Synonym. Acidum Nitro-Muriaticum. (Nitric acid, two fluid ounces; hydrochloric acid, four fluid ounces; distilled water, twenty-six fluid ounces.) Sp. gr. 1.074. Six fluid drachms require for neutralization 93.88 measures of the volumetric solution of soda. [Acidum Nitro-Muriaticum. Nitric acid, three troy ounces; muriatic acid, five troy ounces. Acidum Nitro-Muriaticum Dilutum. Nitric acid, a troy ounce and a half; muriatic acid, two troy ounces and a half; distilled water sufficient to make the diluted acid measure a pint.]
Therapeutics. Externally, as a caustic, strong nitric acid is employed as an application to phagedenic sores, and for the destruction of warts, care being taken to protect the surrounding parts. In the diluted form, it has been used as an application to some ulcers, and diseases of the skin. Injected in a very dilute state into the bladder, it has proved effectual in the solution of phosphatic calculi. Internally it may be given as a refrigerant and tonic in cases similar to those for which sulphuric acid is administered, as in febrile diseases, and for preventing phosphatic deposits: it is also very useful in some forms of dyspepsia. But nitric acid seems to possess powers not connected with its acid properties, for in certain scrofulous states of the system, and in syphilis, occurring in habits where mercury cannot be given, nitric acid often proves very serviceable. It is also given in some forms of cutaneous diseases.
Dilute nitro-hydrochloric acid has an action similar to that of a solution of chlorine, and is used as a tonic and stomachic in dyspepsia; also in phosphatic deposits in the urine. It is thought to have a considerable influence over the action of the liver, and to possess alterative powers. It is employed in chronic hepatitis, syphilitic cachexia, etc. Externally it is used as a foot-bath in the above-named diseases.
Dose. Of the strong nitric acid, 1 min. to 3 min.; of the dilute, 10 min. to 30 min. freely diluted.
Of dilute nitro-hydrochloric acid, 3 min. to 10 min. freely diluted. As a bath, 6 fl. oz. to each gallon of water (in a wooden vessel).
Adulteration. Chiefly sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, detected by the baryta and silver tests above given.