This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
By heating Salicylic Acid with Phenol in the presence of Phosphorous Pentachloride; this action dehydrates and withdraws the elements of water, and unites the Phenyl group with the Salicylic \cid radical.
A white, crystalline powder, odorless, or having a faintly aromatic odor, and almost tasteless. Permanent in the air.
Almost insoluble in water; soluble in 10 parts of Alcohol; also soluble in 0.3 part of Ether, and readily in Chloroform, and in fixed or volatile oils.
Dose, 5 to 30 gr.; .30 to 2.00 gm.
It is an antiseptic, and when mixed with talc (1 to 5) may be used as a dusting powder.
In the body presumably in the small intestine) salol splits up into phenol, about 36, and salicylic acid, 64 per cent. and the former may render the urine dark. In rheumatic fever it is efficacious on account of the salicylic acid it contains, although somewhat slower in action but it has no advantage over salicin or salicylic acid, and the carboluria may be troublesome.
It is an antiseptic, and since this decomposition takes place in the alkaline fluid, it has been used as an intestinal antiseptic in acute diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera and other diseases; also in affections of the urinary tract. For the last the following is a good way of prescribing it: - Salol, 1; Almond Oil, 2; Powdered Acacia, 1; Syrup, 2; water, 24. The emulsion should be made in a warm mortar with water at 150o F. 65.5° C. It is a remedy of very great value in the treatment of typhoid fever, for by the active disinfection of the contents of the intestine and of the ulcerations, it favors their healing and prevents reinfection, thus lowering temperature, diminishing the liability to relapse and to permanent damage to tissues. It is the logical treatment, because it destroys the cause of the symptoms, at their point of origin. On account of the large proportion of phenol which it contains it is more dangerous than the corresponding amount of salicylic acid, and it is especially to be used with great caution if the kidneys are diseased. Sometimes, in fever, on account of the lessened alkalinity of the intestinal contents it is not decomposed into its constituents, and for that reason becomes very much less effective. In this case an alkali should be administered at the same time.