oz. (15-30 c.c).

"

Buchu " ....................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.8 c.c).

"

Calami " .....................

5 15 m. (0.3-0.9 c.c).

"

Calumbae " ....................

15-30 m. (0.9-1.9 c.c).

"

Cannabis Indicae " ....................

1/2-1 m. (0.03-0.06 c.c).

"

Capsici " ......................

1/2-l m. (0.03-0.06 c.c).

"

Castaneae " .......................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c)

"

Chimphilae " ......................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Chiratae " .............................

1/2 fl. dr. (1.9 c.c).

"

Cimicifugae " ............................

1/2-1 fl. dr. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Cinchonae " ............................

1/4 2 fl. oz. (7.5-60 c.c).

"

Colchici Radicis " ...........................

2-8 m. (0.12-0.5 c.c).

"

" Seminis " ...........................

2 8 m. (0.12-0.5 c.c).

"

Conii " ...........................

5 m. (0.3 c.c).

"

Cornus " ...........................

30 m. (1.9 c.c).

"

Cubebae " ...........................

10 40 m. (0.6-2.5 c.c).

"

Cypripedii " ...........................

15 m. (0.9 c.c).

"

Digitalis " ............................

12 m. (0.06-0.12 c.c).

"

Dulcamarae " ...........................

30 60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Ergotae " ............................

1/2-4 fl. dr. (1.9-15 c.c).

"

Erythroxyli " .............................

20 60 m. (1.25-3.75 c.c).

"

Eucalypti " ................................................

5-10 m. (0.3-0.6 c.c).

"

Eupatorri " ...........................

20-60 m. (1.25-3.75 c.c).

"

Frangulae " ............................

10 20 m. (0.6-25 c.c).

"

Gelsemii " ................................................

2 3 m. (0.2-0.8 c.c).

"

Gentianae " ............................

10 30 m. (0.6-1.9 c.c).

"

Geranii " ............................

30 60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Glycyrrhizae " .............................

30-120 m. (1.9-7.5 c.c).

"

Gossypii Radicis " ............................

30 60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Grindeliae " .............................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Guaranae " ............................

1 2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Hamamelidis " ...........................

30 m. (1.9 c.c).

"

Hydrastis " ............................

1 2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Hyoscyami " ............................

5 m. (0.3 c.c).

"

Ipecacuanhae " ............................

15-30 m. (0.9-1.9 c.c).

"

Iridis " ..........................

5 10 m. (0.3-0.6 c.c).

"

Krameriae " ..........................

10 60 m. (0.6-3.75 c.c).

"

Lactucarii " ..........................

5-30 m. (0.3-1.9 c.c).

"

Leptandrae " ..........................

20-60 m. (1.25-3.75 c.c).

"

Lobeliae " ............................

10 20 m. (0.6-1.25 c.c).

"

Lubulini " ............................

10 15 m. (0.6-0.9 c.c).

"

Maticae " .............................

30 60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Mezerei " ...........................

for external use.

"

Nucis Vomicae " ...........................

3-5 m. (0.18-0.3 c.c).

"

Pareirae " ............................

1 2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Pilocarpi " ............................

15-30 m. (0.9-1.9 c.c).

"

Podophylli " ..........................

5 15 m. (0.3-0.9 c.c.)

"

Purni Virginianae " ..........................

30 60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

U.S.P.

Dose.

Extractum

Quassiae Fluidum .............................

5-10 m. (0.3-0.6 c.c).

"

Rhei " ............................

5 30 m. (0.3-1.9 c.c).

"

Rhois Glabrae " ............................

for external use.

"

Rosae " ............................

1 2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Rubi " ............................

1/2-1 dr. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Rumicis " ............................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Sabinae " .............................

3 8 m. (0.18-0.5 c.c).

"

Sanguinariae " .............................

3 5 m. (0.18-0.3 c.c).

"

Sarsaparillae

2 4 fl. dr. (7.5-15 c.c).

"

Sarsaparillae

Compositum " ............................

30 60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Scillae " ..........................

1 3 m. (0.12-0-18 c.c).

"

Scutellariae " ...........................

30 60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Senegae " ..........................

15 m. (0.06-0.3 c.c).

"

Sennae " ...........................

1- 4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

Serpentariae " ..........................

20-30 m. (1.25-1.9 c.c).

"

Spigeliae " ...........................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Stillingiae " ...........................

15-45 m. (0.9-2.8 c.c).

"

Stramonii " ............................

1-2 m. (0.06-0.12 c.c).

"

Taraxaci " ...........................

1 3 fl. dr. (3.75-11.25 c.c).

"

Tritici " ..........................

3 6 fl. dr. (11.25-22.5 c.c).

"

Uvae Ursi " ..........................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Valerianae " ...........................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Veratri Viridis " ...........................

1 2 m. (0.06-0.12 c.c).

"

Viburni " ...........................

30 60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Xanthoxyli " ..........................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Zingiberis " ...........................

10-20 m. (0.6-1.25 c.c).