(From the same). Capsular ligaments, also called mucilaginosa liga-rer, as they contain many glands to separate the synovia. Every articulating bone is furnished with a capsular ligament, composed of two layers; the external is the stronger, being made by the periosteum; the inner is thin and uniform.

The use of the capsular ligament is, 1st, to connect the bones, which is performed by the outer lamella; 2dly, to confine the synovia, which is the office of the inner layer.

They are long and large in those bones that are designed for rotation, to give room for motion; and tendons are frequently inserted into them, that by their action they may draw them outward, and prevent their being compressed.

They are generally of an equal thickness all round in the enarthrosis and arthrodia; but in the ginglymus they arc thick on the sides, and thin on the fore and hind parts, as in those places their thickness would have been inconvenient, by hindering the due flexion and extension of the joint; but the tendons strengthen the joint in that part, and partly compensate for the weakness of the ligament. In complete luxations, the capsular ligament is generally, if not always, ruptured. That of the os femoris is extended from below the neck of the bone, to admit of a more extensive rotation.

The capsular ligament of the head of the humerus proceeds from the edge of the glenoid cavity in the scapula; is continued over the head of the os humeri; fixed near its edge towards the muscular surfaces of the great and small tuberosities, and runs down on the neck of the bone, below the lowest part of the cartilaginous hemisphere. In all this course, the capsular ligament is closely fixed in the bone, except a small portion, where it passes over the inner articular tendon of the biceps muscle.

The capsular ligament always includes the whole joint. On collections within the capsular ligaments of the joints, see Bell's Surgery, vol. v. 485. On concretions and preternatural excrescences within the capsular ligaments of the joints, see Bell's Surgery, vol. v 49 1.