The position of half-castes is invariably between the two parent races, and is due to this difference in intelligence which separates races the world over. The Mulatto, Mestizo or Eurasian is higher than his lower parent, and utterly below the higher. Our educated mulatto is unable to compete with whites, and eventually seeks employment in his mental grade. As lawyers they are generally pettifoggers and childish; as physicians, worthless, and in all other professional positions they are pushed to the wall when they must compete with whites. Physically unable to compete with brainier white mechanics, there is nothing left but unskilled labor and household duties.

Our mulatto and quadroon are on the same mental plane as the Spanish mestizo of half or quarter Malay blood. Each has an emotional ancestor (negro or Spaniard) and each has a more phlegmatic one. Each is an average between his two ancestors. The mulatto is livelier and more emotional than his white father, and the mestizo more lively than his Malay mother. Each is quieter and less emotional than his other parent (negro or Spaniard). When we find a Filipino who talks much or is lively in his sports or actions he is invariably a Spanish mestizo. The mestizo can absorb the same education as the mulatto, and each is capable of much more than the negro or Malay. Occasionally, there arises by inheritance from an exceptionally brainy ancestor, a more brilliant and able mestizo or mulatto - a Rizal or Booker Washington - and now and then there may be a very able man in each half-breed race in every profession. There are very able quadroon and octoroon professional men in our South, and there are very able one-quarter or one-eighth breeds in the Philippines, but in each case there is but one-quarter or one-eighth of the lower type. Yet these types are very rare, and from their very prominence give us a false idea as to the pure blood races. One of the men who has filled much of the public eye, as a Filipino, is almost pure Spanish. Our mulattoes and quadroons will not associate with the black negro because of his inferiority, and yet the mulatto complains that he himself is treated as an inferior by the whites. In the Philippines the mestizos look down upon the pure blood Malays as an inferior race, calling them Indios, and yet complain that the Spaniards always treated the mestizo as an inferior race.

The difference between the two hybrid types is that of environment. The mulatto is submerged in a numerically superior population and through lack of abilities is forced to the wall in the struggle for existence. In the Philippines the mestizo has no competitors and therefore rises to the top as a ruler. They are like the half-breed Indians of our Northwest and Canada, leading types in an Indian population. The same conditions exist among the half-breed Dutch in Java and the Eurasians of India.

From the variation among all white races, it is evident that we have many low types of pure white at home, who, though superior to savage Malays, are much inferior to the better class of mestizo. Indeed, many of the mestizo insurgent officers, have, by their actions, shamed the "civilized" types which distinguished themselves in the capture of Peking in 18G0 and 1900. The cruelties of other insurgent officers showed the Malay blood.

Stephen Bonsai, speaking of the Filipino University of Santo Tomas, founded in 1620, says*: "It must be admitted that in 300 years not a single pure-blooded Filipino of the thousands that they have graduated, has distinguished himself or left a considerable name in any walk of life. Why is this? Some of the Friars told me once that their educational efforts had failed because of the invincible 'passivity' of the Indian. 'Luna, the artist,' said one of these really distinguished teachers,' had more Spanish and more Chinese blood in his veins than Indian. Rizal was probably half Japanese, he certainly was very little Tagal, and Lucban, who has given so much trouble in Samar, is a mixture of all races. Out of the thousands and tens of thousands of pure-blooded Tagals and Visayans we have nursed through the University, we have only succeeded in producing a number of fairly good apothecaries and a notary or two'" - and they have had more matriculates than Harvard in three centuries. Again in speaking of the work of the Friars as managers: "The parish priest was recognized as inspector of all schools within his parish until 1893, when, by the municipal or township act, the control of the schools passed entirely into the hands of the municipal officers. Men as hostile to Spanish dominion as Agui-naldo were installed as teachers, and the schools became the hotbeds of the Separist movement. There is much evidence to show that from this time the attendance at the schools diminished, and the character of the education received by the children deteriorated. It could hardly be otherwise when not seldom there was not a single member of the school board, composed of the municipal officers, who could read or write".

How nearly identical to the Philippine conditions is that of the negro as to brain work and leadership, is shown by the following quotation from G. T. Winston, President of the North Carolina College of Agriculture*: "Nearly all the leaders of the negro race, both during slavery and since, have been mulat-toes; and the two really great men credited to the negro race in the United States have been the sons of white fathers, and strongly marked by the mental and moral qualities of the white race. The mulatto is quicker, brighter, and more easily refined than the negro. There is a general opinion among Southern people that he is inferior morally; but I believe that his only inferiority is physical and vital. It cannot be denied that the negro race has been very greatly elevated by its mulatto members. Indeed, if you strike from its records all that mulattoes have said and done, little would be left. Wherever work requiring refinement, extra intelligence and executive ability is performed, you will find it usually directed by mulattoes".