This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
Mangani Dioxidum. Manganese Dioxide. MnO2=86.72. Synonym. - Black Manganese Oxide.
Native crude Manganese Dioxide containing at least 66 per cent. of the pure Dioxide.
Manganese Dioxide is used for making Chlorine, Corrosive Mercuric Chloride and Potassium Permanganate.
Dose, 2 to 10 gr.; .12 to .60 gm.
Uses of Manganese Dioxide.
It has been used empirically as an emmenagogue and is probably the most certain of all when administered in maximum dose.
Mangani Sulphas. Manganese Sulphate. MnSo4+4H2O =222.46. Synonym. - Manganous Sulphate.
By heating the Dioxide with sufficiently strong Sulphuric Acid, evaporation and crystallization.
Colorless, or pale, rose-colored, transparent tetragonal prisms, having a slightly bitter and astringent taste. Solubility. - In 0.8 part of water; insoluble in Alcohol.
Zinc, copper, iron and alkalies.
Dose, 2 to 8 gr.; .12 to .50 gm.
Uses of Manganese Sulphate.
It has been used as a cholagogue purgative, but on account of its irritating properties it is a very unsafe remedy.
Potassii Permanganas. Potassium Permanganate. KMn
Caustic Potash, Potassium Chlorate and Manganese Dioxide are heated together. 6Koh+Kc1o3+3MnO2=3K2MnO4+KCl+3H2O. Potassium Manganate is boiled with water till the color changes to purple and the Permanganate is formed. 3K2MnO4+2H2O=2KMnO4+4Koh+MnO2. The liquid is neutralized with Carbon Dioxide and evaporated.
Slender monoclinic prisms of a dark purple color, almost opaque by transmitted, and of a blue, metallic lustre by reflected light, and having a taste at first sweet, but afterwards disagreeable and astringent. Solubility. - In 16 parts of water; a grain .06 gm. gives a fine purple color to a gallon of water 3775. c.c.
Incompatibi.es. - It is very readily deoxidized in the presence of organic matter. It is usually given as a pill or a tabella, and should be made up with kaolin or paraffin, or an explosion will very likely take place.
Potassium carbonate and manganese dioxide.
Dose, 1/2 to 2 gr.; .03 to .12 gm.
In a solid form it is a mild caustic, and is, when kept dry, a permanent salt. Its most important action is that when moist it rapidly gives up its oxygen in the presence of organic bodies, and its solutions therefore quickly turn dark brown, manganese dioxide being formed. The power possessed by its solution of giving up oxygen makes it a disinfectant, deodorant, and antiseptic, especially as much of the oxygen is in the form of ozone. But its action as a germicide is very limited, for it so readily gives up its oxygen to the organic substances in which the micro organisms flourish that it very soon becomes inert.
Potassium permanganate, when taken internally, must be quickly decomposed. Manganese salts are only absorbed from the intestine in extremely minute quantities. When they are injected into the blood they are excreted in the urine and into the intestine. Probably they have no important action after absorption. Formerly it was thought that they could replace iron in the body, but this is not so. The red corpuscles do not take up manganese.
Although potassium permanganate is not of much practical use as a germicide, it is commonly employed as a deodorant 1 to 150 for drains, bed-pans, to wash utensils, and to wash the hands; for the last purpose it is suitable as being non-irritant. The hands should be washed in a saturated solution of the permanganate, which stains them a dark purple, and immediately decolorized with a saturated solution of oxalic acid. It has one advantage, namely, that it is easy by its change in color to see when it has lost its efficacy. Condy's red fluid consists of 8 gr. .50 gm. of potassium permanganate to the fluid ounce 30. c.c. of distilled water. It is expensive for purposes requiring a large quantity. It stains fabrics. The stain may be gotten out by applying sulphurous acid, but the fabric must be immediately rinsed in water, else sulphuric acid is formed.
The liquor of potassium permanganate B. P., 1 in 100 of distilled water, considerably diluted, can be used as a mouth wash or gargle in foul conditions of the mouth, or as an injection in cases of foul discharges, such as may occur with gonorrhoea, vaginitis, uterine disease or ozaena. Some have considered that potassium permanganate is beneficial for the same cases of anaemia as iron, but it probably has no effect. Others praise its power in amenorrhoea. It should be always given as a pill, for the taste of solutions of it is very disagreeable. For amenorrhoea the black oxide is preferable. (See p. 206.) If manganese is of any use in anaemia, which has not yet been proven, it probably acts in the same way as iron. The iron-manganese preparations so much lauded, owe their efficiency, if they possess any, to the iron which they contain in varying amounts. Potassium permanganate oxidizes morphine and is therefore an antidote to morphine poisoning. About two grains in solution should be given for each grain (estimated) of morphine swallowed, and the stomach should be immediately and repeatedly washed out with repetitions of the antidote.