1. External inflammation. in inflammation and vascular irritation, water is of great use as an adjuvant of depletory measures. Applied locally in external complaints, it has the direct effect of diminishing these conditions, and of favouring resolution, unless the affection be of a character, or in a stage, disposed to suppuration; in which case it hastens the latter process. it is employed in all the different modes of external use already described.

In erysipelatous and erythematous affections, it is very advantageously applied in the form of demulcent liquids, as infusion of slippery-elm bark or flaxseed, applied over the inflamed surface by compresses of soft linen. This is, indeed, I think, the best method of treating complaints of that kind locally. Without at once subverting the inflammatory action, and thus endangering introversion, it alleviates the pain, moderates the excitement, and obviates injurious results. The mucilaginous matter may co-operate in some measure by excluding the air, but the main effect is produced by the water; and, as the liquid soon acquires the temperature of the surface, it is not by any modification of heat or cold that it acts.

In phlegmonous tumours, furuncles, glandular swellings, and inflamed joints, after local depletion, when this has been required, water, in the form of emollient cataplasms, is much used; being especially applicable to cases, in which either there is no tendency to suppuration, or it is desirable to promote this condition. When, on the contrary, a disposition to suppurate may be apprehended, and it is desirable that this event may not take place, poultices are contraindicated, and the local use of cold is preferable.

Phagedenic ulcers have been treated very successfully by Mr. Cock, in Guy's Hospital, London, by a constant irrigation with warm water, directed upon the surface of the ulcer, by means of a tube, connected with a reservoir above. The effect is ascribed to the perfect cleansing of the sore, by which the liquids generated are prevented from spreading the morbid action by their poisonous properties. But it is not improbable that the directly sedative influence of the water may have some part, at least, in the result.

In almost all cutaneous eruptions, water acts very happily in diminishing without repelling the affection. it is in the form of warm bath that the remedy is here most efficient; though a local bath might answer where the eruption is local. The bath should be employed daily, or twice a day; and the patient should remain in it long. The only cases to which the remedy is inapplicable are those attended with a very depressed condition of the system, and depraved state of the blood, with a strong tendency to the suppurative or gangrenous condition.

In the acute exanthematous affections the bath is less used, because in these the eruption is generally of secondary consideration, and will of itself subside in a short time with the disease; but, whenever there may be an indication for diminishing the cutaneous irritation, and the benefits of the bath may not be overbalanced by its various inconveniences, it may be used with safety and advantage. it is peculiarly applicable to the cases of children. in the desquamative stage of these complaints, the warm bath is often useful in giving softness to the skin, and removing secondary irritations, not unfrequently left behind on the subsidence of the original complaint.

2. internal inflammation. it is not in external inflammations only that the local use of water is advantageous. in the phlegmasiae of the abdominal and thoracic viscera it is often a most useful agent. in those of the chest, much care is required to avoid the partial exposures to cold incident to the use of the remedy, and, unless the patient can be well watched, it may perhaps be as well to forego its advantages; but in the abdominal inflammations, and those of the pelvic viscera, it is a most valuable auxiliary to local depletion, or substitute for it when, on any account, inappropriate or impracticable. in these cases, the water may be used in fomentations; but the safest and most effectual method is by large cataplasms, covering the whole of the exterior parts corresponding with the inflamed organ. Gastritis, enteritis, dysentery, peritonitis, hepatitis, splenitis, nephritis, and metritis, are affections calling for this treatment. it is probably more efficacious when the inflammation affects the membranes than the parenchyma of the organs, and is especially indicated in peritoneal inflammation. Large poultices, applied to the side of the neck and underneath the jaws, are useful in simple angina and tonsillitis, and may be employed with special propriety in these affections occurring in scarlatina. Around the neck they are also useful in laryngitis, after sufficient depletion.

In all the acute inflammations water is also indicated in the form of the warm bath, the sedative effects of which are sometimes most happy. The only contraindications are the inconvenience of the remedy in adult cases, and the danger of injurious exposure of the surface to cold during its relaxed state. in infantile cases these objections are much diminished, as children can be more readily guarded from exposure of the surface; and the warm bath is among our most valuable remedies in the infantile phlegmasia?.

The semicupium or hip-bath is peculiarly beneficial in inflammations and irritations of the urinary and genital organs, including strangury, ischuria, amenorrhoea from vascular irritation of the uterus, and dys-menorrhcea.

In certain cases of inflammation or irritation, the free internal use of water proves advantageous upon the principle of dilution. This is particularly true of those cases in which the local affection is either produced or aggravated by the acrid character of the liquid with which it may be in contact. Water here acts not only by its direct sedative influence, but indirectly by diluting and rendering less acrid the irritating material. inflammatory affections of the urinary passages are those in which water acts most beneficially in this way. in such cases it should be taken cold into the stomach, as it is not only more agreeable than when warm, but more likely to pass off by the kidneys.