Hops are seldom if ever given in substance. The Infusion (Infusum Humuli, U. S.), which is made in the proportion of half an ounce to a pint of boiling water, may be given in the dose of a wine-glassful. Decoction is an unsuitable mode of preparation, as boiling dissipates the volatile principle, on which probably the virtues of the hops partly depend.

The Extract (Extractum Lupuli, Br.) is liable to the same objection as the decoction. It has the bitterness without the aroma of the hops. Nevertheless, it is said to have acted as an anodyne and soporific; but it has been almost entirely superseded by lupulin, which has all its advantages without its defect. The dose of the extract is from ten to thirty grains.

A Fluid Extract and an Oleoresin of Lupulin (Extractum Lupulinae Fluidum, U. S., and Oleoresina Lupulin.e, U. S.) were introduced into the present edition of our national code. The former is a very concentrated tincture of lupulin, the latter a semiliquid ethereal extract. Both of these preparations may be considered as representing the virtues of hops. The dose of the former is ten or fifteen minims, of the lat ter from two to five grains. The oleoresin is most conveniently given in the form of pill, made up with powdered liquorice root.

Lupulin is now probably most used when the influence of hops is wanted. The dose is from six to twelve grains; but may be much increased, if thought advisable. It is most conveniently given in pill, which may be made by rubbing the powder, in a warm mortar, till it acquires a plastic consistence.

The Tincture of Hops (Tinctura Humuli, U. S., Tinctura Lupuli, Br) is not an eligible preparation, being too feeble and uncertain to be relied on. The usual dose is from one to three fluidrachms.

The Tincture of Lupulin (Tinctura Lupulinae, U.S.) is more efficient, and is an excellent preparation when the alcoholic ingredient is not objectionable. The dose for ordinary purposes is one or two fluidrachms.