(Published In 1894 )

For drains, waste, soil, and vent pipes use "extra heavy" factory-tested cast-iron pipe.* Standard cast-iron pipe, which is very frequently used, is too light to permit of the joints being securely calked; in addition to which the metal in the body of the pipe is too scant, and as the core is frequently eccentric in casting, the pipe is often very thin in spots, and blowholes are frequent. As many as a dozen of such blowholes have been found in a single length of pipe under test.

The iron pipe, which extends at least 5 feet outside of the foundation wall. should be thrust well into the earthenware drain, with which it may connect outside, and a full Portland cement joint be made between the earthenware and iron. The iron drain, where it passes through the foundation wall, should be protected by an iron sleeve, or the wall should be arched over the pipe to prevent breaking the pipe in case the wall settles. The spaces about the pipe may be packed with mineral wool. The running trap, with brass screw-cover cleanout, should be placed just inside of the house wall. The outlet of the trap should be slightly lower than the inlet, and to effect this the trap may be made up of fittings as shown, or a trap of this pattern which is found in the market may be used. Just back of the trap insert a 4-inch fresh-air inlet extending outside of the house and opening above the ground not less than 20 feet from windows, and well removed from the cold-air inlet to the furnace. The fresh-air inlet should be finished with a quarter-bend and wire cage or grating, allowing a free inlet for air. The opening should be 18 inches above the ground, or enough to prevent choking with snow.

Main drain inside of the house should follow along the foundation wall when practicable or be supported on brick piers to prevent settlement. If below the floor it should be laid on a 3-inch bed of concrete in a brick trench with stone covers. If it is necessary to bury the pipe, it should not be covered until after the rough work has been tested with water pressure and the pipe to be buried has been tar-coated. A brass screw-cover cleanout should be left at the upper end, and if the pipe is buried, a pocket should be left in the cellar floors through which a wire or cleaning rods may be worked into the pipe to remove stoppages. The vertical run of pipes should be arranged to connect with the horizontal drain with Y branches and one-eighth bends, and should rise true to a plumb well above the roof. Avoid, if possible, offsets in vertical pipes, especially in vent and back-air pipes. If offsets cannot be avoided, they must be arranged to receive the wash from some fixture. This is to prevent the accumulation of rust scales which drop from the inside of the pipe and accumulate at bends, and in time cause stoppages. The base of all back-air columns must drop directly into a soil or waste pipe to avoid rust accumulation. See on the drawing this arrangement at the base of the main back-air and kitchen-sink back-air pipes.

*The use of screw-joint wrought-iron pipe will not be discussed at present. The additional expense of wrought-iron work generally excludes its use in inexpensive small buildings.

The base of all vertical columns should be firmly supported on masonry piers to take the entire weight of the column. Pipe hooks should be used to keep the columns in vertical line only, and should not support the pipe, as any settlement in the lower part of the column would pull the joints apart if the upper part of the column is secured. The weight of the soil and back-air columns shown in the drawing is about 800 pounds. Where the vertical pipes pass through the roof a water-tighc, flexible roof flashing should be calked into the hub above the roof, turned over and flashed under the roof covering. This admits movement of the pipes due to changes of temperature without breaking the roof joints.

Y branches should be left in the drain and soil pipe to receive drainage from all fixtures. The house should be planned and the fixtures arranged to connect them as close as possible about the vertical column of soil pipe.

The branches for all fixtures should be extended in iron as close to fixtures as possible, and kept as much as possible above floors, and open to inspection.