The advantages of having a meat nutriment which contains the albumins in a soluble and readily assimilable form is obvious in the treatment of those patients in whom the digestive powers are more or less in abeyance, either in acute or chronic medical conditions or in some surgical emergencies. Predigested soups and meats can be prepared at home (see p. 175); there are also many preparations in the market in which the proteins have been largely converted into albumins and peptones. These include various preparations of peptones, peptonoids, fluid meats, meat jellies, and meat powders The strong meaty odour and bitter taste of the peptones is an objection to their use to many patients. A further difficulty sometimes encountered is the occurrence of vomiting and diarrhoea induced by the albuminoids and peptones. The composition of the various preparations varies widely, the amount of protein - albumins and peptones - varying from • 5 per cent, in Valentine's meat juice, to over 70 per cent, in Somatose. In some of the preparations, e.g. Carnrick's, a large amount of carbohydrate is present, this being derived from wheat. The approximate composition of the chief peptone preparations is given in the table on p. 179.

Water.

Protein.

Fat.

Carbohydrates.

Ash.

Remarks.

Soluble.

Starch.

Allenlury's No. 2 Food ...

3.9

9.2

12.3

72.1

• ••

3.5

A malted meal and No. 1 Food.

Horlick's Malted Milk ...

2.5

15.4

8.8

69.2

0.1

3.8

Desiccated milk, wheat flour, barley malt, and bicarbonate of soda.

John Bull No. I Food ...

3.9

21.0

11.8

54.2

...

5.3

Maltose, 21.3; lactose, 29.4; dex-trin, 3.5.

Loeflund's Cream Emulsion .. .

24.3

8.2

15.3

49.4

....

2.6

Made from milk and malted wheat extract.

Mahico . . . , .

1.6

15.1

17.1

...

63.0

2.9

Contains milk and malted cer-eals; no starch.

Manhu Infant Food .. .

8.8

8.7

5.6

...

75.9

1.0

Desiccated milk and malted cer-eals; much starch.

Milo Food . .. .

3.8

14.3

5.5

58.9

15.3

2.0

Desiccated milk, with maltose and dextrins 27 per cent., and cane sugar 25 per cent.

Theinhart's Infantina..

5.0

i6.i

5.0

53.6

16.7

3.4

Desiccated milk and malted cer-eals, lactose, and cane sugar.

Theinhart's Hygiama..

4.7

21.2

10.0

49.:

11•3

3.5

A richer food; contains cocoa and cocoa butter.

Somatose is a meat preparation in which the albumin of the meat is mainly converted into albuminoids. It is a greyish powder, freely soluble in water, forming a practically tasteless solution. It contains from 60 to 70 per cent, of protein. It can be given in water, in tea, in soup, or in milk, in which it readily dissolves. One teapoonful is equal to about a 1/2 ounce of lean meat. It costs 1s. 8d. per ounce, and yields from that amount only as much nourishment as is present in about 1/4 lb. of beef. It is a valuable preparation for increasing the nutritive value of other foods. Somatose is supplied in three forms: (a) somatose; (b) iron somatose, an organic combination of somatose and iron; (c) milk somatose, which contains somewhere about 5 per cent, of tannin.

Savory & Moore's meat peptone is another useful concentrated form of nourishment. It possesses a full, meaty flavour. It may be used as soup, or spread between bread and butter as sandwiches.

Benger's Peptonised Jellies

These consist of meat and chicken respectively, boiled and digested by means of the tryptic ferment in the Liquor pancreaticus, by which means almost all the flesh is converted into soluble bodies. The fluid is then made into a jelly by the .use of gelatine. These jellies can be used cold, or dissolved with hot water to form a soup.

Panopeptone is made from both meat and cereals, and claims to contain the nutritive principles of beef and bread.

Approximate Composition Of Peptone Preparations

Water.

Meat

Proteins.

Proteins, Albumins, and Peptones.

Extractives and other

Matter.

Salts.

Remarks.

Antweiler's Peptone ...

6.9

3.2

74.6

1.7

13.0

Armour's Wine of Peptone..

83.0

...

3.0

12.9

1.1

Benger's Peptonized Beef Telly ..

89.0

..

7.1

2.2

0.8

Served in glass jars.

Brand's Beef Peptone..

84.6

...

7.0

...

1.4

Made from beef, mutton, veal, and chicken.

Carnrick's Liquid Peptonoids..

5.4

...

24.0

65.0(chiefly sugar)

5.2

Made from beef, meat, and milk; nutritive value largely due to carbohydrates.

Carnrick's Peptonoids..

2.1

12.2

4.0

77.0

4.5

Darby's Fluid Meat . .. .

25.7

• ••

30.6

30.1

13.5

Denaeyer's Peptone ...

78.4

• ♦•

• • •

...

...

Fairchild's Panopeptone ...

81.0

...

3.0

15.0

1.0

Non-nitrogenous substances, chiefly sugar.

Kemmerich's Meat Peptone..

33.3

I.1

47.1

10.2

7.7

Koch's Meat Peptone....

40.1

1.4

347

16.7

6.8

Liebig's Peptone . .. . .

31.9

...

33.4

24.6

9.9

Mosquera Beef Meal ...

...

48.0

29.0

130 (fat)

...

Savory & Moore's Fluid Beef .

27.0

...

8.1

52.7

I2.I

Somatose .....

14.2

• ••

62.2

2.6

5.3

Valentine's Meat Juice...

59.0

...

6.6

22.7

11.5