This section is from the book "American Plumbing Practice", by The Engineering Record. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing: A working manual of American plumbing practice.
Besides the mains to and from the tanks, there are eight sets of vertical water pipes supplying groups of fixtures, and these lines are run in all cases adjacent to the columns of the main framework of the building. All lines of cold-water supply pipes (except where nickel-plated brass pipe is used) are lap-welded standard galvanized iron pipes, warranted to have been tested to withstand a pressure of 500 pounds per square inch. All hot-water supply and circulation pipes are heavy tinned and annealed brass pipes, warranted to have been tested to stand a pressure of 600 pounds per square inch. All hot and cold water supply branches for fixtures are taken from the rising lines above mentioned, and where exposed they are nickel-p1ated brass. Branches are of the following sizes: Single basins, one-half inch; two or more basins, three-fourths inch; slopsink and engineer's sink, three-fourths inch; all flush tanks, one-half inch or three-fourths inch, according to size. All supply pipes for hot and cold water are increased one size, from the source of supply to the vertical or falling point. This is in addition to the sizes specified, and shown on the drawings. All rising lines are provided with metal-faced flanged couplers at every other floor, in such a manner that the pipe may be disconnected and sections cut without disturbing section above or below. All pipes of every description are laid to drain completely. All supply pipes were tested by the contractor with a pressure pump and high-pressure spring gauge to a pressure of 125 pounds per square inch. Each column of fixtures. A, B, BB, C, D, E. F, G, H, and I, with the exception of isolated washbasins in offices from the eighth to the twentieth story, each inclusive, has independent risers for hot, cold, and circulation, with stop valve, drainout valve, and drip at the base of each column. The circulation pipe is one size smaller than the hot-water pipe, and connects with the hot-water pipe at the highest point of the fixture, with a branch taken above to supply a fixture to relieve the circulating head from the accumulation of air.
On each of the hot-water risers there are expansion loops on every third floor, beginning at the bottom. All pipes are supported between the loops, allowing the pipe to expand from the first support back to the lower loop from the next support above and so on. Circulating pipes are also provided with loops top and bottom, and in intermediate places where they are connected directly with the hot-water main and branches. Loops are provided on branches, thus avoiding any direct connections or short connections with the main. In these instances care was taken to allow the branches connecting with mains to expand with the main. All tank service, hot and circulation risers have at least three expansion loops in the vertical run. The pipes are clamped and hung midway between the loops and the ends of the risers. The clamps are firmly secured to the beams. All water pipes have frequent heavy flanged ground brass unions to admit of easy alteration and repair.
All joints and connections between lead and iron pipes are made by means of extra heavy, carefully inspected brass screw ferrules or nipples. The ferrules are screwed into the iron fittings and connected with the lead pipes by means of solder wiped joints. All main lines of drain, soil, waste, leader, and vent pipes are of heavy wrought-iron pipes, of the following weights per running foot: 8- inch pipe, 24¾ pounds per foot; 6-inch pipe, 14½ pounds per foot; 4-inch pipe, 10⅔ pounds per foot; 3-inch pipe, 7½ pounds per foot; 2-inch pipe, 3½ pounds per foot. All pipes and fittings were required to be tested by hydrostatic pressure of 300 pounds per square inch, and by the hammer test, before leaving the pipe mills, and the contractor filed a written guarantee that tests had been so applied. All fittings are of special wrought-iron, flush, and the pipes when screwed together have a smooth interior surface. All joints of iron pipes are screw joints, made with a mixture of red and white lead and oil. Rising lines of soil, vent, and waste pipes connect with the main drains and rise to the roof in columns marked AB, BB, C, D, E, F, G, H, and I, as shown on the plans. All vent lines increase 2 inches in diameter, before passing through the roof. Where the pipes pass through the roof they are made water-tight by means of 24-ounce copper sleeves fitting around the pipe and extending down on the roof at least 6 inches all round. After the roof was completed, the flashing was overflashed with 24-ounce copper as above. All back-air lines are dripped at the bottom of the line and all the branches for vents from fixtures are set high and above the overflow point of the fixture, so that the vent line cannot act as a waste pipe in case of stoppage.
There are three leader lines of 5-inch extra heavy wrought-iron pipe, marked, carried full size to the roof, and connected there with I2"x12"x12" copper boxes by extra heavy brass soldering nipples. These connections are made with the 5-inch leaders by means of 5-inch pipe connecting with the gutter of the cornice at the twentieth story. These connections between leader and gutter are made by means of copper boxes, and 24-ounce copper tubes, wiped to extra heavy brass soldering nipples, with heavy soldered joints. Over the mouth of each leader is a heavy brass basket.
PLUMBING IN THE AMERICAN SURETY BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY.
These rainwater leaders have 5-inch extra heavy cast-iron traps, provided with two 4-inch brass screw caps. All vent pipes are graded so as to discharge the water collected by condensation, and connected at the bottom with the drain, soil, or waste pipes, in such manner as to avoid obstruction from accumulated rust. The bottom of all vent pipes receives the wash from some fixture. All horizontal pipes are carried with a continuous descent, in no case less than one-fourth inch per foot. Where pipes run along brick walls they are supported on the walls by heavy special wrought-iron semicircular straps, with holes for expansion bolts.
On the house side of the 8- inch main sewer trap there is a 6-inch fresh-air inlet extending up to the sidewalk near the curb, and there provided with a galvanized-iron box and frame 2 feet long, 2 feet deep, and 14 inches wide. Over this box is a brass-grating leaded in the sidewalk. All branch connections are Y-T's or Y's and ⅛- inch bends. The Y-branch connections are well turned up. Only " long" bends are used. With the exception of the valves directly at the fixtures, all valves on supply lines at tanks, at pumps, etc., are provided with polished cast-brass tags properly numbered to correspond with printed lists giving the location, description, and use of every such valve in the building.
After all the drain, soil, waste, and vent pipes had been run in the building, with the lead or iron bends or branches from fixtures set and connected with the upright stacks, and before any fixtures were set and connected, and the drain permanently connected with the sewers, the tightness of all joints and soundness of iron pipes, was tested by the contractor, who closed all openings of soil, waste, drain, and vent pipes and ends of horizontal drains. The lead bends or branches were soldered and braced up where required to withstand the pressure, and the whole system of piping was filled with water to the top of the building, and remained for five hours without showing perceptible leakage.
Figure 11 shows the arrangement ana manner of carrying the tank riser pipes from the basement to the eighth floor, and the offsets made. Above this point they are run straight in an air shaft, accessible for inspection, etc. Figure 12 shows a wrought-iron cesspool 3 feet deep, 4 feet 6 inches square, strongly riveted and provided with two manholes, set flush with the floor. The tank is made with two compartments, one to receive the sewage, and the other to receive a Kieley governor, which automatically controls a blow-off pump, by which the contents of the tank are automatically pumped out and discharged through a waste pipe terminating in a brass flap valve over a sink that is trapped into the sewer. This arrangement is necessitated because the boiler-room floor is below the level of the street sewer.