The subdivisions of these are all ultimate classes of medicines, and are as follows :

1. Emetics, which operate on the stomach, producing vomiting;

2. Cathartics, which operate on the bowels, producing their evacuation downward;

3. Diuretics, which act on the kidneys, increasing the secretion of urine;

4. Diaphoretics, which act on the skin, causing perspiration;

5. Expectorants. which act on the lungs, causing expectoration;

6. Cholagogues, which act on the liver, increasing the secretion of bile;

7. Emmenagogues, which act on the uterus, exciting, increasing or ring the menses;

8. Uterine motor-stimulants, which favour uterine contraction;

9. Sulagogues, which increase the secretion of saliva; and

10. Errhines or Sternutatories, which operate on the nostrils. causing an increased secretion, and sneezing.