This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
The leaflets of Pilocarpus Selloanus Engler (Rio Janeiro Jaborandi), and of Pilocarpus Jaborandi Holmes (Pernambuco Jaborandi), (nat. ord. Putaceae).
Brazil, near Pernambuco.
About 10 to 15 cm. long, and 4 to 6 cm. broad, short-stalked, oval or ovate-oblong, entire and slightly revolute at the margin, obtuse and emarginate, unequal at the base; dull green, coriaceous, pellucid punctate, mostly smooth; when bruised, slightly aromatic; taste somewhat bitter and pungent.
Leaves of species of Piper, not oval-oblong.
The chief constituents are - (1) A liquid, colorless, alkaloid, Pilocarpine, C11H16N2O2, 1/4 to 1 per cent. (2) Jaborine, C22H32N4O4, an alkaloid resembling in its physiological action Atropine, and therefore antagonistic to Pilocarpine. (3) Pilocarpidine, C10H14N2O2, a decomposition product whose action is weaker than Pilocarpine. (4) A volatile oil chiefly Pilocarpene, C10H16. (5) A peculiar acid. These active principles are soluble in Alcohol, but only imperfectly so in water.
Dose, 5 to 60 gr.; .30 to 4.00 gm.
By maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol and evaporation. Dose, 5 to 60 m.; .30 to 4.00 C.C.
C11H16N2O2HCl=243.98. The hydrochlorate of an Alkaloid obtained from Pilocarpus.
Obtained by exhausting Pilocarpus with Alcohol acidulated with Hydrochloric Acid, distilladon and evaporation. The filtrate is treated with a slight excess of Ammonia, and a large quantity of Chloroform. The solution is agitated with water, to which Hydrochloric Acid is added to neu-tralizadon. The Hydrochlorate is obtained on evaporation in crystals which are purified by re-crystallization.
Small, white crystals, odorless, and having a faintly bitter taste; deliquescent on exposure to damp air.
Very soluble in water and in Alcohol; almost insoluble in Ether or Chloroform.
Dose, 1/8 to 1/3 gr.; .008 to .02 gm.