The leaflets of Pilocarpus Selloanus Engler (Rio Janeiro Jaborandi), and of Pilocarpus Jaborandi Holmes (Pernambuco Jaborandi), (nat. ord. Putaceae).

Habitat

Brazil, near Pernambuco.

Characters

About 10 to 15 cm. long, and 4 to 6 cm. broad, short-stalked, oval or ovate-oblong, entire and slightly revolute at the margin, obtuse and emarginate, unequal at the base; dull green, coriaceous, pellucid punctate, mostly smooth; when bruised, slightly aromatic; taste somewhat bitter and pungent.

Impurities

Leaves of species of Piper, not oval-oblong.

Composition

The chief constituents are - (1) A liquid, colorless, alkaloid, Pilocarpine, C11H16N2O2, 1/4 to 1 per cent. (2) Jaborine, C22H32N4O4, an alkaloid resembling in its physiological action Atropine, and therefore antagonistic to Pilocarpine. (3) Pilocarpidine, C10H14N2O2, a decomposition product whose action is weaker than Pilocarpine. (4) A volatile oil chiefly Pilocarpene, C10H16. (5) A peculiar acid. These active principles are soluble in Alcohol, but only imperfectly so in water.

Dose, 5 to 60 gr.; .30 to 4.00 gm.

Preparation

Extractum Pilocarpi Fluidum. Fluid Extract Of Pilocarpus

By maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol and evaporation. Dose, 5 to 60 m.; .30 to 4.00 C.C.

Pilocarpinae Hydrochloras. Pilocarpine Hydrochlorate

C11H16N2O2HCl=243.98. The hydrochlorate of an Alkaloid obtained from Pilocarpus.

Source

Obtained by exhausting Pilocarpus with Alcohol acidulated with Hydrochloric Acid, distilladon and evaporation. The filtrate is treated with a slight excess of Ammonia, and a large quantity of Chloroform. The solution is agitated with water, to which Hydrochloric Acid is added to neu-tralizadon. The Hydrochlorate is obtained on evaporation in crystals which are purified by re-crystallization.

Characters

Small, white crystals, odorless, and having a faintly bitter taste; deliquescent on exposure to damp air.

Solubility

Very soluble in water and in Alcohol; almost insoluble in Ether or Chloroform.

Dose, 1/8 to 1/3 gr.; .008 to .02 gm.