LL.D. Edinb. and Harvard. D. C. L. Oxon. Member of the National Academy ot Sciences. Surgeon, U. S. Army, etc.

From The Preface

IN preparing this volume my object has been to produce a book which will not only be useful to students of architecture and engineering, and be convenient for reference by those engaged in the practice of these professions, but which can also be understood by non-professional men who may be interested in the important subjects of which it treats; and hence technical expressions have been avoided as much as possible, and only the simplest formulae have been employed. It includes all that is practically important of my book on the Principles of Ventilation and Heating, the last edition of which appeared in 1889; but it is substantially a new work, with numerous> illustrations of recent practice. For many of these I am indebted to The: Engineering RECORD, in which the descriptions first appeared.

I am also indebted to Dr. A. C. Abbott for much valuable assistance in its preparation, and to the architects and heating engineers who have furnished me with plans and information, and whose names are mentioned in connection with the descriptions of the several buildings, etc., referred to in the text.

Washington, D. C, JOHN S. BILLINGS.

December, 1892.

Table Of Contents

Chapter I. - Introduction. Utility of Ventilation.

Chapter II. - History and Literature of Ventilation.

Chapter III. - The Atmosphere: Its Chemical and Physical Properties.

Chapter IV. - Carbonic Acid.

Chapter V. - Conditions Which Make Ventilation Desirable or Necessary. Physiology of Respiration. Gaseous and Particulate Impurities of Air. Sewer Air. Soil Air. Dangerous Gases and Dusts in Particular. Occupations or Processes of Manufacture. Drying Rooms.

Chapter VI. - On Moisure in Air, and Its Relations to Ventilation.

Chapter VII. - Quantity of Air Required for Ventilation.

Chapter VIII. - On the Forces Concerned in Ventilation.

Chapter IX. - Examination and Testing ot Ventilation.

Chapter X. - Methods of Heating. Stoves. Furnaces. Fireplaces. Steam and Hot Water. Thermostats.

Chapter XL - Sources of Air Supply. Filtration of Air. Fresh-Air Flues and Inlets. By-passes.

Chapter XII. - Foul-Air or Upcast Shafts. Cowls. Syphons.

Chapter XIII. - Ventilation of Mines.

Chapter XIV. - Ventilation of Hospitals and Barracks. Barrack Hospitals. Hospitals for Contagious Diseases. Blegdams Hospital. U. S. Army Hospitals. Cambridge Hospital. Hazleton Hospital. Barnes Hospital. New York Hospital. Johns Hopkins Hospital. Hamburg Hospital. Insane Asylums. Barracks

Chapter XV. - Ventilation of Halls of Audience and Assembly Rooms. The Houses of Parliament. The U. S. Capitol. The New Sorbonne. The New York Music Hall. The Lenox Lyceum.

Chapter XVI. - Ventilation of Theaters. Manchester Theaters. Grand Opera House-in Vienna. Opera House at Franktort-on-the-Main. Metropolitan Opera House, New York. Madison Square Theater. Academy of Music, Baltimore. Pueblo-Opera House. Empire Theater, Philadelphia.

Chapter XVII. - Ventilation of Churches. Dr. Hall's Church, New York. Hebrew Temple, Keneseth-Israel, Philadelphia.

Chapter XVIII. - Ventilation of Schools. Bridgeport School. Jackson School, Minneapolis. Garfield School, Chicago. Bryn Mawr School, near Philadelphia. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York.

Chapter XIX. - Ventilation of Dwelling Houses.

Chapter XX. - Ventilation of Tunnels, Railway Cars, Ships, Shops, Stables, Sewers. Cooling of Air. Conclusion.


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