Or Hippocantanum, (from Hippocastanum 4203 equus, and a chesnut; from its size). The horse chesnut tree, castanea equina, pavina,esculushifi/iocastanum Lin. Sp. Pl. 488; natural order trihilatae. This tree frequently grows to a great height, and from the upper part of the trunk usually sends off" numerous spreading branches, covered with a rough brown bark; the wood is white and soft, but soon decays, and is of little value. The fruit in appearance resembles the Spanish chesnut, and is eaten by sheep, goats, deer, oxen, and horses; the latter are fond of it, and it is said to cure their coughs and pulmonary disorders. Starch has been made from it; and could its bitterness and acrimony be separated, it has been supposed that it would make a wholesome bread. It has been recommended as a sternutatory in powder, or by drawing the steams of a decoction up the nostrils, and has consequently been employed to produce a discharge from the nose in ophthalmy, head ach, etc. On the continent the bark is held in great estimation as a febrifuge, and considered to be a medicine of considerable efficacy. Jo. Jac. Zannichelli affirms, that, after many trials, he has found the bark of these trees to have the same effect as the Peruvian bark. By some practitioners it has been substituted for the latter, and said to be attended with equal if not superior advantages. For medical purposes it is to be taken from those branches which are neither old nor young, and exhibited as the Peruvian bark. Buchholtz prefers dissolving a drachm of the extract in an ounce of cinnamon water, giving sixty drops of the solution every three hours. It rarely disagrees with the stomach, but its astringent effects generally require the administration of laxatives. See Raii Historia Plantarum. Woodvillesmedical Botany. In England we have the white, yellow, and scarlet flowering chesnut trees, which are cultivated in gardens and walks, and flower in May and June. Hippocras. See Claretum. Hippoglossum, (from a horse, and

Hippocastanum 4207 a tongue; from the resemblance of the leaf to a horse's tongue). See Laurus Alexandrina. Hippolapathum, (from equus, and

Hippocastanum 4210 a dock). See Lapathum hortense. Hippolapathum, rotundifolium. See Lapathum Alpinum.