Uses. - It may be used wherever it is desirable to destroy germs and stop processes of putrefaction or fermentation in the intestine. It has proved useful in typhoid fever, diarrhoea, acute and chronic, vomiting and diarrhoea in children, and tubercular diarrhoea. During its excretion by the kidneys the urine is rendered aseptic by it or by the products of its decomposition, and it is therefore useful in vesical catarrh.1 It is possible that it may be useful in cholera.

Naphthol. C10H7OH. - There are several kinds of naphthol. The only one hitherto used is the beta- or iso-naphthol. Not officinal.

Characters. - In white crystals with a somewhat agreeable smell.

Solubility. - Sparingly soluble even in hot water. Soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform, in olive oil and vaseline.

Action and Uses. - It has a therapeutic action on the skin like tar, and may be applied as ointment in the strength of 1 to 5 per cent., for children not over 2 per cent. It is useful in hyperidrosis (Kaposi). It is used in scabies, eczema, and local sweating. It may be applied in 1/2 to 5 per cent. alcoholic solution, or as an ointment (10 per cent.). When absorbed it causes vomiting, loss of consciousness, convulsions, and haematuria.

Hydrochlorate of Rosaniline. Synonyms: Fuchsin, Magenta, Roseine, Aniline Red. C20H19N3HC1. Not officinal. Characters. - Elongated crystals with a brilliant green lustre.

1 Rossbach, Berlin, klin. Wochenschr., 1884, Nos. 24, 42, 46.

Solubility. - It is readily soluble in water, giving a bright red solution.

Preparation. - Rosaniline is a colourless substance, prepared by acting on aniline with oxidising agents, such as arsenic acid. The compounds of rosaniline with monobasic acids have brilliant colours.

Dose. - 1/2 - 4 grs.

Actions. - Rosaniline hydrochlorate, when perfectly pure, is said to have no marked physiological action. Fabrics dyed with it have acted as local irritants, producing eczema; but it is probable that this effect may be due, at least in great part, to the presence of arsenic. When given internally it has produced salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, and when injected into the veins it has caused trembling, staggering, albuminuria, and fatty degeneration of the kidneys. These symptoms may possibly be due to the presence of aniline or of arsenic as impurities. It is excreted by the kidneys, saliva, and bile, and probably also by the intestinal mucous membrane. It gives a magenta colour to the urine.

Use. - To lessen or remove albumin from the urine in albuminuria.

Pyridine. C5H6N (p. 810). Not officinal.

Characters. - A colourless liquid with a powerful odour. It evaporates when exposed to the air, and mixes with water in all proportions. Like chinoline it forms salts.

Dose. - 4-5 gm., allowed to evaporate in an open dish in a room of 25 cubic metres capacity. The patient must be exposed to the vapour for twenty to thirty minutes three times a day.1

Action. - (See also p. 811.) According to See it has been found by experiments on animals to diminish the reflex activity of the spinal cord and respiratory centre.

Uses. - On account of its sedative action upon the respiratory centre, pyridine has been used in the manner described with beneficial effect in cases of asthma; the emphysematous and cardiac forms as well as the purely nervous seem to be benefited.

Chinoline. C9H7N (p. 811). Not officinal.

Characters. - A colourless liquid with an aromatic odour. It forms crystalline salts.

Dose. - Of the tartrate 7-15 grs. (0.5-l gm.).

Action. - It is a powerful antiseptic and antipyretic. In moderate doses it lowers the temperature and pulse-rate. In large doses it produces languor, diminished reflex excitability, dyspnoea, paralysis and collapse (vide p. 811).

Uses. - It has been used in typhoid fever, rheumatism, and erysipelas, apparently with benefit. It is little used in pneumonia; and in phthisis it is apt to irritate the stomach and produce collapse.

1 Germain See, Comptes Rend. Ac. Scien., 1886.

Kairin. Hydro-chlorate of oxy-ethyl-chinoline Hydride. Not officinal.

Dose. - 3-30 grs. Best given in wafer-paper or a capsule.

Action. - It is a powerful antipyretic.

Uses. - Used in febrile conditions to lower the temperature. Filehne recommends that doses of 8 grains should be given every hour at first for four times or until the temperature has fallen to 100°F. If the temperature falls after four doses, 4 grains should be given hourly until the temperature again begins to rise, when the dose should be increased. If the temperature has not fallen to 100° after four doses of 8 grains, 12 or 16 grains should be given hourly, until the temperature of 100° F. is reached, when the dose should be lowered as before. Like resorcin, it produces profuse sweating.

Antipyrin. Not officinal. A synthetically prepared alkaloid. There are two substances bearing this name, viz. methyl-oxy-chinicine and dimethyl-oxy-chinicine. The latter is the commercial drug.

Chinicine or quinicine is a hypothetical base. The supposed constitution of chinicine and methyl-oxy-chinicine may be thus graphically represented : -

Chinicine or Quinicine

Chinicine or Quinicine.

Methyl oxy chinieine

Methyl-oxy-chinieine.

Solubility. - It is very readily soluble in water, with a sweetish bitter and rather pleasant taste.

Reactions. - Its solutions give with ferric chloride a deep red, and with nitrous acid a greenish blue colour.

Dose. - Thirty grains hourly for three hours. For children a grain and a half for every year of the child's age may be given hourly for three hours. If it causes vomiting it may be dissolved in half its weight of hot water and injected subcuta-neously.

Action. - It reduces the febrile temperature for several (1-20) hours when given as above in two or three doses (vide p. 419), and when its effect has passed off, the rise of temperature which then occurs is less frequently accompanied by rigor than is the case with kairin. It causes profuse perspiration. It slightly increases the blood-pressure. It has no action on the respiration. It is excreted in the urine. It sometimes, though rarely, causes vomiting, and very seldom causes collapse.

Uses. - In febrile diseases generally. It seems specially useful in typhoid fever and phthisis, but is also useful in erysipelas, surgical fever, pleurisy, and pneumonia.

Thallin. Not officinal. A synthetically prepared alkaloid. It is chemically tetrahydro-paramethyl-oxy-chinolin.

Characters. - A colourless powder, with a taste and smell reminding one of meadow-sweet.

Solubility and Reaction. - It is soluble in water and gives an emerald green colour with perchloride of iron, whence its name.

Dose. - 5 grains or more.

Action. - It is a powerful antipyretic (p. 419), but does not appear to be quite so good as antipyrin.

Antifebrin. Phenylacetamide. C6H5.C2H3O.NH. Not officinal.

Characters. - A pure white crystalline powder; odourless, and producing a slight burning sensation on the tongue; neutral in reaction. It melts at 113° C. and distils at 292° C.

Preparation. - By the action of glacial acetic acid upon anilin. Solubility. - It is soluble in 189 parts of water at 6° C, more soluble in boiling water, freely soluble in alcohol, in wine, and in ether.

Dose. - 1/4-1 gm., not exceeding 2 gms. in the twenty-four hours.

Action and Uses. - Antifebrin seems not to be poisonous to dogs and guinea-pigs when given in relatively large doses. It has been introduced as an antipyretic in man, and has been given in typhoid fever, erysipelas,1 rheumatic fever, and other febrile conditions. It reduces the temperature rapidly, the effect lasting from three to seven hours, according to the size of the dose; the pulse is slowed, and the patient often falls into a quiet sleep.2 No vomiting or diarrhoea has been noticed, but there is some tendency to collapse. A quarter of a gramme of antifebrin is said to have the same effect as one gramme of antipyrin.

Saccharine. Benzoyl-sulphonic-imide. C6H4(CO)(SO2)NH. Not officinal.

Characters. - A white amorphous powder, crystallisable from hot aqueous solutions, with a very sweet taste and faint flavour of bitter almonds. It melts at 200° C, with partial decomposition.

Solubility. - With difficulty soluble in cold, more soluble in hot, water. Readily soluble in alcohol and ether. As sugar is not soluble in ether, this reagent may be employed to separate a mixture of saccharine and sugar.

1 In one case of erysipelas I found two doses of 7 grains each with an interval of two hours reduce the temperature below normal and cause some tendency to collapse; in another case, 2 grs. every 2 hours reduced the temperature slowly and steadily without collapse.

2 Calm and Hepp, Central, f. klin. Med., Aug. 14, 1886.

Preparation. - Acting on toluene, C6H5CH3, by sulphuric acid at 100° C, by which toluene sulphonic acids (ortho and para) are formed; the sodium salts of these are next prepared and converted into sulphonic chlorides. The ortho-chloride is changed into the amide by ammonium carbonate and the amide oxidised, and then treated with a dilute mineral acid; saccharine is precipitated.1

Action and Uses. - Saccharine is antiseptic. It is said to be quite innocuous to dogs, even in large doses, but it is not a food, like sugar. From its sweet taste, 220 times stronger than that of sugar, it may prove a useful substitute for sugar in cases of diabetes. It has no injurious action in man, nor, like salicylate of sodium, has it any curative action in diabetes.

1 For full details of this process, see Roscoe, 'Recent Progress in Coal-tar Industry,' Boy. Inst. Proc, 1886.