The preparations of this metal are, beyond all comparison, the most important of the arterial sedatives. Brought into notice by Basil Valentine, a German monk of the fifteenth century, to whose unfortunate administration of it to his brother monks it is said to owe its present name (avrt against, and uovos monk), antimony had for a long time to struggle against a fierce opposition, over which it at length triumphed; and it has now taken a position in the Materia Medica, not probably so high as its warm advocates would have at one time claimed for it, but certainly far above the rank of mediocrity. The intricate diversity of preparation into which it was tortured by the ingenuity of chemists, and which was formerly very embarrassing to the student, has happily been reduced, with the progress of pharmacy, within much more reasonable limits; though it is probable that therapeutics would suffer little, if the number of its preparations were still further restricted. indeed, little use is made at present, at least in the United States, of any other than tartar emetic, which is probably capable of producing all the effects that can be obtained from the metal, while it has the advantage, beyond all other antimonials, of uniformity in composition and effect, and precision of dose. The metal itself, when taken internally, in the state of fine powder, often acts promptly and energetically, but with so little certainty that, though formerly used, it is now almost never prescribed. it is only in the soluble state that it can affect the system; and the metal, therefore, before it can operate, must be brought into this condition through chemical reaction with the gastric liquids. it is probably the acid of 'the gastric juice which produces this effect; and the presence or absence of this, therefore, must determine whether the metal is to be active or inert. There is reason to believe that the oxide of antimony (the teroxide of the chemists) is the form in which alone antimony finds entrance into the system, and that the presence of an acid is necessary to make this effective by rendering it soluble. Now, tartar emetic contains this oxide already in a soluble condition, and has the advantage over the metal itself, and the other forms in which it is used, that it can act without the intervention of an acid, and that consequently it does not depend on any fortuitous condition of the stomach, whether the salt shall or shall not affect the system. The preparations of antimony now in use are, 1. tartrate of antimony and potassa, or tartar emetic; 2. the oxysulphuret, including the former precipitated sulphuret, the kermes mineral, and the golden sulphur of antimony; and 3. the teroxide, pure, or in the form of antimonial powder. I shall treat of the general effects of antimony under the head of the first of these preparations, which may be considered as representing the metal, and shall afterwards allude to what there may be peculiar in the others, whether in their remedial properties, or the purposes to which they are applied.