1. Distinguishing Right And Left. Procedure

Say to the child: "Show me your right hand." After this is responded to, say: "Show me your left ear." Then: "Show me your right eye." Stress the words left and ear rather strongly and equally; also right and eye. If there is one error, repeat the test, this time with left hand, right ear, and left eye. Carefully avoid giving any help by look of approval or disapproval, by glancing at the part of the body indicated, or by supplementary questions.

Scoring

The test is passed if all three questions are answered correctly, or if, in case of one error, the three additional questions are all answered correctly. The standard, therefore, is three out of three, or five out of six.

The chief danger of variation among different examiners in scoring comes from double responses. For example, the child may point first to one ear and then to the other. In all cases of double response, the rule is to count the second response and disregard the first. This holds whether the first response was wrong and the second right, or vice versa.

2. Finding Omissions In Pictures. Procedure

Show the pictures to the child one at a time in the order in which they are lettered, a, b, c, d. When the first picture is shown (that with the eye lacking), say: "There is something wrong with this face. It is not all there. Part of it is left out. Look carefully and tell me what part of the face is not there." Often the child gives an irrelevant answer, as, "The feet are gone," "The stomach is not there," etc. These statements are true, but they do not satisfy the requirements of the test, so we say: "No; I am talking about the face. Look again and tell me what is left out of the face." If the correct response does not follow, we point to the place where the eye should be and say: "See, the eye is gone." When picture b is shown we say merely: "What is left out of this face? " Likewise with picture c. For picture d we say: "What is left out of this picture?" No help of any kind is given unless (if necessary) with the first picture. With the others we confine ourselves to the single question, and the answer should be given promptly, say within twenty to twenty* five seconds.

Scoring

Passed if the omission is correctly pointed out in three out of four of the pictures. Certain minor errors we may overlook, such as "eyes" instead of "eye" for the first picture; "nose and one ear" instead of merely "nose" for the third; "hands" instead of "arms" for the fourth, etc. Errors like the following, however, count as failure: "The other eye," or "The other ear" for the first or third; "The ears" for the fourth, etc.

3. Counting Thirteen Pennies. Procedure

The procedure is the same as in the test of counting four pennies (year IV, test 3). If the first response contains only a minor error, such as the omission of a number in counting, failure to tally with the finger, etc., a second trial is given.

Scoring

The test is passed if there is one success in two trials. Success requires that the counting should tally with the pointing. It is not sufficient merely to state the number of pennies without pointing, for unless the child points and counts aloud we cannot be sure that his correct answer may not be the joint result of two errors in opposite directions and equal; for example, if one penny were skipped and another were counted twice the total result would still be correct, but the performance would not satisfy the requirements.

4. Comprehension, Second Degree. Procedure

Note that the wording of the first part of the questions is slightly different from that in year IV, test 5.

If there is no response, or if the child looks puzzled, the question may be repeated once or twice. The form of the question must not under any circumstances be altered.

Scoring

Two out of three must be answered correctly.

(a) 7/ it is raining when you start to school. Satisfactory: - "Take umbrella," "Bring a parasol," "Put on rubbers," "Wear an overcoat," etc. This type of response occurred 61 times out of 72 successes. "Have my father bring me" also counts plus.

. Unsatisfactory: - "Go home," "Stay at home," "Stay in the house," "Have the rainbow," "Stay in school," etc. "Stay at home" is the most common failure and might at first seem to the examiner to be a satisfactory response. As a matter of fact, this answer rests on a slight misunderstanding of the question, the import of which is that one is to go to school and it is raining.

(6) If you find that your house is on fire. Satisfactory: - "Ring the fire alarm," "Call the firemen," "Call for help," "Put water on it," etc.

Unsatisfactory: - The most common failure, accounting for nearly half of all, is to suggest finding other shelter; e.g., "Go to the hotel," "Get another house," "Stay with your friends," "Build a new house,"etc. Others are: "Tell them you are sorry it burned down," "Be careful and not let it burn again," "Have it insured," "Cry," "Call the policeman," etc.

(c) If you miss your train. Satisfactory: - The answer we expect is, "Wait for another," "Take the next car," or something to that effect. This type of answer includes about 85% of the responses which do not belong obviously in the unsatisfactory group. "Take a jitney" is a modern variation of this response which must be counted as satisfactory.

Unsatisfactory: - These are endless. One continues to meet new examples of absurdity however many children one has tested. The possibilities are literally inexhaustible, but the following are among the most common: "Wait for it to come back," "Have to walk," "Be mad," "Don't swear," "Run and try to catch it," "Try to jump on," "Don't go to that place." "Go to the next station," etc.

5. Naming Four Coins. Procedure

Show a nickel, a penny, a quarter, and a dime, asking each time: "What is that?" If the child misunderstands and answers, "Money," or "A piece of money," we say: "Yes, but what do you call that piece of money?" Show the coins always in the order given above.

Scoring

The test is passed if three of the four questions are correctly answered. Any correct designation of a coin is satisfactory, including provincialisms like "two bits " for the 25-cent piece, etc. If the child changes his response for a coin, we count the second answer and ignore the first. No supplementary questions are permissible.

6. Repeating Sixteen To Eighteen Syllables. Procedure

The instructions should be given as follows: "Now, listen. I am going to say something and after I am through I want you to say it over just like I do. Understand? Listen carefully and be sure to say exactly what I say.u Then read the first sentence rather slowly, in a distinct voice, and with expression. If the response is not too bad, praise the child's efforts. Then proceed with the second and third sentences, prefacing each with an exhortation to "say exactly what I say."

In this year and in the memory-for-sentences tests of later years it is not permissible to re-read even the first sentence.

Scoring

The test is passed if at least one sentence out of three is repeated without error, or if two are repeated with not more than one error each. A single omission, insertion, or transposition counts as an error. Faults of pronunciation are of course overlooked. It is not sufficient that the thought be reproduced intact; the exact language must be repeated.

Alternative Test: Forenoon And Afternoon. Procedure

If it is morning, ask: "Is it morning or afternoon? " If it is afternoon, put the question in the reverse form, "Is it afternoon or morning? "

Scoring

The test is passed if the correct response is given with apparent assurance. If the child says he is not sure but thinks it is forenoon (or afternoon, as the case may be), we score the response a failure even if the answer happens to be correct. However, this type of response is not often encountered.