B.P. (5)

Resina.

,, Guaiaci. „ Jalapae. ,, Podophylli. „ Scammoniae.

u.s.p. (5).

Resina Copaibae.

„ Jalapae.

„ Podophylli.

„ Scammonii. Guaiaci Resina.

Spiritus. Spirits. - With the exception of rectified and proof spirit, these are alcoholic solutions of volatile oils or ethers. The dose is 1/2 to 1 fluid drachm, except where otherwise mentioned, and except in the case of brandy, rum, and whisky, the doses of which vary very much, according to the purpose for which they are used.

B.P. (18).

Dose.

Spiritus

aetheris........................................

30-90 min.

"

" Compositus......................

.1/2-2 fluid drachms.

"

" Nitrosi..............................

"

Ammoniae Aromaticus.................

"

" Foetidus..........................

"

Armoracia Compositus................

1-2 fluid drachms.

"

Cajuputi........................................

"

Camphorae...................................

10-30 min.

"

Chlorformi...................................

10-60 min.

"

Cinnamomi..................................

"

Juniperi........................................

1/2-1 1/2 fluid drachms.

"

Lavandulae.................................

"

Menthae Piperitae......................

"

Myristicae..................................

"

Rectificatus...............................

"

Rosmarini.................................

10-60 min.

"

Tenuior....................................

"

Vini Gallici..............................

U.S.P. (22).

Dose.

Spiritus

aetheris....................................

1 3 fluid drachms (3.75-11.25 c.c.).

"

" Compositus................

1/2-2 fluid drachms (1.0-7.5 c.c).

"

" Nitrosi.......................

30-60 min. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Ammoniae..............................

10-30 min. (0.6-1.9 c.c).

"

" Aromaticus.............

30-60 min. (1.9-3.75 c:c).

"

Ansi.......................................

1-2 fluid drachms (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Aurantii................................

1-2 fluid drachms (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Camphorae...........................

5-60 min. (0.3-3.75 c.c).

"

Chloroformi..........................

10 60 min. (0.6-3.75 c.c).

"

Cinnamomi...........................

10-20 min. (0.6-1.25 c.c).

"

Frumenti (Whisky)...............

U.S.P.

Dose.

Spiritus

Gaultheriae......................................

10 20 min. (0.6 -1.25 c.c).

"

Juniperi............................................

30-60 min. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

" Compositus.........................

2-4 fluid drachms (7.5-15 c.c).

"

Lavandulae.....................................

30-60 min. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Limonis.........................................

"

Menthae Piperitae.........................

10-20 min. (0.6-1.25 c.c).

"

" Viridis...........................

30-40 min. (1.9-2.5 c.c).

"

Myrciae (Bay Run)......................

"

Myristicae....................................

1 fluid drachm (3.75 c.c).

"

Odoratus (Cologne Water)..........

"

Vini Gallici...................................

Suppositoria. Suppositories. - These are small conical masses for introducing drugs into the rectum (p. 484). They are used either to produce a local action on the rectum itself, or on the adjoining pelvic organs, such as the uterus or the bladder; or to introduce certain drugs into the body when we wish to avoid any local action on the stomach.

Thus the morphine suppositories may be used for their general action in inducing sleep, or for their local action in soothing pain or irritation in the rectum or pelvic organs, or to check diarrhoea. The compound lead suppository may be used in diarrhoea for its local action on the rectum, and likewise for its general action in checking bleeding from the lungs, etc. The same may be said of the mercurial suppository. The others are more intended for local action.

The basis of the suppositories is cacao-butter (oil of theo-broma), excepting in those where, as their name indicates, curd soap is used along with glycerine of starch.

B.P. (8)

Suppositoria Acidi Carbolici cum Sapone. „ „ Tannici.

„ „ „ cum Sapone.

Hydrargyri. „ Iodoformi.

„ Morphinae.

„ „ cum Sapone.

„ Plumbi Composita.

In the U.S.P. no special suppositories are named, but a formula is given for their preparation. The quantity of the medicine required, brought to a proper consistency if necessary, is to be mixed with a small quantity of oil of theobroma by rubbing together, and then sufficient oil of theobroma previously melted and cooled to the temperature of 35° C. (95° F.) is to be mixed thoroughly with it, and immediately poured into suitable moulds cooled by ice. In the absence of moulds the mass is to be divided into parts of a definite weight, which are to be made into a convenient form for a suppository. Unless otherwise specified, they should weigh fifteen grains or one gramme.

Succi. Juices. - These consist of the fresh juices of the plant, which are mixed with a sufficient quantity of spirit to prevent them from decomposing, except in the case of lemon, mulberry, and buckthorn juice, to which no alcohol is added.

B.P. (7)

Succus Belladonnae. „ Conii. „ Hyoscyami. „ Scoparii.

Succus Taraxaci. ,, Limonis. „ Mori.

U.S.P

Succus Limonis.

Syrupi. Syrups. - These are strong solutions of sugar; many of them contain flavouring or colouring matters, and are used to make medicines more agreeable to the eye or palate.

In the case of the syrups containing ferrous salts the sugar prevents oxidation, and thus preserves the preparation from decomposition.

B.P. (17) Dose

All 1 fluid drachm except those specially marked.

Syrupus.

"

Aurantii........................................

"

" Floris..............................

"

Chloral.........................................

1/2-2 fluid drachms.

"

Ferri Iodidi..................................

1/2-1 fluid drachm.

"

" Phophatis...........................

"

Hemidesmi................................

"

Limonis.....................................

"

Mori..........................................

"

Papaveris..................................

"

Rhei...........................................

1-4 fluid drachms.

"

Rhoeados...................................

"

Rosae Gallicae..........................

"

Scillae........................................

1/2-1 fluid drachm.

"

Sennae.......................................

1-4 fluid drachms.

"

Tolutanus..................................

"

Zingiberis.................................

1/2-1 fluid drachm.

U.S.P. (33).

Dose.

Syrupus

Acaciae...............................................

"

Acid Citrici.........................................

"

" Hydriodici.................................

1-4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c.).

"

Allii......................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Altheae................................................

1-4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

Amygalae............................................

"

Aurantii...............................................

"

" Florum..................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Calcii Lactophosphatis.......................

2-4 fl. dr. (7.5-15 c.c).

"

Calcis..................................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Ferri Bromidi.......................................

1/2-1 fl. dr. (1.9-3.15 c.c).

"

" Iodidi.........................................

15-30 m. (0.9-1.9 c.c).

"

" Quininae et Strychninae

Phosphatum.......................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Hypophosphatum...............................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

" cum Ferro................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

Ipecacuanhaae...................................

(Emetic) 1/2.1 oz. (15-30 c.c).

"

(Expectorant) 30-00m. (1-9-3-75 c.c).

"

Krameriae..........................................

1/2 fl. oz. (15 c.c).

"

Lactucarri..........................................

2-3 fl. dr. (7.5-11.25 c.c).

"

Limonis...............................................

"

Picis Liquidae....................................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Pruni Virginianae................................

1/2 fl. oz. (15 c.c).

U.S.P.

Dose.

Syrupus

Rhei.........................................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c.).

"

" Aromaticus...................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Rosae.....................................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Rubi........................................................

1 2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

" Idaei................................................

"

Sarsaparillae Compositus.....................

1/2 fl. oz. (15 c.c).

"

Scillae....................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

" Compositus.......................................

(Expectorant) 20-30m. (1.25-1.9 c.c).

"

Senegae.....................................................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Sennae......................................................

1-4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

Tolutanus.................................................

"

Zingibeirs................................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

B.P. Tabellae. Tablets of chocolate each weighing 2 1/2 grains, containing an active substance. The only officinal ones are tablets of nitroglycerine, containing 1/100th grain of pure nitroglycerine in each.

B.P.

Dose.

Tabellae Nitroglycerini...................................

1 or two tablets.

Tincturae. Tinctures. - These are solutions of active principles in spirit. Rectified spirit, or alcohol, is used whenever the active principle is more soluble in strong than in dilute alcohol, as in the case of alkaloids, such as of veratrum viride; resins, such as asafoetida, benzoin, and Indian hemp; oils, such as those of cubebs, lavender, tolu, orange peel, larch bark, and ginger; and other substances, such as chloroform, acetate of iron, perchloride of iron, iodine, kino.

Aromatic spirit of ammonia is used in the ammoniated tincture of guaiac, of valerian, and of opium (B.P. and U.S.P.). In the case of guaiac and valerian the active principles have an acid character, and so ammonia tends to dissolve them more completely. In both of them, however, as well as in ammoniated tincture of opium, the ammonia has got a stimulating action of its own, which tends to aid the effect of the other substances.

Tinctures of fresh herbs (Tincturae Herbarum recentium), when not otherwise directed, are, according to the U.S.P., to be prepared by macerating fifty parts of the fresh herb bruised or crushed in a hundred parts of alcohol for fourteen days, then expressing the liquid, and filtering.

b.p. (72).

Dose

The usual dose is 1/2-2 fl. dr. unless otherwise mentioned.

Tinctura

Aconiti...............................................

1 10 mm.

"

Aloes.................................................

"

Arnicae..............................................

"

Asafoetidae.........................................

1/2-1 1 fluid drachm.

"

Aurantii..............................................

"

" Recentis................................

"

Belladonnas...........................

5-20 min.

"

Buchu....................................................

1/2-1 fluid drachm.

"

Calumbae..............................................

"

Calumbae..............................

"

Camphorae Composita............................

15 min.-l fluid drachm.

"

Cannabis Indicae...................................

5-20 min.

B.P.

Dose.

Tinctura

Cantharidis.................................

5-20 min.

"

Capsici.......................................

5-20 min.

"

Cardamomi Composita.............

"

Cascarillae...............................

"

Catechu...................................

"

Chiratae..................................

"

Chloroformi Composita.........

10-60 min.

"

" et Morsphinae.........

5-10 min.

"

Cimicifugae.................................

15-60 min.

"

Cinchonae...................................

"

" Composita..................

"

Cinnamomi.................................

"

Cocci............................................

"

Colchici Seminum........................

10-30 min.

"

Conii......................................

10-60 min.

"

Croci.............................................

"

Cubebae........................................

"

Digitalis........................................

5-30 min.

"

Erogotae.......................................

10-60 min.

"

Ferri Acetatis...............................

5-30 min.

"

" Perchloridi.........................

5-30 min.

"

Gallae............................................................................

"

Gelsemii......................................

5-20 min.

"

Gentianae Composita...................

"

Guaiaci Ammoniata.....................

1/2-1 fluid drachm.

"

Hyoscyami....................................

1/2-1 fluid drachm.

"

Iodi.................................................

5-20 min.

"

Jaborandi.......................................

1/2-1 fluid drachm.

"

Jalapae.........................................

"

Kino...............................................

"

Krameriae......................................

"

Laricis...........................................

15-30 min.

"

Lavandulae Composita.................

"

Limonis..........................................

"

Lobeliae..........................................

10-30 min.

"

" aetherea............................

10-30 min.

"

Lupuli............................................

"

Myrrhae.........................................

30-60 min.

"

Nucis Vomicae..............................

10-30 min.

"

Opii.................................................

5-40 min.

"

" Ammoniata...........................

30-60 min.

"

Podophylli.....................................

15-60 min.

"

Pyretheri........................................

"

Quassiae........................................

"

Quininae.......................................

"

" Ammoniata...................

"

Rhei..............................................

(Stomachic) 1/2-2 fluid drachms.

"

" ............................................

(Purgative) 4-8 fluid drachms.

"

Sabinae.........................................

10-60 min.

"

Scillae...............................................

10-30 min.

"

Senegae.........................................

"

Sennae...........................................

1 fluid drachm to 4 fluid oz.

"

Serpentariae...................................

"

Stramonii........................................

10-30 min.

"

Sumbul..........................................

10-30 min.

"

Tolutanna......................................

10-30 min. or more.

"

Valerianae.....................................

"

" Ammoniata..................

1/2-1 drachm.

"

Veratri Viridis...............................

5-20 min.

"

Zingiberis.....................................

10-60 min.

"

" Fortior........................

5-20 min.

Tincture of Litmus, in Appendix, used as a test.

U.S.P. (73)

Dose.

Tinctura

Aconiti............................................

1-3 m. (0.06-0.18 c.c).

"

Aloes................................................

(As laxative) 1/2-1 fl. dr.

"

" ..............................................

(As purgative) 2-4 fl. dr.

"

" et, Myrrhae............................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Arnicae Florum................................

10-30 m. (0.6-1.9 c.c).

"

" Radicis ................................

20-30 m. (1.25-1.9 c.c).

"

Asafoetidae......................................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Aurantii Amari................................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

" Dulcis...............................

"

Belladonnae......................................

15-30 m. (0.9-1.9 c.c).

"

Benzoini..........................................

20-30 m. (1.25-1.9 c.c).

"

" Composita...........................

1/2-2 fl. dr. (1.9-7.5 c.c).

"

Bryoniae..........................................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Calendulae........................................

"

Calumbae..........................................

1-4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

Cannabis Indicae...............................

30 m. (1.9 c.c).

"

Cantharidis........................................

3-10 m. (0.07-0.30 c.c).

"

Capsici..............................................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.7 c.c).

"

Cardamomi......................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

" Composita......................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Catechu Composita..........................

1/2-3 fl. dr. (1.9-11.25 c.c).

"

Chiratae...........................................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Cimicifugae....................................

1-4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

Cinchonae.......................................

1-4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

" Composita........................

1-4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

Cinnamomi......................................

1-4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

Colchici...........................................

1/2-2 fl. dr. (1.9-7.5 c.c).

"

Conii.................................................

30 m. (1.9 c.c.) to be increased.

"

Croci.................................................

1-3 fl. dr. (3.75-11.25 c.c).

"

Cubebae...........................................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Digitalis...........................................

10 20 m. (0.6-1.25 c.c).

"

Ferri Acetatis..................................

20-60 m. (1.25-3.75 c.c).

"

" Chloridi.................................

10-30 m. (0.6-1.9 c.c).

"

Gallae.............................................

1-3 fl. dr. (3.75-11.25 c.c).

"

Gelsemii.........................................

10-20 m. (0.6-1.25 c.c).

"

Gentianae Composita.....................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-75 c.c).

"

Guaiaci ...........................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

" Ammoniata.......................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Herbarum Recentium...................

"

Humuli.........................................

1-3 fl. dr. (3.75-11.25 c.c).

"

Hydrastis.....................................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Hyoscyami...................................

60 m. (3.75 c.c).

"

Ignatiae...........................................

15-20 m. (0.9-1.25 c.c).

"

Iodi.................................................

5-15 m. (0.3-0.9 c.c).

"

Ipecacuanhae et Opii......................

10 m. (0.6 c.c).

"

Kino................................................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Krameriae.......................................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Lavandulae Composita..................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Lobeliae...........................................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Maticae............................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Moschi...........................................

1/2-2 fl. dr. (1.9-7.5 c.c).

"

Myrrhae..........................................

15-30 m. (0.9-1.9 c.c).

"

Nucis Vomicae...............................

20 m. (1.25 c.c).

"

Opii..................................................

11 m. (0.65 c.c.) or 22 drops.

"

" Camphorata.............................

1-4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

" Deodorata................................

11 m. (0.65 c.c).

"

Physostigmatis................................

20-40 m. (1.25-2.5 c.c).

"

Pyrethri...........................................

"

Quassiae..........................................

1 fl. dr. (3.75 c.c).

"

Rhei..................................................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

" Aromatica................................

1/2-1 fl. dr. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

" Dulcis........................................

2-3 fl. dr. (7.5-11.25 c.c).

"

Sanguinariae.....................................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

U.S.P.

Dose.

Tinctura

Saponis Viridis..................................

"

Scillae.....................................................

10-10 m. (0.6-1.25 c.c).

"

Serpentariae.....................................

14-1 dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

Stramonii..........................................

20-30 m. (1.25-1.9 c.c).

"

Sumbul.............................................

20-60 m. (1.2-3.7 c.c).

"

Tolutana...........................................

1-2 fl. dr. (3.75-7.5 c.c).

"

Valerianae.........................................

1-4 fl. dr. (3.75-15 c.c).

"

" Ammoniata.....................

30-60 m. (1.9-3.75 c.c).

"

Vanillae...........................................

"

Veratri Viridis.................................

3-8 m. (0.18-0.5 c.c).

"

Zingiberis..........................................

8-40 m. (0.5-2.5 c.c).