Hygienists affirm that all medical systems, wherever and whenever practiced and by whatever names they are called, whose remedial agents are drugs, are false in conception, absurd in science, contrary to nature, in antagonism with the laws of the living organism and wholly injurious in practice. To be wrong in fundamental principles is fatal to the superstructure, however beautifully it may have been reared.

Let us briefly examine the applicability of the methods of the drugging schools to health. What relations have their drugs to the human system in a state of health? As an advocate of drugs, is not the physician necessarily confined to advising sickly human beings? What drug can he give that will improve the growth in health and sturdiness of the infant? From the first to the last of his materia medica, he has nothing adapted to the healthy child.

Any genuine maxim which the physician may give for the betterment of human conditions, if these conditions are such as to not involve ill health, must be rendered by him independent of the drugging system. At best, his drugs come into play only in sickness. But the most robust man who takes a drug prescription will have his robustness impaired or destroyed. The healthy man does not live who can take a drug and not be the worse for it. Is it not evident, then, that the physician can enter the health-preserving kingdom only if he leaves his drugs behind? For, to such as possess ruddy health, to whom bracing breezes and ample exercise, healthful heart-throb and a serene mind, are a perpetual heritage, drugs would be as uncalled for as would be an electric fan in the arctics.

The alleged antiquity of the medical system is not a basis for confidence. Age does not sanctify a fallacy, nor does it convert the false into the true. Why should we adhere blindly to a system that had its origin in times of grossest ignorance? Why venerate relics of barbarism? Whenever the subject of the modus operandi of drugs is thoroughly understood, there will be reason abroad which no man can gainsay why no drugs should ever be taken. Let this knowledge become general and it will come to pass in a few years that drugs and drugging shall come to an ignominious end. The drug stores will be closed and the pharmaceutical factories will have to shut down.

Normal activities and developments require normal conditions as essentials. When these are consistently and adequately supplied, the most perfect development is attained. On the other hand, the absence of perfect adaptations or physiological conditions is the chief source of all the faulty developments and inharmonies that abound in nature. Let us examine more closely the relation of drugs to the living organism. "The direction of our investigations," said Dr. G. H. Taylor, "in order to learn the science of life, and to promote the interests of health, is to study the usages of matter in the organized body, and the relations of matter endowed with life, to that which is extraneous; certain qualities of it establish a mutual affinity, and the acts of vitality are connected therewith, while all other qualities bear an antagonistic relation to the organic welfare, and are only capable of bringing its forces out in defense of its integrity."

"When the qualities of matter and the functions of life are better understood, and when it is seen how all its endowments flow from qualities inherent in the matter of which the living thing is composed, set in motion by certain suitable relations--then it may be more easily seen that neither the possession nor restoration of health can flow from any extraneous chemical agency, but always and inflexibly from the maintenance and restoration of the necessary conditions, and these are connected with the will and the deeds of him who craves the boon. It will be seen that no matter what may be the attending accidents of medicines, the cure is but slightly connected with them."

The living organism has its own way of doing things and does these with its own materials. For example, many efforts have been made to supply the body with parts from foreign sources. These have been unsuccessful, as the body rejects alien cells. Blood that is transfused is treated as a foreign substance and expelled. If it is sought to graft a piece of skin onto some part of the body, it may be done only if it is from the one receiving the graft. An organ from the body of another cannot be grafted onto it. The exception to this rule is seen in the case of identical twins and even this is not always successful.

If we consider non-living substances, we, discover the same thing to be true: the body can make use of only certain usable substances. Materials that cannot be metabolized-substances that cannot be transformed into cell substance--are of no possible use to the organism in either a state of health or in a state of disease. The presence of such substances in the body can serve only as disturbing elements. They are foreign bodies and must be expelled. Any substance that cannot be transformed into living structure is a poison and must be resisted and expelled if it is taken into the body or applied to its surface. The processes and actions by which the body resists and expels these substances are commonly mistaken for the actions of the poisons (drugs) and are not recognized as defensive actions of the body.

Even useful substances have to be specially prepared by the body itself before they are fit for entrance into the blood stream. The process of digestion reduces complex substances that we call food to certain assimilable products before they are fit to enter the blood. Protein, as essential to life as it is, is a virulent poison if introduced directly into the blood without first undergoing digestion. Amino acids, when introduced into the veins in an effort to feed a sick organism, are followed by anaphylactic symptoms, damages to the kidneys, progressive loss of weight and other symptoms which indicate that the amino acids are not metabolized. Evils of a similar kind follow the intravenous injection of glucose. When we try to by-pass the digestive system and feed the body in some other manner, we run into difficulties.

A substance is not usable merely because it is a constituent of the body. Nitrogen and carbon, as such, are non-usable. The body can use proteins and sugars, but it cannot use free nitrogen and carbon. It uses iron, calcium, sulphur, phosphorus, etc., only in certain organic compounds and is poisoned by each of these elements if taken as such. Even oxygen can prove hurtful, as was found in the incubation care of premature infants. The process of extracting oxygen from the air is unquestionably one that is subject to as well-defined laws as the assimilation of solid matter and all efforts to flout such laws must end in disaster. In the early part of this century a method was devised to introduce oxygen directly into the blood, by-passing the lungs, as a: means of curing disease. It proved to be as abortive as were all other methods designed to flout the normal order.