The tools used in making the different solder joints as described and illustrated in this chapter are shown in Fig. 14.

Cup Joint

The materials necessary for the work (Fig. 15): 12 inches of 1⁄2-inch AA lead pipe, paste, rosin, 1⁄2 and 1⁄2 solder.

If a gas furnace is not on the bench to heat the iron, then a gasoline furnace is necessary.

Each of the following operations must be done thoroughly to insure a perfect job:

  1. First, with the saw cut off 12 inches of 1⁄2-inch AA lead pipe from the coil. When cutting off a piece of lead pipe from a coil or reel, always straighten out 1 foot more than is needed. This leaves 1 foot of straight pipe always on the coil.

Fig. 14.  Tools used for making solder joints. Fig. 14. - Tools used for making solder joints.

  1. Second, with the flat side of the rasp, square the ends of the 12-inch piece of pipe. (A good way to do this is to hold the pipe at right angles with the edge of the bench, run the rasp across the end of the pipe, keeping the rasp parallel with the edge of the bench. Apply this to all work when necessary to square the ends of pipe.)

    Third, cut the pipe with the saw, making two pieces each 6 inches in length.

    Fourth, square the ends just cut.

    Fifth, rasp the edges of one end as shown in the cut. Hold the work in such a way that the stroke of the rasp can be seen without moving the pipe.

    Sixth, take the other 6-inch piece of pipe and with the turn pin spread one end of it. The turn pin must be struck squarely in the center with the hammer, the point of the turn pin being kept in the center of the pipe. The pipe should be turned after each blow of the hammer. The pipe must not rest on the bench but should be held in the hand while using the turn pin. If the pipe bends, it can be straightened with bending irons. If the pipe is spread more on one side than the other, the turn pin should be hit on the opposite side so as to even the spread.

Fig. 15. Fig. 15.

Fig. 16.  Cup joint. Fig. 16. - Cup joint.

  1. Seventh, when the pipes are properly fitted, moisten the tips of the fingers with paste and rub the paste on parts of pipe marked "paste." Put the pipe aside to allow the paste to dry.

    Eighth, put the soldering iron on to heat.

    Ninth, with the shave hook scrape off the paste and surface dirt as shown in the figure. The inside of the cup will look bright, but must be scraped.

    Tenth, place the two pieces into position as shown in Fig. 16, sprinkle rosin on the joint, melt a few drops of solder on the joint and with the iron melt the solder on the joint, drawing the iron around the pipe keeping the solder melted around the iron all the time.

    Eleventh, fill the joint with solder and continue to draw the hot iron around the joint until a smooth and bright surface is obtained. To master the correct use of the soldering iron in this work, considerable practice will be necessary.

Overcast Joints

(Fig. 17.)


Each operation must be performed thoroughly.

  1. First, saw off from a coil of 11⁄2-inch D lead pipe a 10-inch piece of pipe.

    Second, square the ends with the rasp, as previously explained.

    Third, take a 11⁄2-inch drift plug and drive through the pipe (Fig. 18).

    Fourth, saw the pipe into two pieces of 5 inches each.

    Fifth, square the ends of the pipe with the rasp.

    Sixth, rasp off the outside edge of one end of the pipe as shown.

    Seventh, rasp off the inside edge of one end of the pipe.

    Eighth, finish rasped surfaces with a file. Both surfaces should have the same angle.

Fig. 17. Fig. 17.

Fig. 18. Fig. 18.

Fig. 19.  Overcast joint. Fig. 19. - Overcast joint.

  1. Ninth, with a shave hook scrape the outside surface of each pipe for about 1 inch from the end.

    Tenth, put the soldering iron on to heat.

    Eleventh, paste paper on the joint as shown in the cut.

    Twelfth, fit the pieces together and lay on the bench. Drop some melted solder on the joint and with the hot iron proceed to flow the solder around the joint by turning the pipe. Use plenty of flux (rosin). The pipes must be tacked in three or four places at first or they will have a tendency to spread.

    Thirteenth, to finish the joint, lift the iron straight up.

This joint when finished will have a bright smooth finish. The two foregoing joints need considerable practice and should be perfectly mastered before going on to the next job.