The leaves and flowering tops of Hyoscyamus Niger Linne (nat. ord. Solanaceae) collected from plants of the second year's growth.

Habitat

Europe and Asia; naturalized in some parts of North America.

Characters

Leaves ovate, or ovate-oblong, up to 25 cm. long and 10 cm. broad; sinuate-toothed, the teeth large, oblong or triangular; grayish-green and, particularly on the lower surface, glandular-hairy; midrib prominent; flowers nearly sessile, with an urn-shaped, five toothed calyx, and a light yellow purple-veined corolla; odor heavy, narcodc; taste bitter and somewhat acrid.

Composition

The chief constituents are - (1) Hyoscyamine, C17H23No3, an alkaloid. It is very closely allied to the active alkaloids of belladonna and stramonium {see p. 382) and is also contained in many plants of the natural order Solanaceae. It, like Atropine, with which it is isomeric, consists of Tropic Acid and Tropine. There is in commerce an amorphous impure Hyoscyamine, which is a dark brown extract-like fluid having a disagreeable odor. As it is much cheaper than the crystalline alkaloid, it is often used, but this as well as other specimens should be proscribed. (2) Hyoscine see p. 385, a white crystalline alkaloid. It is stated to be the same as Scopolamine, an alkaloid isomeric with cocaine. Only its salts are used.

Incompatibles. - Vegetable acids, silver nitrate, lead acetate, and alkalies.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr.; .30 to 1.00 gm.

Preparations

1. Extractum Hyoscyami. - Extract of Hyoscyamus. By maceration and percolation with diluted Alcohol and evaporation.

Dose, 1/2 to 2 gr.; .03 to .12 gm.

2. Extractum Hyoscyami Fluidum. - Fluid Extract of Hyoscyamus. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and water, and evaporation.

Dose, 5 to 15 m.; .30 to 1.00 c.c.

3. Tinctura Hyoscyami. - Tincture of Hyoscyamus. Hyoscyamus, 150; diluted Alcohol to 1000. By maceration and percolation.

Dose, 1 c.c.. (15

Preparations 165

Hyoscyaminae Sulphas. Hyoscyamine Sulphate

(C17H23 No3)2H2So4=674.58. The neutral sulphate of an alkaloid prepared from Hyoscyamus.

Source

Hyoscyamus is treated with Ether, to remove fat, then with Alcohol acidulated with Sulphuric Acid and distilled. The aqueous residue is neutralized with Soda, and the liquid precipitated with Tannic Acid, the precipitate mixed with Lime, then exhausted by strong Alcohol. The Alcoholic solution is treated with Sulphuric Acid, then with Soda, and finally with Ether, which dissolves the alkaloid, which is obtained from it by distillation.

Characters

White, indistinct crystals, or a white powder, without odor, and having a bitter, acrid taste; deliquescent in damp air.

Solubility

In 0.5 part of water, and in 2.5 parts of Alcohol; very slightly soluble in Ether or Chloroform.

Dose, 1/60 to 1/30 gr.; .001 to .002 gm.