This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
Synonyms. - Gum Camphor, Laurel Camphor, C10Hi6o =151.66. A stearopten (having the nature of a ketone) obtained from Cin-namomum Camphora) (Linne) Nees et Ebermaier (nat. ord. Laurineae), and purified by sublimation.
China and Japan.
The branches and chipped wood are exposed to the vapors of boiling water, the volatilized Camphor is condensed, drained and pressed from the adherent volatile oil (Oil of Camphor), and subsequently refined by sublimation in vessels of glass or iron. Camphor is now obtained by tapping the trees and collecting the exudation.
White, translucent masses, of a tough consistence and a crystalline structure, readily pulverizable in the presence of a little Alcohol, Ether, or Chloroform, having a penetrating, characteristic odor, and a pun-gently aromatic taste. Sp. gr., 0.995. Burns with a smoky flame. Volatilizes slowly at ordinary temperatures. Sublimes entirely when heated.
Very sparingly soluble in water, but readily soluble in Alcohol, Ether, Chloroform, Carbon Disulphide, Benzin, and in fixed and volatile oils. When Camphor is triturated in about molecular proportions with Menthol, Thymol, Phenol, or Chloral hydrate, liquefaction ensues.
Camphor is an oxidation product of Pinene (see Oil of Turpentine, p. 515), and may also be derived from Cymene found in Oil of Caraway see p. 551 and Oil of Eucalyptus see p. 527. The official camphor is called Laurel Camphor, and is dextro-rotary. Borneol, known as Borneo, Sumatra or Barus Camphor, see p. 557, - is often in commerce substituted for the official camphor, which it closely resembles, is derived from Dryobalanops Camphora, and known from the official variety by sinking in water - is C10H18O; that is to say, an alcohol. The common form of Borneol is dextro-rotary, but laevo-rotary and inactive varieties are known.
Dose, 3 to 20 gr.; .20 to 1.20 gm.
1. Aqua Camphorae. - Camphor Water. Camphor, 8; by trituration with Alcohol, 5; and precipitated Calcium Phosphate, 5; addition of Water, and filtration to 1000.
Dose, 1/2 to 2 fl. oz.; 15. to 60. c.c.
2. Linimentum Camphorae. - Camphor Liniment. Synonym.- Camphorated Oil. Camphor, 200; Cotton Seed Oil, 800.
3. Spiritus Camphorae. - Spirit of Camphor. Camphor, 100; Alcohol to 1000. By solution and filtration.
4. Ceratum Camphorae. - Camphor Cerate. Camphor Liniment, 100; White Wax, 300; Lard, 600.
By heating Bromine and Camphor, at 172o F.; 77.7° C, solution in Benzin, and re-crystallization from hot Alcohol. C10H16O+2Br=C10 H15BrO+HBr.
Colorless, prismatic needles or scales, having a mild, camphoraceous odor and taste, permanent in the air, unaffected by light, and neutral to litmus paper.
Almost insoluble in water; freely soluble in Alcohol, Ether, Chloroform, hot Benzin, and fixed and volatile oils; slightly soluble in Glycerin. It is also soluble without decomposition in cold, concentrated Sulphuric Acid, from which it separates again unaltered, when the solution is poured into water.
Dose, 2 to 10 gr.; .12 to .60 gm.
Acidum Camphoricum. (Not official) - Camphoric Acid.
From Camphor by oxidation with Nitric Acid.
White, acicular, odorless crystals having a faintly acid taste.
Nearly insoluble in cold, readily soluble in hot water, Alcohol, Ether and oils.
Dose, 10 to 30 gr.; .60 to 2.00 gm.