Roasting

Roasting means to expose one side of an article to an intense heat, and the other to the air. Our grandmothers roasted beef on a spit, which turned constantly before a hot fire. In these days we call baking "roasting;" the two, however, are widely different.

Broiling

Broiling is precisely the same as roasting. One side is exposed to the fire, the other to the air. This produces a sweet flavor not attainable in an oven.

Baking

This is a common method of cooking in the oven. Meat, potatoes, apples, pies, breads, cakes, are all baked.

For meats, the oven must at first be very hot, to coagulate the juices on the outside, and to prevent the escape of those within. The first half hour the heat must be extreme, then cool and cook at a lower temperature, fifteen minutes to each pound, basting every ten minutes with the fat in the pan. Do not add water.

Boiling

To boil an article, it must be immersed in boiling water.

Green vegetables should be put over the fire in boiling salted water.

Underground vegetables and rice should be boiled in unsalted water, and salted after they are cooked.

To boil meat, plunge it in a kettle of boiling water, boil twenty minutes, until the juices are coagulated on the outside, cool the water to 180o Fahr. and continue the cooking, fifteen minutes to each pound of meat; , ten minutes, if the piece is small. Add salt when the meat is partly done. Boiled meats are more easily digested than meats baked or roasted, but are not so tasty, as they lack the scorched taste created by the intense heat. Meat, if properly boiled, will be rare and juicy.

Stewing

This name is given to dishes composed of small pieces of meat cooked or steeped in a rich sauce until tender. The pieces are usually browned in fat, which makes them less digestible than broiled or boiled meats. Stews really have very little place in diet for the sick.

Warming Over

The second cooking of meats toughens the fibre and hardens the albumin, which makes them rather difficult of digestion.

Hash, as usually made and served, is an abomination. Even a healthy person, with good digestion, will carry his breakfast hash, undigested, until nearly noonday. Some meats, however, must be cooked before they are finally dressed. Sweetbreads and tripe must be well cooked and put aside, and dressed at serving time. They are not classed with warmed-over meats. Boudins, cooked over hot water, can be taken, as a rule, by invalids, children or the aged.

Frying

Immersing in hot fat- has no place in diet for the sick.

Sauteing

This, like frying, is one of the most objectionable ways of preparing food, and has no place in diet for the sick.

Planking

This is broiling on a plank. Fish, steak, chickens, may be planked to give variety, and if the plank is nicely garnished, they are the most sightly of the meat dishes.

Steaming

To steam an article, put it in a steamer, stand it over hot water and keep the water boiling continuously until the article is cooked. Potatoes, rice, cabbage, may all be steamed, and are frequently better than when boiled.

Paper Bag Cookery

This is simply baking in a sealed bag; in this way all the juices and flavorings are retained, and the articles cooked are more tasty. Fish, chickens, sweetbreads, steak, are excellent when cooked in a bag. Prunes and fresh fruits cooked in a bag retain their flavor and color.

Braizing

This is cooking in a double pan. Tough meats are put in the under pan, hot water added, then covered with the upper pan or lid, and cooked in the oven until tender. A sort of cross between a boil and a bake.

Coddling

Coddling means to cook in boiling water until the food is partly done. Coddled eggs are eggs cooked in water below the boiling point; the white is congealed, but not hard. Coddled apples are soft, but not soft enough to fall apart.