These extracts have considerable value as stimulating, and in proportion to the protein present, nutritive beverages. They can advantageously be used to add to other foodstuffs. The following recipes will be found useful: -

1. Extract Soup

Make according to directions, and add albumin water (p. 47), made from the white of one or two eggs.

2. Extract Soup

Beat up egg, place it in a soup bowl and pour over it a pint of hot (not boiling) extract soup, as directed.

3. Milk Bovril

The taste of milk can be completely disguised by making Invalid Bovril or other meat extract as directed on the bottles, but using boiling milk instead of water.

4. Extract Custard

Take "Milk Bovril" and to this add one or two eggs as directed under Custards, boiled and baked (p. 49), and a delightfully flavoured dish is prepared.

5. Meat Juice With Milk

Three-quarter pound rump steak of fillet of beef free from fat, 1 pint of milk. Armour's beef extract or any other meat extract for flavouring.

Pass the steak through a fine mincing machine, or scrape very finely; this should give 7 oz. of meat pulp. Mix thoroughly with the milk, and pass through a fine strainer or muslin. This should give about a pint of fluid of the consistency of cream. Half a teaspoonful of extract is to be used for flavouring.

The preparation can be warmed by standing the vessel in hot water; excessive heat causes curdling (coagulation).

There are a number of methods of cooking eggs with meat extracts - which make a pleasant variety.

6. Steamed Egg

1 fresh egg.

1/2 teaspoonful of meat extract.

1 tablespoonful milk. Salt.

Grease a cup, into this add the milk in which the extract has been dissolved; break the egg gently and drop it in; sprinkle over with salt. Place the cup in a saucepan and pour enough boiling water to come up half-way. Boil slowly for ten minutes, and turn on to a slice of toast or buttered toast, and serve hot.

7. Savoury Scrambled Eggs

Beat up an egg; to this add 1/2 ounce of milk to which has been added a 1/2 teaspoonful meat extract. Melt a little butter in a saucepan, and when thoroughly hot pour in the egg and milk mixture; keep beating with a fork until the egg has set. Serve on slice of hot buttered toast.

8. Savoury Veal Jelly

A pint of jellied veal stock, I egg, I teaspoonful meat extract. Melt the veal stock, dissolve the meat extract, and beat up the egg. Mix the three ingredients, add salt to taste. Place in a basin, and when cold a nicely flavoured jelly will turn out.

Meat Juices

Meat juices are quite different from the extracts. They consist of the fluid substance contained in the muscle fibre. They are prepared by extracting the juice by strong pressure, and subsequently concentrating the product by evaporation in vacuo. Heat has to be avoided, as it coagulates the soluble proteins. The process is expensive, and the product is liable to decomposition. Glycerine, salt, or other preservative is added. A true meat juice should yield a spectrum of oxyhemoglobin.

Home-made fresh meat juice is cheaper, and, on account of its freshness, more valuable than the proprietary preparations. The blood-red colour characteristic of many of the meat juices is repugnant to many patients. This difficulty can be overcome by serving in a red glass or cup. The preparation of home-made beef juice is given on p. 77.

The approximate composition of the beef juices is given in the table (Sutherland): -

Water.

Proteins and Gelatine.

Extrac tives.

Nitrogen from

Substances.

Mineral Substances.

Armour's Beef Juice..

74.1

8.3

9.5

..

7.5

Armour's Soluble Beef ...

23.0

33.31

13.4

67

13.2

Bovinine..

81.0

13.9

3.4

..

1.0

Bovril Beef Juice ...

52.0

7.2

14.0

20.7

5.9

Brand's Meat Juice..

59.1

I5.42

16.5

...

8.8

Burgoyne's Meat Juice...

49.5

13.03

8.1

14.2

Esco Beef Juice..

52.4

7.6

5.9

13.6

20.3

Lipton's Fluid Beef..

42.9

22.1 4

18.7

..

16.2

Liquor Carnis..

56.0

6.9

5.0

28.4

3.5

Puro ....

36.6

30.3

19.1

...

9.7

Valentine's Beef Juice .

60.3

0.5

29.1

..

"•3

Vitalia Meat Juice

66.5

21.0

60

• ••

6.5

Wyeth's Meat Juice

44.8

38.05

...

...

17.1

1 Thirty-two per cent, soluble. 2 Five per cent. coagulable. 3 Three per cent, coagulable. 4 Six per cent, coagulable. 5 Including extractives.

Puro is extremely rich in protein, which is present in the form of egg albumin. It is a dark brown fluid, becoming red on the addition of water. Its colour is repugnant to many patients, but the flavour is agreeable. However, if such a food is necessary, it is cheaper and just as efficacious to take the white of an egg (which contain approximately 12 per cent, of egg albumin), with this prepare albumin water (p. 47), and add to it either a few drops of meat extract or home-made beef-tea. In this way a nourishing fluid rich in protein is prepared, at a much less cost than by the use of the proprietary preparations.

Bovininc is one of the cheapest meat juice preparations, it contains a large proportion of protein, and when examined with the spectroscope gives the spectrum of methnemoglobin. It probably consists of blood and glycerine. There is no doubt its nutritive value is high, but its flavour is not very agreeable. The amount of coagulable protein is much less in Brand's beef juice, Bovril Company's juices, Liquor carnis, and Wyeth's, though all show signs of unaltered blood and may rightly be regarded as uncooked juices.

Special attention may be made of Valentine's meat juice, which according to Chittenden only contains .55 per cent, proteins, and has therefore no more claim to being a nourishing meat juice than many of the beef extracts and soups.

Vinsep is made of blood, boric acid, and a little alcohol, and contains 16 per cent, of protein; the flavour is not agreeable. Alcoholic compounds of meat extracts should all be condemned - even if strengthened with malt or other carbohydrate food. These are apt to induce the alcoholic habit.

Dried Meat Powders

These can be made at home by mincing cold boiled beef, drying it thoroughly in a slow oven, and grinding it up in a coffee-nut mill. These can also be bought in the form of various proprietary foods, such as Brand's nutrient powder, Pemmican, Mosquera beef meal, Mcatox, and others. In the preparation of a meat powder, nothing is removed except the water of the fresh meat and the tough, stringy, and indigestible portion rejected in sifting. One ounce of the powder is equivalent in nutritive value to 4 ounces of fresh lean meat. A meat powder may be utilised to increase the nutritive value of soup, or given in the form of sandwiches.

Pemmican

To every fifty parts of powdered meat forty parts of fat are added, the resulting product being a food rich in both proteins and fat.

Mosqucra beef meal is a preparation of high nutritive value. It contains 90 per cent, of nutritive material, 13 per cent, of this being fat. The meat is partially digested by the ferment of pineapple juice.

Meatox is a powdered beef which contains above 75 per cent, of nutritive matter.

Brand's nutrient powder consists of powdered muscle fibre from which the moisture has been removed at a temperature below the coagulation point of the muscle proteins; it is readily digested and assimilated. Reference is later made to Somatosc, a similar preparation, in which the proteins are partly transformed into albumoses.

Marvis is a dried fish powder, consisting largely of proteins; it can be used in the same way as other meat powders.

Meat lozenges, beef-tea tabloids, and all combinations of meat extracts with other foodstuffs are not to be commended. They are quite useless as a food, and are simply concentrated salts and extractives.