James Stewart's Diabetic Bread

"Take one quart of sweet milk or milk and water, one heaping teaspoonful of good butter, one fifth of a cake of compressed yeast beaten up with a little water, and two eggs well beaten. Stir in gluten flour until a soft dough is formed, knead as in making ordinary bread, put in pans to raise, and when light bake in a hot oven".

Protene Diabetic Bread, made in England by the Protene Company, has its basis in casein, and is said by Robert Hutchison to be "entirely free from carbohydrate." It may be toasted with advantage to taste.

Liebig proposed to prepare bread for diabetics by pouring a malt infusion over thinly sliced wheaten bread. The sugar which is thus formed is washed away, and the gluten residue may be eaten.

It is very difficult to obtain a reliable gluten flour. Much that is sold in open market contains more starch than wheaten bread - it may hold 60 or 70 per cent (Harrington and Professor Leeds).

The gluten flour obtained in the market in London or Paris contains about 15 per cent of starch, whereas that sold in the United States frequently has two or three times as much.

In 1903 the New Hampshire State Board of Health reported that of thirteen samples of "diabetic" and "gluten " flours, seven contained nearly the average starch percentage of ordinary wheaten flour, and only two were almost free from it.

Tyson, who has investigated the matter thoroughly, states that the gluten breads made by Theodore Metcalf, of Boston, and the Sanitarium Food Company of Battle Creek, Michigan, contain less starch than other American preparations. Pavy recommends a gluten bread and biscuit made by Bouthrou. A wholly starch-free flour does not exist.

James Stewart gives the following test for starch to be applied to gluten flour: A little of the flour is shaken well with boiling water, and cooled. A few drops are then added of an aqueous solution of iodine and potassium iodide (Gram's solution). If starch be present, a decided blue colour develops.

Dujardin-Beaumetz declares that gluten bread contains more than three times as much sugar-forming material as potatoes, and hence he prescribes the latter instead.

Van Abbott recommends the use of gluten macaroni, gluten vermicelli, and gluten semolina, which can be made into puddings without sugar.

Fromentine is another form of diabetic flour made from wheat germs. They contain less starch than mature wheat, but hold an oil which is purgative and which prevents proper panification, and causes the bread to sour easily.

Poluboskos is another form of flour said to contain a minimum of starch.

Embryonine or legumine is a substance isolated from the casein of legumes, and which is sometimes given for diabetes.

(B) Bran Bread

The use of bran bread was first suggested by Prout, but, like gluten bread, it is apt to contain a good deal of starch, and in addition tough cellulose, which is of little nutrient value and which may prove irritating to the mucous membrane and alimentary canal, causing diarrhoea. It is, moreover, somewhat tasteless, and patients quickly tire of it. Bran bread cakes may be purchased prepared expressly for the use of diabetics. They are made according to Dr. Camplin's receipt, as follows: