Comprises the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary, with 201,591 square miles and 41,827,700 population. It is bounded on the north by Poland, Silesia, and Saxony; on the west by Bavaria and Switzerland; on the south by Venetia, the Adriatic and the Balkan States; and on the east by Moldavia and West Russia. Religion - Roman Catholics, 25,598,000; Protestants, 3,630,000; Jews, 1,646,000. Government - Austria and Hungary form a hereditary dual-monarchy, each country-having its own Parliament, Ministry, and Administration. They are both united under a hereditary sovereign, the Emperor of Austria being also King of Hungary, and a controlling body known as the "Delegations," or Parliament, of 120 members, one-half of whom are chosen by and represent the Legislature of Austria proper, and the other half that of Hungary. Within the jurisdictions of the Delegations are all matters affecting the common interests of the two countries, notably foreign affairs, war, and finance, each of these having its own executive department. According to the military law, the obligation for service is universal; the time of service in the line is two years ; in the reserve, seven years; in the landwehr, two years.

The mines of Austria are among the richest in Europe, gold, silver, lead, copper, and iron being widely distributed. The largest cave in Europe is in the Julian Alps in Austria. The coal and salt mines of Austria are the richest in the world. The musical instruments of Vienna are famous. This city is the capital and metropolis of the empire, with a population of 1,365,000, the fourth city of Europe, and one of the most beautiful in the world. Its streets converge towards a common centre, like the spokes of a wheel. Buda-pest (really two cities standing on opposite banks of the Danube) is the capital of Hungary, with a population of more than half a million.

The city of Carlsbad stands over a vast caldron of boiling water, which is noted for its medicinal qualities, and attracts health-seeking tourists from every land. Salts are extracted from these boiling springs and sold all over the world. The present venerable emperor, Francis Joseph, was born August 30, 1830, and ascended the throne December 2, 1848.