Canada lies immediately north of the United States of America, and has a population roundly estimated at 5,000,000 inhabitants. Before the Revolutionary struggle which gave the United States independence, France and England waged a long war for supremacy in the New World. England triumphed in the victory of Wolfe over Montcalm on the Heights of Abraham, and Canada has since been British territory. The provinces were governed independently until 1867, when, through the instrumentality of Sir John Macdonald, Sir John Thompson, and others, a Confederation was effected, finally uniting all the provinces with the exception of Newfoundland.

The Dominion of Canada has an area of 3.653,946 (including the Hudson Bay) square miles, and comprises one-sixteenth of the land surface of the globe. It is the largest of all the British possessions, Australia, the next in size, containing 2,944,-628 square miles. The government of Canada* is Federal, centered at Ottawa, which city is the capital of the Dominion, while the provinces and the northwest territories have their respective local legislatures. The head of the Federal Government is the Governor-General, appointed by the King of Great Britain, and holding office for five years, his salary ($50,000 per annum) being paid by the Dominion Government.

The lieutenant-governors of the several provinces are appointed by the Federal Government for a term of five years. The legislatures are elected by the people of each province. The highest court in the Dominion is the Supreme Court, composed of a chief justice and five judges, each of whom receive a salary of $7,000 per annum, except the chief justice, who is paid an additional $1,000.

The salary of each member of the Dominion Cabinet holding a portfolio is $7,000 per annum, except the Premier, who receives $8,000.

The following list of officers constitute the Ministry or Cabinet: Premier and President of the Privy Council, Secretary of State, Minister of Trade and Commerce, Minister of Justice, Minister of Marine and Fisheries, Minister of Militia and Defence, Postmaster-General, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Public Works, Minister of Finance, Minister of Railways and Canals, Minister of the Interior, Minister of Customs, Minister of Inland Revenue.

Legislative Bodies

The Senate (Dominion Parliament) is composed of eighty members and the Speaker, whose salary is $4,000. Each senator receives a sessional indemnity of $1,000 and mileage. The House of Commons is composed of 213 members. Each member of the House receives a sessional indemnity of $1,000 and mileage. 800

The members of the House of Commons are elected under the several provincial franchises, in accordance with a Federal act passed in 1898. The senators are appointed for life by the Crown on the nomination of the Governor-in-Council.

Area, Population and Seats of Government op the Provinces

Provinces

Area

Square Miles

Popula-tion

Seats op Government

Alberta....................................

100,000

25,278

Regina

Assiniboia..............................

90,340

30,374

Regina

Athabaska..............................

251,300

...............

Regina

British Columbia......................

383,300

98,173

Victoria

Manitoba..................................

73,956

152,506

Winnipeg

New Brunswick......................

28,200

321,270

Fredericton

Nova Scotia............................

20,600

450,523

Halifax

Ontario...................................

222,000

2,114,475

Toronto

Prince Edward Island..............

2,000

109,088

Charlottetown

Quebec.....................................

347.350

1,488,586

Quebec

Saskatchewan..........................

114,000

11,146

Regina

Mackenzie, Ungava and

Franklin........................

1,019,200

31,462

Regina

Yukon.....................................

198,300

Keewatin................................

756,000

Great Lakes and Rivers...........

47,400

Total.....................................

3,653,946

4,823,875

Canada has a magnificent canal system. The Welland Canal, between Lakes Erie and Ontario, and the Rideau Canal, between Lake Ontario and Ottawa River, enable vessels to avoid Niagara Falls and the rapids of the St. Lawrence River.

Montreal, in the Province of Quebec, with a population of 216,650, is the largest city and metropolis of the Dominion. The Cathedral of Notre Dame, in this city, is the largest church building in America except the Mormon Tabernacle at Salt Lake City, Utah. Toronto, Halifax, and Quebec are the next cities in importance.

Sir Wilfred Laurier is the present Premier of the Dominion, and the Earl of Minto the Governor-General.

In 1900 British North America contained upwards of 17,000 miles of railroads, and the commerce of the Dominion is rapidly expanding.

Religion

No State Church. By the latest available statistics, there were 1,791,-982 Roman Catholics, 2,422,285 Protestants (Presbyterians, 676,165; Church of England, 574,818; Methodists, 1,042,980) ; Jews, 2,373.

Education is liberally encouraged. There are many excellent colleges throughout the Dominion, and the public schools of Canada vie with those of the United States in point of excellence.