Calculated Coefficients Of Digestibility Of Nutrients In Different Classes Of Foods

Standards used in calculations by the U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Protein.

Fats.

Carbohydrates.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Animal foods

98

97

100

Cereals and starches

85

90

98

Sugars

100

Vegetables and fruits

80

90

95

Percentage Of Nutrition In Various Articles Of Food (Moss)

Raw cucumbers................... 2

Raw melons...................... 3

Boiled turnips..................... 4

Milk............................. 7

Cabbage......................... 74

Currants......................... 10

Whipped eggs..................... 13

Beets............................ 14

Apples........................... 16

Peaches.......................... 20

Boiled codfish.....................21

Broiled venison................... 22

Potatoes......................... 12

Fried veal........................ 24

Roast poultry..................... 26

Raw beef.......................... 26

Raw grapes........................ 27

Raw prunes........................ 29

Boiled mutton..................... 30

Oatmeal porridge................... 75

Rye bread......................... 79

Boiled beans....................... 87

Boiled rice......................... 88

Barley bread....................... 88

Wheat bread....................... 90

Baked corn bread.................. 91

Boiled barley...................... 92

Butter............................93

Boiled peas........................ 93

Raw oil........................... 9°

Atwater's Table For Nutrients And Potential Energy In Dietaries Of Different People

NUTRIENTS.

Potential energy of nutrients.

Protein.

Fats.

Carbohydrates.

Total.

Grms.

Grms.

Grms.

Grms.

Calories.

Sewing girl, London - wages 93 cents (3s.

9d.) per week

53

33

316

402

1,820

Factory girl, Leipsic, Germany - wages $1.21 per week

52

53

30I

406

1,940

Underfed labourers, Lombardy, Italy diet mostly vegetable

82

40

362

484

2,192

Trappist monk in cloister, very little exercise - vegetable diet

68

11

469

548

2,304

Miners at severe work, Germany........

133

"3

634

880

4.195

Brickmakers (Italians at contract work),

Munich

187

117

675

959

4,641

Brewery labourer, Munich, very severe work, exceptional diet

223

"3

909

1.245

5,692

German soliders peace footing

114

49

480

633

2,798

German soldiers, war footing

134

58

489

68l

3,093

German soldiers, Franco-German War extraordinary ration

157

285

331

773

4,652

Other factory operatives, mechanics, etc.,

Massachusetts

127

186

531

844

4.428

Glass blowers, East Cambridge

95

132

481

708

3,590

Private well-to-do family:

Food purchased

129

183

467

779

4,146

Food eaten.........................

128

177

466

771

4,082

College students from Northern and Eastern States - boarding:

Food purchased.....................

161

204

680

1.045

5.345

Food eaten.........................

138

184

622

944

4,827

Club, two dietaries of the same club:

Food purchased.....................

115

163

480

738

3,874

Food eatem

104

136

421

661

3,417

College football team

181

292

557

1,030

5.742

Teamsters, marble workers, etc., with hard work, Boston, Mass

254

363

826

1,443

7,804

Brickmakers, Massachusetts.............

180

365

1,150

1,695

8,848

United States Army ration

120

161

454

735

3,851

United States Navy ration.............

143

184

520

847

4,998

The actual cost of elementary foods naturally varies with the market, locality, season of the year, and other considerations. Fortunately, however, many foods which furnish most nutriment are among the cheapest and least variable in price. Breadstuffs, for instance, which may easily furnish one third of the total nutrients required, do not vary greatly in price, and the increase in cost of any diet depends more upon the higher price of green vegetables, fruits, and the better cuts of meats. Hence, when it is necessary to reduce the cost of living, peas, beans, oatmeal, and flour may be economically used to supply protein. Sugar, rice, pork, cornmeal, and potatoes all supply fuel (energy) at small expense. If variety rather than cheapness is desired, it is found in the use of green vegetables, fresh fruits, butter, eggs, and the better cuts of meat. In illustration of these principles are the three following tables from nutrition investigations conducted by Isabel Bevier at Pittsburg, Pa. (U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 52, 1898):

Cost Per Pound And Amounts And Fuel Value Of The Digestible Nutrients

Cost per Pound and Amounts and Fuel Value of the Digestible Nutrients in I Pound and in 10 Cents' Worth of the More Important Food Materials used in a Dietary Study of a very Poor Polish Mill-worker's Family in Pittsburg, Pa.

Kind of Food Material.

Actual cost per pound.

NUTRIENTS AND ENERGY IN I POUND

NUTRIENTS AND ENERGY IN To CENTS' WORTH.

Protein.

Fat.

Carbohydrates.

Fuel value.

Protein.

Fats.

Carbohydrates.

Fuel value.

Beef:

Cents.

Pound.

Pound.

Pound.

Cal.

Pound.

Pounds.

Pound.

Cal.

Stew

5.0

0.176

O.073

....

635

0.I5

0.35

1,270

Round

8.9

.202

.121

....

885

.14

•23

995

Bologna sausage

9.4

.176

.191

....

1,130

.20

.19

1,205

Pork:

Ham, boiled...

18.8

.178

.359

....

1,845

.19

.09

982

Head-cheese...

8.5

.183

•233

... a

1,325

.27

.21

1,555

Fish, herring, smoked

5.9

•339

.145

1,245

•25

57

2,105

Eggs..........

14.2

.126

.089

....

6lO

.06

....

.09

430

Butter

25.5

.010

.843

....

3,575

•33

....

1,400

Milk..........

2.8

.031

.025

0.058

270

.09

0.2I

.11

970

Flour..........

3.6

.096

.010

.730

1,580

.03

2.03

•27

4,385

Oatmeal

5.0

•133

.064

.669

1,760

.13

1.33

•27

3,52o

Bread..........

3.4

.078

....

.532

1,135

I.56

•23

3,340

Sugar, coffee....

5.9

....

....

•954

1,775

1.6l

3,010

Beans

5.8

.178

.0l6

.561

1,442

•03

•97

.31

2,495

Potatoes

1.1

.013

....

.130

265

1.18

.12

2,420

Cost Per Pound And Amounts And Fuel Value Of The Digestible Nutrients

Cost per Pound and Amounts and Fuel Value of the Digestible Nutrients in i Pound and in 10 Cents' Worth of the More Important Food Materials used in a Dietary Study of a Lawyer's Family in Good Circumstances.

Kind of Food Material.

Actual cost per pound.

NUTRIENTS AND ENERGY IN I POUND

NUTRIENTS AND ENERGY IN 10 CENTS' WORTH.

Protein.

Fat.

Carbohydrates.

Fuel value.

Protein.

Fat.

Carbohydrates.

Fuel value.

Beef:

Cents.

Pound.

Pound.

Pound.

Cal.

Pound.

Pound.

Pounds.

Cal.

Ribs

I5.0

0.I20

0.255

I,300

O.08

0.I7

865

Round

15.O

.196

.047

565

.13

.03

375

Shoulder clod..

11.5

.184

.109

800

.16

.10

700

Veal, chops

18.0

•159

.084

650

.09

•05

....

360

Lamb roast

15.0

.164

.261

1,405

.11

•17

....

935

Eggs..........

13-3

.122

.086

590

.09

.c6

445

Butter

28.0

• ■ • ■

.868

3,665

.31

1,310

Milk...........

3-9

.029

.036

O.O46

290

•07

.09

O.I2

75o

Wheat flour.....

2.4

.122

.012

.729

1,635

.51

•05

3.04

6,805

Rolled oats.....

6.2

.144

.070

.702

1,870

•23

.11

1.13

3,015

Bread, baker's...

4.9

.08I

.011

•517

1,l6o

.16

.02

1.06

2,365

Sugar, granulated

50

.966

1,795

1.93

3,595

Beans, dried....

4.2

.161

.016

•593

1,470

.38

•04

1.41

3,500

Potatoes

1.5

.013

• ■ ■ ■

.120

245

.09

.80

1,645

Oranges

10.0

.008

•043

80

•04

80

Summary of Dietary Studies here reported with Averages of Studies made Elsewhere. Quantities per Man per Day

Cost.

Protein.

Fate.

Carbohydrates.

Fuel value

Cents.

Grms.

Grms.

Grms.

CaL.

Dietary of a professional man's family

21

91

145

380

3.280

Dietary of a mill workman's family

13

85

104

307

2,575

Dietary of a mill workman's family

9

77

90

314

2,440

Dietary of a boiler tender's family

22

147

173

683

5,010

Dietary of a house decorator's family

20

112

144

368

3.305

Dietary of a glass blower's family

16

94

121

385

3,085

Average 14 dietaries of professional men's families

25

104

125

423

3.325

Average 14 dietaries of mechanics' families

20

103

I50

402

3,465

The following table is from the U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 91, 1900, and summarises dietetic studies made in widely different parts of the United States:

Cost, Nutrients, and Fuel Value of Food per Man per Day in Dietary Studies in Urbana and Elsewhere

Cost of food.

Protein.

Fate.

Carbohydrates.

Fuel value.

Nutritive ratio.

Teacher's family, Illinois:

Cents.

Grms.

Grms.

Grms.

Calories.

Food purchased

27.O

124

158

487

3,975

Food wasted

23

45

46

700

Food eaten

101

"3

44I

3,275

1: 6.9

Professional men, Connecticut, average of 9 dietaries:

Food purchased

25.O

110

136

442

3,530

Food wasted

3

7

5

100

Food eaten

107

129

437

3,430

1: 6.8

Professional man's family, Pennsylvania:

Food purchased

22.3

98

155

396

3,465

Food wasted

7

10

16

185

Food eaten

91

145

380

3,280

1: 7.8

Teacher's family, Indiana:

Food purchased

18.O

111

110

349

2,910

Food wasted

5

8

9

130

Food eaten

106

102

340

2,780

1: 5.4

Proposed standard for man with little mmuscular work (Atwater)

112

3,000

1: 5.5

Mechanics' boarding club, Illinois:

Food purchased

23.O

128

171

392

3,720

Food wasted

11

25

13

330

Food eaten

117

146

379

3,390

1: 6.1

Mechanics' families, Connecticut, average of 9 dietaries:

Food purchased

113

153

420

3,605

Food wasted

7

11

14

185

Food eaten

106

142

406

3,42o

1: 6.9

Mechanic's family, Indiana:

Food purchased

26.O

106

157

475

3,840

Food wasted

16

23

67

555

Food eaten

90

134

408

3,285

1:7.9

Cost of food.

Protein.

Fats.

Carbohydrates.

Fuel value.

Nutritive ratio.

Mechanic's family, Tennessee:

Cents.

Grms.

Grms.

Grms.

Calories.

Food purchased

16.O

119

224

455

4.435

Food wasted

9

14

43

345

Food eaten

110

21O

412

4,090

1: 8.1

Mechanic's family, New Jersey:

Food purchased

28.O

103

144

431

3.530

Food wasted

3

6

6

95

Food eaten

100

133

425

3,435

1: 7.4

Proposed dietary standard for man with moderate work (Atwater).....

• • • •

125

3.500

1:6.8

In a study by E. F. Ladd, made in 1900, of eleven women students in North Dakota who averaged nineteen years of age, the result was as follows:

Food Eaten.

COMPOSITION AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD PER WOMAN PER DAY.

Protein.

Fats.

Carbohydrates.

Fuel value.

Grammes.

Grammes.

Grammes.

Calories.

Animal food

31

94

5

1,025

Vegetable food

33

5

355

1,635

Total food

64

99

360

2,66o

A similar study by Atwater made upon the diet of women students in Connecticut shows a consumption of 84 grammes protein, 128 grammes fat, and 264 grammes carbohydrate, yielding 3,015 calories. The accepted standard for woman at light muscular work calls for 90 grammes of protein and a total fuel value of 2,400 calories of energy, hence both these dietaries were deficient in protein, although the total fuel value was considerably above the standard requirement. This shows that a considerable departure from normal dietetic standards is not incompatible with health.