Take a piece of paper about 6 inches square and say: "Watch carefully what I do. See, I fold the paper this way (folding it once over in the middle), then I fold it this way (folding it again in the middle, but at right angles to the first fold). Now I will cut out a notch right here" (indicating). At this point take scissors and cut out a small notch from the middle of the side which presents but one edge. Throw the fragment which has been cut out into the waste-basket or under the table. Leave the folded paper exposed to view, but pressed flat against the table. Then give the subject a pencil and a second sheet of paper like the one already used and say: "Take this piece of paper and make a drawing to show how the other sheet of paper would look if it were unfolded. Draw lines to show the creases in the paper and show what results from the cutting."
The subject is not permitted to fold the second sheet, but must solve the problem by the imagination unaided.
Note that we do not say, "Draw the holes," as this would inform the subject that more than one hole is expected.
The test is passed if the creases in the paper are properly represented, if the holes are drawn in the correct number, and if they are located correctly, that is, both on the same crease and each about halfway between the center of the paper and the side. The shape of the holes is disregarded.
Failure may be due to error as regards the creases or the number and location of the holes, or it may involve any combination of the above errors.
Procedure and Scoring, the same as in previous tests with digits. The series used are: 7-2-5-3-8-9-6; 4-9-8-5-3-7-6-2; and 8-3-7-9-5-4-8-2.
Guard against rhythm and grouping in reading the digits and do not give warning as to the number to be given.
Say "I am going to read a little selection of about six or eight lines. When I am through I will ask you to repeat as much of it as you can. It doesn't make any difference whether you remember the exact words or not, but you must listen carefully so that you can tell me everything it says" Then read the selections, pausing after each for the subject's report, which should be recorded verbatim.
Sometimes the subject hesitates to begin, thinking, in spite of our wording of the instructions, that a perfect reproduction is expected. Others fall into the opposite misunderstanding and think that they are prohibited from using the words of the text and must give the thought entirely in their own language. In cases of hesitation we should urge the subject a little and remind him that he is to express the thought of the selection in whatever way he prefers; that the main thing is to tell what the selection says.
The test is passed if the subject is able to repeat in reasonably consecutive order the main thoughts of at least one of the selections. Neither elegance of expression nor verbatim repetition is expected. We merely want to know whether the leading thoughts in the selection have been grasped and remembered.
Procedure and Scoring, the same as in previous tests of this kind. The series are: 4-1-6-2-5-9-3; 3-8-2-6-7-5; and 9-4-5-2-8-3-7.
Problem a is stated as follows: A mother sent her boy to the river and told him to bring back exactly 7 pints of water. She gave him a 3-pint vessel and a 5-pint vessel. Show me how the boy can measure out exactly 7 pints of water, using nothing but these two vessels and not guessing at the amount. You should begin by filling the 5-pint vessel first. Remember, you have a 3-pint vessel and a 5-pint vessel and you must bring back exactly 7 pints.
The problem is given orally, but may be repeated if necessary.
The subject is not allowed pencil or paper and is requested to give his solution orally as he works it out. It is then possible to make a complete record of the method employed.
The subject is likely to resort to some such method as to "fill the 3-pint vessel two thirds full," or, "I would mark the inside of the 5-pint vessel so as to show where 4 pints come to," etc. We inform the subject that such a method is not allowable; that this would be guessing, since he could not be sure when the 3-pint vessel was two thirds full (or whether he had marked off his 5-pint vessel accurately). Tell him he must measure out the water without any guesswork. Explain also, that it is a fair problem, not a "catch."
Say nothing about pouring from one vessel to another, but if. the subject asks whether this is permissible the answer is yes.
The time limit for each problem is five minutes. If the subject fails on the first problem, we explain the solution in full and then proceed to the next.
The second problem is like the first, except that a 5-pint vessel and a 7-pint vessel are given, to get 8 pints, the subject being told to begin by filling the 5-pint vessel.
In the third problem 4 and 9 are given, to get 7, the instruction being to "begin by filling the 4-pint vessel."
Note that in each problem we instruct the subject how to begin. This is necessary in order to secure uniformity of conditions. It is possible to solve all of the problems by beginning with either of the two vessels, but the solution is made very much more difficult if we begin in the direction opposite from that recommended.
Give no further aid. It is necessary to refrain from comment of every kind.
Two of the three problems must be solved correctly within five minutes allotted to each.