The subdivisions of these are also ultimate classes, and are as follows:

1. Rubefacients, inflaming the skin;

2. Epispastics, producing blisters; and

3. Escharotics, destroying the life of the part, and producing a slough.

3. Local Remedies acting Mechanically.

These include, besides the various measures enumerated under the head of "Mechanical Influence" (page 53), the following classes of medicines:

1. Demulcents, bland viscid liquids, which cover surfaces and protect them from irritation, or mingled with acrid substances obtund their acrimony;

2. Emollients, which soften and relax;

3. Diluents, which dilute the fluids of the body; and

4. Protective8, which operate by covering the surface, and preventing the contact of the air.