A soap made with soda and a purified animal fat, consisting principally of stearin.

Characters. - White or with a very light greyish tint; dry; nearly inodorous; horny and pulverisable when kept in dry, warm air. Easily moulded when heated. It does not impart a greasy stain to paper.

Solubility. - Soluble in rectified spirit; soluble also in hot water, the solution being neutral or only slightly alkaline to test-paper.

Preparations in which Curd Soap is used.

Emplastrum Resinae. „ Saponis.

„ „ Fuscum.

Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum. Linimentum Potassii Iodidi cum Sapone (vide p. 516). Pilula Phosphori (vide p. 522).

„ Scammonii Composita (vide p. 523). Suppositoria Acidi Carbolici cum Sapone. „ Morphinas cum Sapone.

„ Acidi Tannici cum Sapone.

B.P. Lac. Milk. - The fresh milk of the cow, Bos Taurus. Composition. - Fat (butter), casein, milk, sugar, and water.

Preparation in which Milk is used. Mistura Scammonii.

Uses. - Milk is not, strictly speaking, a medicine, but rather an article of diet: it, however, plays an important part in medicine, as we rely on it to a great extent in cases of fever and dyspepsia.

Great attention ought to be paid to the milk given to infants if they are fed from the bottle, for the milk may begin to ferment before it reaches the stomach, and, if it does, it is likely to cause vomiting and diarrhoea, and may even act as a nervous poison, paralysing the nerve-centres. The best way to prevent this is not to have any tubes to the bottles, but to have the teat fixed directly to the bottle, and to scald the bottle well after every meal. The teats should also be soaked in some antiseptic, such as permanganate of potassium and water, when not in use. When milk is drunk in any quantity, the rennet-ferment in the stomach produces large curds, which are sometimes hard like felt, and are very indigestible and irritating to the stomach; hence, in typhoid fever, the possibility of these curds should be borne in mind. The milk will not readily curdle if mixed with its own bulk of water or soda-water, or (if diarrhoea be present) with lime-water. One may often with advantage use koumiss, which is made in the steppes of Tartary by fermenting mares' milk. Phthisis is so rare in Tartary, that Russians suffering from it go to the steppes, and numbers have been cured. No doubt other factors aid the cure, such as climate and change of air; but even in the same conditions of life koumiss often helps to keep the disease in check. It can be made artificially from grape-sugar and cows' milk which is allowed to ferment. It is a good stimulant. It contains lactic acid, alcohol, casein, and fat thrown down in small flakes. Kephir is made by fermenting the milk of cows, sheep, or goats; it is very much like koumiss, and may be used for the same purposes. It contains alcohol.

1 Liebreich, 'Ueber den med. Gebrauch des Lanolin,' Deutsch. med. Wochen-schrift, 1886, No. 28.

Milk may be used with ferments such as pepsin or pancrea-tin. The mixture is allowed to stand for a time, and then boiled to stop the fermentation.

Cows' milk diluted with one or more parts of water and a little milk-sugar added, forms a good substitute for human milk as food for infants.