This section is from the book "American Plumbing Practice", by The Engineering Record. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing: A working manual of American plumbing practice.
The Hebrew Institute is a newly completed building designed by Architects Brunner & Tryon, assisted by William P. Gerhard, as consulting engineer for the sanitary work, and Mr. Alfred R. Wolff, as consulting engineer for the heating and ventilation. It is located at Jefferson Street and East Broadway, in eastern lower New York. Its functions are intended to be similar to those of Cooper Institute, and it contains a large assembly-room with stage, several classrooms, reading-room and library, workshop, gymnasium, and shower baths. There are five baths (Figs. 9, 10, and 11) located in the upper story, and have a cement floor (" flintolithic pavement ") raised one step above the general floor level. The bathroom also contains a large enameled washup sink, in the adjoining large dressing-room are lockers, and in another room a slopsink, a large enameled sink, water-closets, and urinals. The five compartments are about 4x5 feet in size and paneled with blue-veined Italian marble slabs 6 feet high. Each entrance is furnished with a portiere and a half screen door. The rooms are ventilated by wall registers, furnished with gas and electric light and heated by direct steam radiators. Figures 9, 10, and 11 show the fittings for one of the bath compartments. Hot and cold water is supplied by pipes H and C respectively, the bather admitting first cold water by valve c and then tempering it to the required degree by admitting hot water through valve L. The water is mixed in the chamber G, where a special hot-water thermometer T indicates the temperature of the water delivered through pipe P to the brass douche A. The douche is controlled by the self-closing bibb B, is operated by a chain D, which terminates in a ring E and may thus be secured to the hook F so as to hold the valve open and permit the bather to use both hands freely. I is an emptying cock, J is a towel rack, K is a soap cup, L the floor strainer, and M a waist trap, the trap screw of which is accessible from the room below. The douche and all the pipes and fittings are of brass, nickel-plated. Water is furnished from two storage tanks on the roof and the hot supply is obtained from a small Foley hot-water heater in the basement.
Figure 12 is an elevation of the heater, which is located in the basement, and is operated by steam from the steam-heating boilers. Cold water enters the main drum k through the supply pipe A and is heated by the steam coil B with flow and return pipes L and M. The hot water passes at C into the upper drum I, where it operates the expansion rod D and is delivered to the baths, washbowls, etc. through pipe H. D is a flexible metal rod fastened at F, passing around a loose drum E and movable at G, where it is attached to a rod bearing on the short arm of lever N. When the water cools to a certain temperature, rod D contracts and throws the bottom of lever N to the right, carrying with it the attached stem V of the valve P, which is thus opened to a greater or less degree and admits to the coil B an amount of steam from the pipe L proportioned to the coldness of the water. As the temperature of the water rises, rod D elongates and allows the arm N to be forced back, and the valve P is closed by the action of the counterweight W attached to the long arm S of the bent lever, of which the short arm R is opposed to N. This lever is pivoted at T to a supporting bracket Q. V is a circulation pipe. O is a set screw to adjust the rod D to operate within the temperature limits desired, and it is ordinarily set to allow a maximum temperature of 1200 Fahr. The valve acts positively with a difference of about 10° Fahr., and as it automatically proportions the steam used to the water drawn, it is believed to be economical, besides preventing the possibility of scalding at the baths by too hot water.
The plumbing of the work described above was executed by S. & A Clark, of New York City.