There are a large number of preparations of dried milk in the market; they belong to various groups: -
1. Milk powders, composed of milk modified by the abstraction of casein or addition of sugar, or both. Allenbury No I Food is a food of this sort - it is made from cow's milk from which the excess of casein has been removed and the deficiency of sugar and fat corrected. It is free from starch, and is often very useful during the first three months of infant life, when a temporary change from fresh cow's milk mixture is indicated.
2. Dried milk, made from whole or skimmed milks. Whole milk dried is sold as Glaxo (Nalhan & Co.), and Lacvitam (Prideaux), at is. to 1s. 3d. per lb. Dried skimmed milk is sold as Lacumen, at 5d. to 9d. per lb.
There are a large number of these preparations. The nutritive value is high, containing as a rule over 90 per cent, of pure protein. Their great value consists in that they can be added to other foods, thus " fortifying " them with protein. The preparations are tasteless, compact, easily digested, and soluble. Their solubility enables them to be added to other food, such as soups, jellies, milk puddings, greatly raising the nutritive value of the diet.
Dried casein is a product of the Protene Company, and forms the basis of many of the patented preparations. It is in the market as Protene flour. Casein is purin-free, does not clot, and is easily digested and absorbed. It is indicated in all affections in which additional protein is needed, and is useful as a means of giving phosphorus in organic combination. It is specially valuable in acid dyspepsia, the protein fixing the acid.
Casein combined with ammonia is sold as Eucasin, and with sodium as Nut rose. Sanose is a mixture of casein 80 per cent, and egg albumin 20 per cent. Sanatogen is a valuable casein preparation with 5 per cent, sodium glycerophosphate added.
Plasvion is a tasteless, odourless, white powder, entirely soluble in water; it is casein of milk made into a readily soluble powder by the addition of an alkali, and it contains phosphorus in organic form. It is one of the cheapest of the dried milk preparations.
One teaspoonful of plasmon powder is equivalent to the protein value of about 2 pints of milk. Plasmon is best added to soups, milk gravy, etc., after it has been dissolved.
Plasmon, 3 teaspoonfuls. Water (tepid), 1/2 pint.
Add 3 tablespoonfuls of tepid water to the plasmon, stir and rub into a paste; then gradually add the tepid water, place on the fire, bring to the boil, stirring well all the time, and boil for two minutes. This can now be added to milk or other liquid beverage. When cold, the dissolved plasmon will form into a jelly, which when whisked will turn into a thick cream. The jelly or cream can be added to all food - liquid or solid.
Plasmon, 3 teaspoonfuls.
Water, 3 ounces.
Milk, I pint.
In a clean enamelled saucepan mix the plasmon into a smooth paste with the tepid water, then place on the fire, stir in gradually the pint of milk and boil all together for two minutes, stirring continuously.
Dissolve the plasmon as directed above, then stir in slowly the pint of milk until all is well mixed, and allow to cool.
Dissolve the plasmon as above. When cold, whisk the jelly thoroughly for a few minutes, and a beautiful firm snow cream will result. Sugar, flavourings, or cream may be added during the whisking, which allows a large variety of dishes to be prepared. If the plasmon be dissolved with milk instead of water, the snow cream is richer, and can be made into a very nutritious ice cream.
Is simply ordinary porridge to which has been added 1 teaspoonful of dissolved plasmon to every plate of porridge, and then boiled.
Plasmon Butter. A teaspoonful of plasmon may be thoroughly kneaded into 1/4 lb. of butter, and be used for making sandwiches.
Casumen (Prideaux) is a white, flake-like powder, odourless, tasteless, and soluble, and miscible with ordinary food and drink. It is free from starch and sugar, and keeps indefinitely. It is combined with other foods in much the same way as plasmon is. A diabetic milk can be made from it by the addition of water, a weak alkali, and saccharin.
Protein and Tilia are also similar preparations.
All these casein foods are of great service in improving the protein value of the diet. They are superior to meat preparations. They are useful in the treatment of acute levers, diabetes, and many conditions of debility. They have a special value in the treatment of hyperchlorhydria, as the casein fixes the acid more effectively than other forms of protein.
The establishment of milk laboratories is a recent development of practical value for the feeding of infants. The milk is designated modified milk, the process consisting in separating the chief components of cow's milk and recombining them, to the proportion present in human milk. This system of feeding infants is known as percentage feeding, and was first introduced by Rotch, in America. In order to prepare modified milk by Rotch's method, we require: - (1) Pure cream containing the fat; (2) pure milk containing the albuminoids and no fat; (3) distilled water; (4) a 20-per-cent. solution of milk sugar, made fresh daily with distilled water; (5) lime-water.
As an example of prescribed diet of modified milk, Rotch gives the following prescription: -
Give 4 ounces every 2 hours. Send 12 tubes, each 4 ounces.
Various preparations of modified milk are sold as humanised milk. These consist of ordinary milk which has been modified in some way, as by the addition of cream or whey, or by a reduction in the amount of casein and the addition of lactalbumin, albumins, or peptones.
The addition of peroxide of hydrogen to milk has been worked out scientifically as well as practically by Dr Budda of Copenhagen. It is claimed that by the use of the nascent oxygen, as evolved from peroxide of hydrogen in contact with milk at a suitable temperature the milk is rendered practically sterile, and that its nutritive properties otherwise are unaltered. This milk is prepared on a commercial basis, at a cost very little in excess of ordinary milk. It is as yet too soon to say whether the claims for this preparation are as well founded as is claimed for it. Some cases of well-marked scurvy have been ascribed to its use.