1 lb. veal.
2 thin slices of turnip.
Slice the veal very thinly, and place a layer of it in ajar with a layer of thinly sliced turnip, and repeat this until all is used up; add the salt and water, cover the jar, put it in a saucepan with boiling water to reach up half-way, and simmer for four hours. Strain and serve cold. It will be in a strong jelly.
Sweet jelly may be made from calves' feet or from gelatine. Calfs-foot jelly is troublesome to make, but if thoroughly well made it is much more delicate in flavour than gelatine jelly. Both methods are given.
1 blade mace.
1 inch cinnamon stick.
2 quarts of water.
Two calf's feet are equal to one ox foot, and make the same quantity of jelly; they are prepared in the same way as the ox foot, but need not be boiled quite so long. Get the ox foot broken across several times; split it up between the toes; take out the piece of fat between the toes and all the marrow from the bones. First blanch the foot, by thoroughly washing, cover with cold water, and bring it to the boil. Now place it in a basin of cold water, and scrape well.
After again rinsing in cold water, put it on in a clean pot with 2 quarts of cold water, bringing it to the boil and skimming it well, and boil very gently for about eight hours. If very gently simmered by the side of the fire, the stock does not reduce too much. Strain it into a basin, either through a towel or a sieve, and stand aside to get quite cold. There should be six breakfastcupfuls of stock. When quite cold, remove all the fat from the top; this must be done very carefully.
Now put the stock into a clean saucepan, add the sugar, the flavourings broken into small pieces, the lemon rind very thinly pared off, the juice strained, two eggs and the whites of the other two eggs beaten up and a little egg-shell crushed up.
Put this on the fire and whisk briskly until it comes to boiling-point. Allow it to boil very gently about seven minutes. Withdraw from the fire, cover it with the lid, and allow it to settle for five or ten minutes.
Have a flannel or felt jelly-bag hanging up. Pour a good deal of boiling water through the bag, to warm and cleanse it. When the water has all run out, put a clean basin under the bag and pour the jelly in. Pour the jelly twice through the bag, when the jelly should be clear and a brilliant colour. This jelly is excellent without wine. Put if wine is used, it is best put into the saucepan just before the jelly is poured into the bag.
1 1/4 ounces French sheet gelatine.
3 gills cold water.
1/2 gill lemon juice.
1/2 gill sherry wine.
1 tablespoonful brandy.
3 ounces loaf sugar. Kind of I lemon, cut, 2 or 3 cloves. I inch cinnamon stick. White and shell of 1 egg.
The proportion of gelatine is 2 ounces to I quart.
Put all the ingredients into a lined saucepan; whisk until they boil; remove to the side of fire when the scum begins to rise to the top. Cover the top of the pan with a plate, and allow it to stand fifteen minutes. Strain through a hot jelly cloth; run through three or four times till clear, and when cold, mould in a scalded wet mould.
Melt the jelly by standing the basin containing it in a saucepan of hot water. When dissolved, put into a large basin; with whisk whip it until it is quite cold, and should become a firm froth and perfectly white. By varying the ingredients in the wine jelly, a good many different forms can be obtained, e.g.
Take 3 gills port wine, 1 gill water, and 1 tablespoonful of red-currant jelly, instead of the sherry wine, lemon juice, and the large amount of water.
Are made by substituting orange or lemon juice for the wine.
Farinaceous Foods containing carbohydrates in the form of starch or sugar can be given in moderation. Thin oatmeal and barley gruel carefully strained and flavoured with salt or sugar is useful (see p. 296). Arrowroot and Farolaare also of value (for preparation, see p. 297).
Malt extract, granulated, dissolved in warm water or milk, or with an effervescing water, is good. These supply grape sugar (maltose), soluble dextrin, and a small quantity of soluble albuminoids (see pp. 178 et scq.). Among proprietary foods, Benger's food is one of the most useful preparations, especially for cases of continued fever. Small quantities of arrowroot, ground rice, and well-baked flour can also be added to clear soup or beef-tea. Great care must be taken not to make the soup too thick.
Spread some white flour thinly on a dish, bake it in a moderate oven for about an hour, until it is a delicate colour. Take it out and place it on a sheet of kitchen paper; when cool, roll it smooth with a rolling-pin, pass it through a wire sieve, and then keep it in a canister or bottle.
Grape sugar, which is a kind of predigested carbohydrate, is strongly recommended, and may be added to farinaceous foods, and may also be used to sweeten beverages.
Fruit juice, especially the juice of grapes and oranges, is quite admissible, and is usually much appreciated. Special stress should be laid on the point that in grapes the skins and stones are carefully removed, and in oranges that only the juice and pulp are eaten. Fruit soups are commended as agreeable and useful. They are made by boiling fresh or dried fruits with water, with or without the addition of sugar, lemon peel, and freed from the solid residue by pressing and straining.
For thirst an abundance of refreshing drinks should be permitted. These all have a very low nutritive value. If made with barley (p. 34) or rice-water instead of plain water, the nutritive value is slightly increased. Again, the addition of a teaspoonful of milk sugar or lactose to the pint increases the value considerably without affecting the flavour. Iced water should not be forgotten as being always much appreciated by fever patients.
Take 2 ounces of rice in an enamelled saucepan, with 3 pints of water, and boil for two and a half hours. Stir it frequently and skim carefully. Strain into a jug through a fine wire sieve, and rub through the glutinous parts, but not the hard portion. Add flavouring to taste.
1 lb. apples.
1/2 lb. brown sugar.
1 gallon boiling water.
Cut up the apples into quarters; take them and put into the jug with brown sugar, and pour the boiling water over it. Let it stand until cold; pulp the apples and the fluid through the colander. Bottle for use; do not cork the bottle; keep it in a cool place.
Toast a piece of bread slowly until it gets quite black. Placed in a jug of apple water for three-quarters of an hour, then strained, makes a very nice and refreshing drink.
Boil 1/2 lb. of rice or 1/4 lb. of bailey, blend with the apple-water, and then strain.
In spring and summer, rhubarb, green gooseberries, black and red currants, and raspberries may all be made into nice cooling drinks, if used in the same proportion.
1/2 ounce cream of tartar.
Juice of 1 lemon.
2 tablespoonfuls of sifted sugar.
Place the ingredients in a jug, pour over a quart of boiling water, and cover until cold.
Juice of I lemon. 1 pint of water.
1 ounce of sugar. 1 egg.
Dissolve the sugar in the water; add the juice of the lemon; beat up the white of egg, and add this.
This makes a very palatable drink, with slight nutritive value.
1/4 lb. of loaf sugar.
3 pints boiling water.
Rub some sugar on the rinds of two of the lemons until it is yellow. Strain the juice of the four lemons; put the sugar and juice into a jug, and pour it over the water. Cover it until it is cold.
2 oranges. Juice of 1 lemon.
2 or 3 lumps of sugar. 1 pint of boiling water.
Wipe the oranges with a damp cloth, and peel the rind of one of them very thinly. Put this into a jug with sugar, and strain in the orange and lemon juice. Pour on the freshly boiled water. Cover closely until cold, and then strain.
2 tablespoonfuls black-currant jam.
1 teaspoonful arrowroot.
Take the black-currant jam and boil it in a quart of water. Cover it and stew gently for half an hour, then strain it, and set the liquor again on the fire. Mix the arrowroot in cold water, pour over it the boiling liquor and keep stirring. Then let it get quite cold. (This is a very pleasant drink, and specially nice for an inflamed throat).
Tea and coffee freshly made with milk may be given also as beverages with a certain food value. (These are better withheld until pyrexia is gone.) Peptonised foods are not usually called for in fever cases. They are described in Chapter IX (Patent, Proprietary, And Predigested Foods).
The advisability of administering or withholding stimulants depends entirely on the condition of the patient The indications for its administration are as follows: - After a long continued pyrexia, if the circulation shows signs of failure, the pulse becoming weak and irregular; or if the digestive powers flag, with sordes forming on the lips, with a foul tongue and loss of appetite. Hyperpyrexia may also necessitate the use of alcohol.
Champagne, brandy, or whisky may be used; the two latter are the best in the acute stages. It may be given in plain water, in milk, or in an effervescing water. When ordered, the exact quantity should be stated: it is best given at regular intervals by day and night. A half to one ounce every two or three hours is usually sufficient; it is seldom necessary or advisable to give more than 6 ounces in twenty-four hours to an adult. A larger quantity causes overstimulation; this can be recognised by a feeling of discomfort, a bad taste in the mouth, and an offensive breath. Children show a distinct toleration for relatively large doses of alcohol. In cases of vomiting, dry champagne is often the best form of stimulant.